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From Wikipedia

Sentence (law)

In law, a sentence forms the final explicit act of a judge-ruled process, and also the symbolic principal act connected to his function. The sentence can generally involve a decree of imprisonment, a fine and/or other punishments against a defendantconvicted of a crime. Those imprisoned for multiple crimes, will serve a consecutive sentence (in which the period of imprisonment equals the sum of all the sentences), a concurrent sentence (in which the period of imprisonment equals the length of the longest sentence), or somewhere in between, sometimes subject to a cap. If a sentence gets reduced to a less harsh punishment, then the sentence is said to have been "mitigated". Rarely (depending on circumstances) murder charges are "mitigated" and reduced to manslaughter charges. However, in certain legal systems, a defendant may be punished beyond the terms of the sentence, e.g. social stigma, loss of governmental benefits, or, collectively, the collateral consequences of criminal charges.

Statutes often specify the range of penalties that can be imposed for various offenses, and sentencing guidelines sometimes regulate what punishment within those ranges can be imposed given a certain set of offense and offender characteristics. However, in some jurisdictions, prosecutors have great influence over the punishments actually handed down, by virtue of their discretion to decide what offenses to charge the offender with and what facts they will seek to prove or to ask the defendant to stipulate to in a plea agreement. It has been argued that legislators have an incentive to enact tougher sentences than even they would like to see applied to the typical defendant, since they recognize that the blame for an inadequate sentencing range to handle a particular egregious crime would fall upon legislators, but the blame for excessive punishments would fall upon prosecutors.

Sentencing law sometimes includes "cliffs" that result in much stiffer penalties when certain facts apply. For instance, an armed career criminal or habitual offender law may subject a defendant to a significant increase in his sentence if he commits a third offense of a certain kind. This makes it difficult for fine gradations in punishments to be achieved.

History

The first use of this word with this meaning was in Roman law, where it indicated the opinion of a jurist on a given question, expressed in written or in oral responsa. It was also the opinion of senators (that was translated into the senatus consultus). It finally was also the decision of the judging organ (both in civil and in penal trials), as well as the decision of the Arbiters (in arbitration).

In modern Latin systems the sentence is mainly the final act of any procedure in which a judge, or more generally an organ is called to express his evaluation, therefore it can be issued practically in any field of law requiring a function of evaluation of something by an organ.

Classification

Sentences are variously classified depending on

  • the legal field, or kind of action, or system it refers to:
    • civil, penal, administrative, canon, ..., sentence.
    • sentences of mere clearance, of condemnation, of constitution.
    • the issuing organ (typically a monocratic judge or a court, or other figures that receive a legitimation by the system).
  • the jurisdiction and the legal competence: single judges, courts, tribunals, appeals, supreme courts, constitutional courts, etc., meant as the various degrees of judgment and appeal.
  • the content:
    • partial, cautelar, interlocutory, preliminar (sententia instructoria), definitive sentences.
    • sentence of absolutio (discharge) or condemnatio (briefly damnatio, also for other meanings - condemnation). The sentences of condemnation are also classified by the penalty they determine:
      • sentence of reclusion,
      • sentence of fee,
      • sententia agendi, sentence that impose a determined action (or a series of action) as a penalty for the illegal act. This kind of sentence became better developed and remained in wider use in common law systems.

Philosophies

The sentence meted out depends on the philosophical principle used by the court and what the legal system regards as the purpose of punishment. The most common purposes of sentencing are:

Process

Usually the sentence comes after a process in which the deciding organ is put in condition to evaluate whether the analysed conduct complies or not with the legal systems, and eventually which aspects of the conduct might regard which laws. Depending on respective systems, the phases that precede the sentence may vary relevantly and the sentence can be resisted (by both parties) up to a given degree of appeal. The sentence issued by the Appeal court of highest admitted degree immediately becomes the definitive sentence, as well as the sentence issued in minor degrees that is not resisted by the condemned or by the accusator (or is not resisted within a given time). The sentence usually has to be rendered of public domain (publicatio) and in most systems it has to be accompanied by the reasons for its content (a sort of story of the juridical reflections and evaluations that the judging organ used to produce it).

A sentence (even a definitive one) can be annulled in some given cases, that many systems usually pre-determine. The most frequent case is related to irregularities found ex-post in the procedure, the most éclatant is perhaps in penal cases, when a relevant (often discharging) p

Loose sentence

A loose sentence is a type of sentence in which the main idea (independent clause) comes first, followed by dependent grammatical units such as phrases and clauses. The meaning of a loose sentence can be easily understood in the very beginning of the sentence, unlike a periodic sentence where the subject-verb of the base sentence is completed at the end.

It adds modifying elements after the subject, complement, and verb.

Loose sentences may make a work seem informal, relaxed, and conversational. However, according to Strunk and White's The Elements of Style(2000), a succession of loose sentences, especially those of two clauses, is to be avoided because of "mechanical symmetry and sing-song".

Examples

  • He went into town to buy groceries, to visit his friends, and to go to the bookstore.
  • "Bells rang, filling the air with their clangor, startling pigeons into flight from every belfry, bringing people into the streets to hear the news." (From the English Reviewer)
  • She drove her car to go to the movie, and get gas.

Complex sentence

A complex sentence is a sentence with one independent clause and at least one dependent clause.

Contrast

  • I ate the meal that you cooked.

I ate the meal is an independent clause and that you cooked is a relative clause.

More examples of a complex sentence are:

I enjoyed that apple pie that you bought for me.

I like the pomegranate juice that my father poured into the cup.

  • I was scared, but I didn't run away.

Both clauses are independent. Therefore, this is a compound sentence but not a complex sentence.

  • The dog that you gave me barked at me, and it bit my hand.

This is a compound-complex sentence with two independent clauses (The dog that you gave me barked at me and The dog that you gave me bit my hand) and one dependent clause (that you gave me).



From Yahoo Answers

Question:my helping my little sister with her homework and i don't understand this word definition: firmness in sticking to a purpose 1. i got no fucking idea what that means 2. thats a big word for 4th grade 3. plzzzz help me before my mom kills me umm u dont have four days to asnwer you hav 1 bcuz tomorrow its due soo plzzzzz help!!

Answers:working hard and never giving up until something is completed "Marissa showed her determination when she finished the race, despite having a sprained ankle."

Question:Yea, this obective says "Translate problem-solving situations into algebraic sentences and determine solutions." ANY help ?

Answers:This is generally used for answering or solving problems. For example if you do something like: 4sin^2(theta)-9cos^2(theta)=(2sin(theta)+3cos(theta))(2sin(theta)-3cos(theta)) You may write "Using x^2-y^2=(x+y)(x-y)" Hope this helps...

Question:Is this an example of a compound sentence? I wanted to buy the red sweater but they sold the last one of Friday. is it an example of a compound sentence? if it is can you tell me what the subject, verb and FANBOYS is? i think the FANBOYS is BUT whats the subject and verb then? thanks xo

Answers:It is a compound sentence. Thus there are two subjects and two verbs. For the first part, I is the subject and WANTED is the verb. In the second part, THEY is the subject and SOLD is the verb.

Question:I wanted to buy the red sweater but they sold the last one of Friday. is it an example of a compound sentence? if it is can you tell me what the subject, verb and FANBOYS is? i think the FANBOYS is BUT whats the subject and verb then? thanks xo

Answers:Yes, it is a compound sentence. it is composed of two independent clauses: 1. I WANTED to buy the red sweater 2. THEY SOLD the last one on Friday there are two subjects and two verbs (one subject and verb per clause). subjects are the ones doing something. I is the subject of the first clause THEY is the subject of the second clause verbs is the actual DOING part. WANTED is the verb of the first clause SOLD is the verb of the second clause but is the FANBOY, actually called a "conjunction" the term FANBOY is just used to help identify conjunctions. good luck!

From Youtube

Sentence Fragments :This story gives examples of sentence fragments and complete sentences. (This is a slower version of the one that I put up last summer.)

Grammar: Student Examples of Sentence Types :This video captures the honors English 10 discussion about the four sentence types in English grammar. This part of the discussion looks at student examples of each type. Part 2 of 2.