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From Wikipedia

Herbaceous plant

A herbaceous plant (in botanical use simply herb) is a plant that has leaves and stems that die down at the end of the growing season to the soil level. They have no persistent woody stem above ground. Herbaceous plants may be annuals, biennials or perennials.

Annual herbaceous plants die completely at the end of the growing season or when they have flowered and fruited, and they then grow again from seed.

Herbaceous perennial and biennial plants have stems that die at the end of the growing season, but parts of the plant survive under or close to the ground from season to season (for biennials, until the next growing season, when they flower and die). New growth develops from living tissues remaining on or under the ground, including roots, a caudex (a thickened portion of the stem at ground level) or various types of underground stems, such as bulbs, corms, stolons, rhizomes and tubers. Examples of herbaceous biennials include carrot, parsnip and common ragwort; herbaceous perennials include peony, hosta, mint, most ferns and most grasses. By contrast, non-herbaceous perennial plants are woody plants which have stems above ground that remain alive during the dormant season and grow shoots the next year from the above-ground parts – these include trees, shrubs and vines.

Some relatively fast-growing herbaceous plants (especially annuals) are pioneers, or early-successional species. Others form the main vegetation of many stable habitats, occurring for example in the ground layer of forests, or in naturally open habitats such as meadow, salt marsh or desert.

Some herbaceous plants can grow rather large, such as the Musagenus, to which thebanana belongs.

Plant pathology

Plant pathology (also phytopathology) is the scientific study of plant diseases caused by pathogens (infectious diseases) and environmental conditions (physiological factors). Organisms that cause infectious disease include fungi, oomycetes, bacteria, viruses, viroids, virus-like organisms, phytoplasmas, protozoa, nematodes and parasitic plants. Not included are ectoparasites like insects, mites, vertebrate or other pests that affect plant health by consumption of plant tissues. Plant pathology also involves the study of pathogen identification, disease etiology, disease cycles, economic impact, plant disease epidemiology, plant disease resistance, how plant diseases affect humans and animals, pathosystem genetics, and management of plant diseases.

Plant pathogens


The majority of phytopathogenic fungi belong to the Ascomycetes and the Basidiomycetes.

The fungi reproduce both sexually and asexually via the production of spores. These spores may be spread long distances by air or water, or they may be soil borne. Many soil borne spores, normally zoospores, are capable of living saprotrophically, carrying out the first part of their lifecycle in the soil.

Fungal diseases can be controlled through the use of fungicides in agriculture, however new races of fungi often evolve that are resistant to various fungicides.

thumb|left|[[Rice blast]], a necrotrophic fungus

Biotrophic fungal pathogens colonize living plant tissue and obtain nutrients from living host cells. Necrotrophic fungal pathogens infect and kill host tissue and extract nutrients from the dead host cells. See Powdery Mildew and Rice Blast images below.

Significant fungal plant pathogens include:




The oomycetes are not true fungi but are fungal-like organisms. They include some of the most destructive plant pathogens including the genusPhytophthora which includes the causal agents of potato late blight and sudden oak death.

Despite not being closely related to the fungi, the oomycetes have developed very similar infection strategies and so many plant pathologists group them with fungal pathogens.

Significant oomycete plant pathogens


Most bacteria that are associated with plants are actually saprotrophic, and do no harm to the plant itself. However, a small number, around 100 species, are able to cause disease. Bacterial diseases are much more prevalent in sub-tropical and tropical regions of the world.

Most plant pathogenic bacteria are rod shaped (bacilli). In order to be able to colonize the plant they have specific pathogenicity factors. Five main types of bacterial pathogenicity factors are known:

1. Cell wall degrading enzymes– used to break down the plant cell wall in order to release the nutrients inside. Used by pathogens such as Erwiniato causesoft rot.

2. ToxinsThese can be non-host specific, and damage all plants, or host specific and only cause damage on a host plant.

3. Effector proteins These can be secreted into the extracellular environment or directly into the host cell, often via the Type three secretion system. Some effectors are known to suppress host defense processes.

4. Phytohormones– for example From Yahoo Answers

Question:In an effort to save on my Air Conditioning bill, I decided to open the windows yesterday to let some cool air into my home. Bad idea. The wind knocked over my plant resulting in 1 steam to break in half. I put tape around the broken part to keep it together but I'm afraid this isn't going to last long...is there any other way you suggest to repair the stem and keep that stem and its leaves from dying? thanks so much

Answers:Funny you mentioned this. My cousin in the Philippines had this tree, whose limb fell because of a storm. It was completely separated from the limb, but it laid on the ground continuing to bear fruits. It did that bearing fruits until it finally died a slow death, 8-10 years later. It wasn't connected to the mother tree, but it was next to it. My dad also had an apple tree, that got too heavy of fruits, so he tied the branches together to keep it from falling, it was starting to break off, and it made the tree live. If it's hardwood, it can live & survive, by tying the branches together, but if it's soft wood, just cut it off and it will sprout new branches.

Question:For example, a fruit has a characteristic: It contains seeds. That characteristic alone helps us determine whether something is a fruit or not. Well,I need the same for leaves, roots and plants. Thank you! :D

Answers:Bezzy ROOT SYSTEM The root system is generally underground. It is non green brown and positively geotropic. In dicotyledonous plants the root system is a tap root system that consists of a tap root, lateral roots, roots lets and root hairs. The tap root is the main root that grows vertically downwards into the soil. The lateral roots develop upon the tap root which bear root lets and root hairs. The tip of the tap root and its branches have root cap at their tips. Fibrous root system is present in monocotyledonous plants. It consist along, equally strong adventitious roots developed from the base of the stem. The main functions of root system are: 1. Fixation of the plant in the soil. 2. Absorption of mineral water from the soil. 3. Conduction of water to shoot system. SHOOT SYSTEM The shoot system is the aerial, green coloured positively phototropic (negatively geotropic) part of the plant. The central axis of the shoot system is called stem. The stem bears branches, leaves, buds flowers etc. The stem shows the differentiation of nodes and internodes. The place where the leaf develops on the stem is called the node. The portion of the stem between two successive nodes is called the internode. The angle between the stem and upper part of the leaf is called axil. The main stem and its branches end with apical buds or terminals buds. The apical bud helps in the vertical growth of the stem. The buds that are present in the axils of leaves are called axillary buds. The axillary buds normally develop into lateral branches or inflorescence. The leaves and flowers are the two important appendages of the shoot system. LEAF The leaf is a flat green, vegetable appendage. It is exogenous in origin. Usually the leaf bears a leaf base petiole and the lamina. The thin expanded part of the leaf is called the lamina. It has definite shape, apex and margin. The lamina shows a mid rib bearing veins and veinlets. In monocots and the veins show parallel arrangement and in dicots they are reticulately arranged. The chief functions of the leaf are: 1. Manufacture of organic food materials by photosynthesis. 2. Removal of excess of water by transpiration. FLOWER The flower is the reproductive organ of a plant. Flower may be axillary or terminal in position. The develop singly or in the clusters. The stalk of the flower is called pedicel. It ends with thalamus. Upon the thalamus floral organs are present in whorls. Calyx and Corolla are the non essential organs of the flower. Androecium and gynoecium are the essential organs. After pollination and fertilization the flowers produce fruit which contain seeds. The fruits and the seeds are the products of sexual reproduction. The seeds on germination develop into plants. The chief functions of the flower is to carry out sexual reproduction. I think thats what you asked for. Check in http://bisbio.in

Question:Apparently, although sunlight is necessary for photosynthesis, it also causes plant stems to grow more slowly. Is there any web pages where I could visit to find a scientific explanation to this?

Answers:I wouldn't exactly say that light causes a plant to grow more slowly, just not as tall. It might be more accurate to say that lack of light makes plants grow taller. Think of it in terms of evolution, of survival. If a plant is not getting enough light, then growing taller will likely increase its chances of getting more. So, if a plant is getting enough light, it does not need to expend the extra energy to grow taller. So it has more energy to expend on making seeds, for example. The mechanism that makes it grow taller in inadequate light has survived because such plants will be more successful - and produce more offspring. Which is what it's all about.

Question:And please also give an example.

Answers:Perennials can be herbaceous and die down to their crown during their dormant period or they can be woody and retain a large exposed structure even while dormant. The function of the stems in both cases is to provide vertical space to transport water & sap via vascular tissues to the transpiring photosynthetic organs (leaves) and the reproductive organs (cones or flowers) from the foraging roots. Woody stems often have the additional function of spatial array. They have a branching pattern in order to display their leaves over as dispersed a space as possible in order to maximized their exposure to sunlight while minimizing water loss. Stems provide height and spread so plants can seek sunlight more efficiently without shading out their own lower leaves. Herbaceous or deciduous perennials that die down each year are mint, peony, hosta, iris, and most grasses. Woody herbaceous herbs are thyme, sage, rosemary and lavender. Shrubs like oleander or rhododendron, plus palms, cactus, rattan, or bamboo are all woody perennials.

From Youtube

Plant Tissues :Check us out at www.tutorvista.com Plants are composed of three major organ groups: roots, stems and leaves. As we know from other areas of biology, these organs are comprised of tissues working together for a common goal (function). In turn, tissues are made of a number of cells which are made of elements and atoms on the most fundamental level. In this section, we will look at the various types of plant tissue and their place and purpose within a plant. It is important to realize that there may be slight variations and modifications to the basic tissue types in special plants. Plant tissues are characterized and classified according to their structure and function. The organs that they form will be organized into patterns within a plant which will aid in further classifying the plant. A good example of this is the three basic tissue patterns found in roots and stems which serve to delineate between woody dicot, herbaceous dicot and monocot plants