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Microecosystems can exist in locations which are precisely defined by critical environmental factors within small or tiny spaces.

Such factors may include temperature, pH, chemical milieu, nutrient supply, presence of symbionts or solid substrates, gaseous atmosphere (aerobic or anaerobic) etc.

Some examples

Pond microecosystems

These microecosystems with limited water volume are often only of temporary duration and hence colonized by organisms which possess a drought-resistant spore stage in the lifecycle, or by organisms which do not need to live in water continuously. The ecosystem conditions appliying at a typical pond edge can be quite different from those further from shore. Extremely space-limited water ecosystems can be found in, for example, the water collected in bromeliad leaf bases and the "pitchers" of Nepenthes.

Animal gut microecosystems

These include the buccal region (especially cavities in the gingiva), rumen, caecum etc. of mammalian herbivores or even invertebratedigestive tracts. In the case of mammalian gastrointestinal microecology, microorganisms such as protozoa, bacteria, as well as curious incompletely defined organisms (such as certain large structurally-complex Selenomonads, Quinella ovalis "Quin's Oval", Magnoovum eadii "Eadie's Oval", Oscillospira etc.) can exist in the rumen as incredibly complex, highly enriched mixed populations, (see Moir and Masson images ). This type of microecosystem can adjust rapidly to changes in the nutrition or health of the host animal (usually a ruminant such as cow, sheep, goat etc.); see Hungate's "The Rumen and its microbes 1966). Even within a small closed system such as the rumen there may exist a range of ecological conditions: Many organisms live freely in the rumen fluid whereas others require the substrate and metabolic products supplied by the stomach wall tissue with its folds and interstices. Interesting questions are also posed concerning the transfer of the strict anaerobe organisms in the gut microflora/microfauna to the next host generation. Here, mutual licking and coprophagia certainly play important roles.

Soil microecosystems

A typical soil microecosystem may be restricted to less than a millimeter in its total depth range owing to steep variation in humidity and/or atmospheric gas composition. The soil grain size and physical and chemical properties of the substrate may also play important roles. Because of the predominant solid phase in these systems they are notoriously difficult to study microscopically without simultaneously disrupting the fine spatial distribution of their components.

These are defined by gradients of water temperature, nutrients, dissolved gases, salt concentrations etc. Along the path of terrestrial water flow the resulting temperature gradient continuum alone may provide many different minute microecosystems, starting with thermophilic bacteria such as Archaea "Archaebacteria" (100+°C), followed by conventional thermophiles (60-100°C), cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) such as the motile filaments of Oscillatoria (30-60°C), protozoa such as Amoeba, rotifers, then green algae (0-30°C) etc. Of course other factors than temperature also play important roles. Hot springs can provide classic and straightforward ecosystems for microecology studies as well as providing a haven for hitherto undescribed organisms.

The best known contain rare specialized organisms, found only in the immediate vicinity (sometimes within centimeters) of underwater volcanic vents (or "smokers"). These ecosystems require extremely advanced diving and collection techniques for their scientific exploration.

One that is sealed and completely independent of outside factors, except for temperature and light. A good example would be a plant contained in a sealed jar and submerged under water. No new factors would be able to enter this ecosystem.

Aquarium fish feed

Aquarium fish feed is plant or animal material intended for consumption by pet fish kept in aquariums or ponds. Fish foods normally contain macro nutrients, trace elements and vitamins necessary to keep captive fish in good health. Approximately 80% of fishkeeping hobbyists feed their fish exclusively prepared foods that most commonly are produced in flake, pellet or tablet form. Pelleted forms, some of which sink rapidly, are often used for larger fish or bottom feeding species such as loaches or catfish. Some fish foods also contain additives such as sex hormones or beta carotene to artificially enhance the color of ornamental fish. Prepared foods Prepared foods are those foods that are non-living and are made by the aquarist or bought already prepared for consumption for fish. Dry foods Flake food is a type of proprietary or artificially manufactured fish food consumed by a wide variety of tropical and saltwater fish and invertebrates. It is ideally suited to top dwellers and mid-water fish though numerous bottom dwelling species consume flake food once it has settled on the bottom. Flake food is baked to remove moisture, ensuring a longer shelf life. Generally the more moisture a particular example of fish food contains, the more readily it will deteriorate in quality. Dry foods is also available as pellets, sticks, tablets, granules, and wafers, manufactured to float or sink, depending on the species they are designed to feed. Vacation food Vacation foods — also known as "food blocks" — are designed to be placed inside the aquarium to forgo feeding while the owner is absent. These blocks release small amounts of food as they dissolve. Food blocks can be a good choice for smaller tropical fish, but can pollute the water. Medicated fishfood Medicated fishfood is a safe and effective method to deliver medication to fish. One advantage is that medicated food does not contaminate the aquatic environment and also, unlike bath treatments, does not negatively affect fish, filtration and algae growth in the aquarium. The parasites will get treated spot on by medicated food, because the fish is ingesting it. Freeze-dried and frozen fish diets Freeze-dried and frozen fish foods were primarily developed for tropical and marine fish and are useful in providing variety to the diet or specialist feeding needs of some species. These include tubifex worms, mosquito larvae, bloodworms, water fleas (Daphnia and Cyclops spp.) along with brine shrimp (Artemia salina). Frozen fish food Perishable food can be preserved by frozen storage, and is often sold in blister packs or resealable packets. These can contain a variety of ingredients such as bloodworms, Daphnia, or brine shrimp, and are commonly used to feed such fish as Discus which require a high protein diet. Live foods Live fish food include earthworms, sludge worms, water fleas, bloodworms, and feeder fish. Food for larvae and young fish include infusoria (Protozoa and other microorganisms), newly hatched brine shrimp and microworms. These are the most preferred type of food for fishes,but are difficult to get. However, freeze dried forms of earthworms, tubifex etc. are available now. Ingredients of quality fish food Fish food should ideally provide the fish with fat (for energy) and amino acids (building blocks of proteins) and the fish food (whether flake or pellet) must be speedily digested in order to prevent build up of intestinal gas, renal failure and infections (such as swim bladder problems and dropsy) and to avoid aquarium pollution due to excessive ammonia. Aquatic diets for carnivores must contain vegetable matter such as spirulina. Building block ingredients of fish food Amino acids are the basic components of proteins. An example of an aquatic diet that is a good source of amino acid is a crumbled hard boiled egg offered to small fry. Large amounts of DL-Methionine enhance the headgrowth of the Lionhead goldfish. Fats that are broken down into fatty acids are the main source of energy in fish especially for the heart and skeletal muscles. Fats also assists in vitamin absorption. Vitamins A, D, E and K are fat-soluble or can only be digested, absorbed, and transported in conjunction with fats. Carbohydrates are molecular substances that include sugars, starches, gums and celluloses. Most of the carbohydrates that are incorporated into aquatic diets are of plant origin and are sources of the enzyme amylase. Carbohydrates, however, are not a superior energy source for fish over protein or fat but digestible carbohydrates do spare protein for tissue building. Unlike in mammals, glycogen is not a significant storage depot of energy in fish. Sources of fish food Fish meal (protein source) have two basic types: (a) those produced from fishery wastes associated with the processing of fish for human consumption (such as salmon and tuna) and (b) those from specific fish (herring, menhaden and pollack) which are harvested solely for the purpose of producing fish meal. Shrimp meal is made from cull shrimp that are being processed before freezing or from whole shrimp that is not of suitable quality for human consumption. The material to be made into shrimp meal is dried (sun-dried or by using a dryer) and then ground. Shrimp meal is a source of pigments that enhances the desirable color in the tissues of fish. It is also a secondary supplemental protein source for fish. Squid meal is made from squid viscera portions from cannery plants including the eggs and testis. Squid Meal is a highly digestible protein source for fish which provides a full range of amino acids, vitamins, minerals and cholesterol (1.0–1.5%) of cholesterol suitable for fish fry and young fish. Brine shrimp (adult Artemia) is a common food source for fish that are available in adult-form, as eggs or freeze-dried. Brine shrimp is a source of protein, carotene (a color enhancer) and acts as a natural laxative in fish digestive systems. Brine shrimps can also supply the fish with vegetable matter due to their consumption of algae. Soybean meal is a high protein source for fish and has become a substitute for traditionally-used marine animal meals. Spirulina is a blue-green plant plankton rich in raw protein, vitamins A, B1, B2, B6, B12, C and E, beta-carotene, color enhancing pigments, a whole range of minerals, essential fatty acids and eight amino acids required for complete nutrition. Whole wheat (carbohydrates) is not the best source of energy in fish but is an excellent source of roughage for fish such as Goldfish and Koi. It is also a natural source of vitamin E which promotes growth and enhances coloration. Manufacturers Hagen Hikari Tetra Wardley

From Yahoo Answers


Answers:Algae and protozoa are both members of the same Protist kingdom. Protists are simple organisms that do not show distinctly organized body plans. They lack organs, so have no muscular/skeletal, nervous, circulatory, or respiratory systems for example, not even rudimentary ones. Protists do not even show organized tissue structure. All that divides them from other single celled life (Prokaryotes) is that they have cell organelles while prokaryotes show no organization by cell function. They have been grouped as being somewhat plant-like or animal-like or fungus-like into a kingdom of their own. In general, Protista are all Eukaryotic, the cells have organelles, a separate nucleus and paired chromosomes. They all show at least one stage of life that is mobile. http://www.palaeos.com/Kingdoms/kingdoms.htm http://tolweb.org/tree/phylogeny.html The algae, also called Chromista are divided in three phylums: red algae Rhodophyta, brown or golden algae Phaeophyta, green algae Chlorophyta. Algae do not develop from an embryo into a more complex form like plants. The Diatoms are also photosynthetic so are part of the algae class. http://www.mercy.edu/faculty/knizeski/Plant-like%20Protista.html Protozoa -The animal-like Protista include the mobile, mostly single celled organisms with flagella, cilia or amoeboid modes of travel. These are the protozoa (first animals). http://www.mercy.edu/faculty/knizeski/Animal-like%20Protista.html There is a third class in the Protist Kingdom that is fungal-like. This class includes parasitic and predatory molds, water molds (Class Oomycota), and slime molds. These move and lack chitin so are not true fungi. http://www.mercy.edu/faculty/knizeski/Fungal-like%20Protista.html Kingdom Fungi are equal in rank with plants and animals having highly organized bodies. They are heterotrophic and use ezymatic digestion like animals but instead of an internal stomach they digest their food outside their bodies and absorb the digested nutrients, this makes them osmotrophs. Like plants they are sessile so when they consume all the food in their local environment they must grow spores to move the next generation to another food source. http://www.mycolog.com/CHAP1.htm http://tolweb.org/Fungi/2377 http://www.geocities.com/RainForest/6243/diversity3.html#Fungi

Question:I have a project for school that my group has the Animalia Kingdom for and since our class is pretty big, we have the vertebrate half of the Animalia Kingdom and another group has the invertebrate half. My marine biology teacher is insisting that there are at least 5 phyla that make up the vertebrate part of the kingdom, but I can only find the chordata phylum. Does anyone know of another phylum that makes up vertebrates?

Answers:There's the one Phylum - Chordata - notochord present at some time disappearing early in many forms, either temporary or permanent paired gill slits; dorsal nerve cord. The Vertebrates are one of four subphylums under Chordata. There are seven Classes that make up the vertebrate part of the subphylum Cyclostomata ( example: lamprey eel - no true jaws, scales or fins) Chondrichthyes (Examples-sharks, rays) Osteichthyes ( bony fishes ) Amphibia Reptilia Aves Mammalia

Question:Which is NOT a major evolutionary trend observed in invertebrate animals? (Points : 1) a change from radial symmetry to bilateral symmetry the development of a head with sensory organs the formation of a digestive tube inside a tubular body a change from a segmented body to a sac-like body 6. The four-stage life cycle of an insect such as a bee is called __________. (Points : 1) alternation of generations complete metamorphosis incomplete metamorphosis sexual regeneration 7. Which of these are adaptations of sponges for filter feeding? (Points : 1) tentacles, nematocysts, and polyps madreporite, tube feet, and canals ostia, osculum, and collar cells mouth, pharynx, and stomach 8. Which of these structures is a characteristic of the phylum Cnidaria? (Points : 1) medusa radula coelum tail 9. Which phylum is NOT entirely composed of aquatic invertebrates? (Points : 1) Annelida Cnidaria Echinodermata Porifera 10. Which type of invertebrate has many organ systems and a body plan with radial symmetry? (Points : 1) annelids cnidarians echinoderms flatworms 11. Which phylum is made up of invertebrates with the most advanced stage of cephalization? (Points : 1) Arthropoda Mollusca Nematoda Porifera 12. Which characteristic do all invertebrates share? (Points : 1) no cells no backbone no nerves no skeleton 13. Which list shows invertebrates in order of INCREASING complexity of tissue and body development? (Points : 1) sea stars, leeches, hookworms, corals corals, hookworms, sponges, planarians earthworms, hydras, sea stars, leeches sponges, hydras, flatworms, earthworms 14. For gathering food, mollusks have a rasping and scraping organ called a __________. (Points : 1) mantle nephridium pharynx radula 15. Which of the following is NOT a class of mollusks? (Points : 1) Gastropoda Crustacea Bivalva Cephalopoda 16. Which of the following animals displays bilateral symmetry? (Points : 1) sponge coral squid sea star 17. All of these groups of invertebrates have a coelom EXCEPT __________. (Points : 1) echinoderms nematodes mollusks annelids 18. Which of the following is NOT part of the phylum Arthropoda? (Points : 1) insects spiders worms crustaceans 19. Which of the following is NOT a phylum of worms? (Points : 1) Porifera Nematoda Platyhelminthes Annelida 20. The exoskeletons of arthropods contain __________. (Points : 1) radula collar cells book lungs chitin 21. Match each phylum name with its examples. (Points : 5) Answer Potential Matches: : 1.Arthropoda 1 : sea slugs and garden snails : 2.Annelida 2 : leeches and polychaete worms : 3.Cnidaria 3 : lobsters and centipedes : 4.Echinodermata 4 : corals and sea anemones : 5.Mollusca 5 : brittle stars and sea cucumbers

Answers:6. Complete Metamorphosis 7. ostia, osculum, and collar cells 8. medusa 9. Annelida 11. Nematoda 12. No backbone. 15. Cephalopoda 16. Squid 17. Nematodes (fairly sure ~80%) 18. worms 19. Porifera 20. Chitin 21. Arthropoda - lobsters and centi Annelida - Leeches and polychaete worms Cnidaria - corals, sea anemones (and jellyfish) Echinodermata - brittle stars & sea cucumbers Mollusca - sea slugs and garden snails. Make sure you know why on all of these, as Yahoo will not be able to help you on your test.

Question:Preferably 6-8 sentences:] Im doing a bio project and its on power point so i also need a discription about plant kingdom fungi kingdom protista monera and all the phylums for them Answers would be greatly appreciated considering i waited last minute. But hey, what kid doesnt? :D

Answers:Page 1 Contributed by: Ms. Kathy Fleiger Horton High School Kingdom Animalia Introduction General Characteristics of the Organisms in Kingdom Animalia 1. Animals are multicellular. 2. The cells of animals are eukaryotic and the cells lack cell walls. 3. Animals must obtain food from their environment. (Heterotrophic) Animals are not capable of photosynthesis. 4. Most animals are motile because of a nervous system and a muscular system. Three examples of animals that are sessile (stationary) feeders are sponges, mussels and barnacles. 5. Most animals reproduce sexually. 6. The two major groups within the animal kingdom are invertebrates and vertebrates. The invertebrates: The invertebrates include animals that have no backbone. Examples: sponges, worms, starfish, jellyfish, clams, and lobsters. The vertebrates: these are animals that do possess a backbone. Examples: fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals. 7. In this kingdom the young usually have the same basic features as the adults. 8. Organisms in Kingdom Animalia usually display a defined shape or symmetry.