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Examples of Metals and Nonmetals
You have must seen electric wires in between utility poles on road sides , silver utensils and coloured aluminium sheet for making roof. Have you ever thought that what the common thing in all these is? Correct, all are solid in form and metal. Have you seen diamond? Yes that is also hard and solid. What's about sulphur powder? Do you think any common thing in both of them? Both are non-metals. So how can you identify about metal and nonmetal. We can see luster on copper utensils in your kitchen.
Almost all metals are hard and have shiny luster. Electric wires are made up of copper and aluminum, which are very good conductor of electricity. Have you ever seen any nonmetal in electric wire? We cannot form phosphorus or sulphur in wire form. Nonmetal cannot convert in wire or sheet form but metals can roll into sheets and draw into wire hence show high malleability and ductility. Non-metal cannot be changed easily because they are brittle and will break. Metals are heavy in weight with high density and high melting and boiling points.
Apart from this nonmetals are just opposite to this with less density and low melting and boiling points. Metallic oxides like sodium oxide are basic, ionic while Non-metallic oxides like carbon dioxide are acidic compounds. Metal atoms energized with heat and allow thermal energy to move easily through them as they are good conductor of heat. Periodic table that is a tabular form of arrangement of all naturally occurring elements contains both metals and non-metals. Out of all elements more than 75% elements are metal in nature and positioned at left side of table. All nonmetals arranged at right side of table, are very different from metals. Metal and non-metals are separated by certain elements known as metalloid which show intermediate properties. Metal atom can easily lose valence electron to form cation.
These oppositely charge ion locates in crystal to form a sea of electron. The result this is that there are layers of positive ions surrounded by a "sea" of valence electrons. The negative charges of the electrons hold the positive ions in place, and vice versa. These free electrons are responsible for conductivity of metals. The metallic lustre is caused by free electrons as they can reflect light. Due to metallic bond between free electrons and metal cation, metals show malleability and ductility.
The disadvantage of these free electrons is corrosive nature if metal, which is due to oxygen gas in the atmosphere, creates an imbalance of electrons and positive ions in the metal and rust is produced. All metal show electropositive nature as they can loss their valence shell electron to become stable. Therefore when a metal atom loses electrons it becomes metal cation.
The energy required to remove electron is known as ionization potential. The reactivity of metals increases with decreasing the ionization potential. On the other hand, nonmetals are positioned at right side of periodic table ,have 3 to 7 electrons in it valence shell , hence they have a tendency to gain electrons and form anions.
So non-metals are electronegative in nature. The process of accept electron release some amount of energy is known as electron affinity. Therefore high electron affinity of nonmetal imparts high reactivity to nonmetal. Some common examples of metals and non-metals are as given below;
|Elements||Metal or Non-metal|