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Natural material

A natural material is any product or physical matter that comes from plants, animals, or the ground. Minerals and the metals that can be extracted from them (without further modification) are also considered to belong into this category.

Raw material

A raw material or feedstock is something that is acted upon or used by human labor or industry, for use as the basis to create some product or structure. Often the term is used to denote material that came from nature and is in an unprocessed or minimally processed state. Latex, iron ore, logs, and crude oil, would be examples. The use of raw material by other species other than the human includes twigs and found objects as used by birds to make nests.

In Marxian economics and some industries, the term is used in the sense of raw material that is 'subject of labor', in other words, something that will be worked on by labour or that has already undergone some alteration by labour. Therefore, it does not apply exclusively to materials in their entirely unprocessed state, for instance dimensional lumber, glass and steel.

Composite material

Composite materials, often shortened to composites, are engineered or naturally occurring materials made from two or more constituent materials with significantly different physical or chemical properties which remain separate and distinct at the macroscopic or microscopic scale within the finished structure.

The most visible applications is pavement in roadways in the form of either steel and aggregate reinforced Portland cement or asphalt concrete. Those composites closest to our personal hygiene form our shower stalls and bathtubs made of fibreglass. Imitation granite and cultured marblesinks and countertops are widely used. The most advanced examples perform routinely on spacecraft in demanding environments.


Wood is a natural composite of Cellulose fibers in a matrix of lignin. The earliest man-made composite materials were straw and mud combined to form bricks for buildingconstruction. The ancient brick-making process can still be seen on Egyptian tomb paintings in the Metropolitan Museum of Art.

Composites are made up of individual materials referred to as constituent materials. There are two categories of constituent materials: matrix and reinforcement. At least one portion of each type is required. The matrix material surrounds and supports the reinforcement materials by maintaining their relative positions. The reinforcements impart their special mechanical and physical properties to enhance the matrix properties. A synergism produces material properties unavailable from the individual constituent materials, while the wide variety of matrix and strengthening materials allows the designer of the product or structure to choose an optimum combination.

Engineered composite materials must be formed to shape. The matrix material can be introduced to the reinforcement before or after the reinforcement material is placed into the mould cavity or onto the mould surface. The matrix material experiences a melding event, after which the part shape is essentially set. Depending upon the nature of the matrix material, this melding event can occur in various ways such as chemical polymerization or solidification from the melted state.

A variety of moulding methods can be used according to the end-item design requirements. The principal factors impacting the methodology are the natures of the chosen matrix and reinforcement materials. Another important factor is the gross quantity of material to be produced. Large quantities can be used to justify high capital expenditures for rapid and automated manufacturing technology. Small production quantities are accommodated with lower capital expenditures but higher labour and tooling costs at a correspondingly slower rate.

Most commercially produced composites use a polymer matrix material often called a resin solution. There are many different polymers available depending upon the starting raw ingredients. There are several broad categories, each with numerous variations. The most common are known as polyester, vinyl ester, epoxy, phenolic, polyimide, polyamide, polypropylene, PEEK, and others. The reinforcement materials are often fibres but also commonly ground minerals. The various methods described below have been developed to reduce the resin content of the final product, or the fibre content is increased. As a rule of thumb, lay up results in a product containing 60% resin and 40% fibre, whereas vacuum infusion gives a final product with 40% resin and 60% fibre content. The strength of the product is greatly dependent on this ratio.

Moulding methods

In general, the reinforcing and matrix materials are combined, compacted and processed to undergo a melding event. After the melding event, the part shape is essentially set, although it can deform under certain process conditions. For a thermoset polymeric matrix material, the melding event is a curing reaction that is initiated by the application of additional heat or chemical reactivity such as an organic peroxide. For a thermoplastic polymeric matrix material, the melding event is a solidification from the melted state. For a metal matrix material such as titanium foil, the melding event is a fusing at high pressure and a temperature near the melt point.

For many moulding methods, it is convenient to refer to one mould piece as a "lower" mould and another mould piece as an "upper" mould. Lower and upper refer to the different faces of the moulded panel, not the mould's configuration in space. In this convention, there is always a lower mould, and sometimes an upper mould. Part construction begins by applying materials to the lower mould. Lower mould and upper mould are more generalized descriptors than more common and specific terms such as male side, female side, a-side, b-side, tool side, bowl, hat, mandrel, etc. Continuous manufacturing processes use a different nomenclature.

The moulded product is often referred to as a panel. For certain geometries and material

From Yahoo Answers

Question:Why the boiling point and melting point of MgO (3600,2852) is higher than the boiling point and melting point of Al2O3 (2980,2027)? If we explain in term of lattice energy, should not that it happens inversely because the Al3+ have higher charger than Mg2+?? Other factors involved? and the atomic mass should be increase as the atomic number increase BUT why Ni have a lower atomic mass(58.7) than Co (58.9) while Co have atomic number of 27 and Ni have atomic number of 28?

Answers:I'll just give the answer to the second question, since the first one's been explained already. The elements nickel and cobalt both have isotopes (like many other elements )and the relative atomic mass of these two elements is calculated by the AVERAGE of all their isotopes present - considering the relative percentage abundance of the isotopes. Isotopes differ in the number of neutrons. Hence, an isotope with a greater mass number will have more number of neutrons than the one which has a lower mass number. It is therefore possible that cobalt has a more percentage abundance of that isotope which is heavier (i.e. having more number of neutrons) and by calculation, its relative atomic mass is found to be more (58.9). For nickel, therefore, it is possible that it has more percentage abundance of the the lighter isotope (having less neutrons) and less of the heavier isotope, so that when calculating, the relative atomic mass is found to be less that cobalt. Another example of this is between argon and potassium. Potassium has a bigger atomic number than argon but smaller atomic mass.

Question:I have to write a short paragraph about inorganic chemistry in everyday life but I have no idea what inorganic chemistry is. Can anyone give me an example on how we use inorganic chemistry in everyday life?

Answers:Organic chemistry originated as the study of the substances involved in living systems, hence the root word "organ." Later in the history of chemistry, it got too confusing to stay with that definition, because there are so many compounds that are of mineral composition that are also involved in living systems. So the definition of "organic" changed, now meaning any compound that includes carbon in its composition. Thus inorganic chemistry is that which does not involve carbon. When you use ammonia to wash your windows, you're using inorganic chemistry. For that matter, when you rinse your hands in water, you're using the solvent property of H2O, an inorganic compound. (If you use soap or detergent, though, you're including organic substances.) When you mix rock salt with the ice in an old-fashioned hand-crank ice cream maker, you're using inorganic chemistry. When you add muriatic acid to your swimming pool to lower the pH, it's inorganic chemistry. Common laundry bleach, too, sodium hypochlorite, is an inorganic compound. The lead plates and sulfuric acid in a car's battery apply the electrical properties of inorganic chemistry. Any substance that doesn't have carbon in its molecular structure is considered inorganic, so there are many, many everyday life situations that use inorganic chemistry.

Question:What are 5 examples of Organic and 5 examples of Inorganic compounds?

Answers:Organic compounds are produced by living things (molecules contain carbon). Inorganic compounds are produced in the laboratory for example. 5 organic examples: Ethanol - C2H6O Chloroform - CHCl3 Citric acid - C6H8O7 Isopropanol C3H8O Methanol - CH4O 5 inorganic examples: Hydrogen chloride HCl Nitric acid HNO3 Ozone O3 Sodium chloride NaCl Sulfane H2S

Question:1. Acidity of oxides increases with increasing oxidation state. Why? 2. Why do less electro+ve elements form polymeric halides that are ionic? I mean why not other elements? 3. Increase in oxidation state results in increasing covalent character in halides. Example: Pb+4 is fairly covalent where Pb+2 is ionic. It has something to do with high polarizing power and size of Pb+4 but dunno why..!??! 4. A metal that is very reactive for example will form halides that have low lattice energy and that are unstable. Is that true? If so then that should mean that stability decreases down a group. Then Why is Li halides, carbonates unstable? 5. Why does Li form complex stable compounds? 6. Why can Be react with alkalies 7. Why are ionic hydrides powerful reducing agents Polymeric Halides: Halides that are formed with less reactive metals. They are called so because of their polymer 'like' character. example: AlCl4 about question 4, so that would mean that NaCl is more unstable than MgCl2 and that MgCl2 has a stronger bond? Is this statement true: "A metal that is very reactive for example will form halides that have low lattice energy and that are unstable" Stable complex compounds by Li are: Li(NH3)4 Be CAN react with Alkalies: Be + 2NaOH ----------> Na2BeO2 + H2 google "Be + 2 NaOH" you'll see a wikipedia page with a reaction.

Answers:1. Because the central atom is just that much more electron-poor. If you were a Lewis acid, wouldn't *you* want to be electron-poor? 2. "Polymeric halides"? What in the world are you talking about? OK then. Group 13 elements are in the unenviable position of having only three valence electrons to contribute to four bonding orbitals. They can form 3 proper sigma bonds, but then they're out of electrons; any fourth ligand must bring a pair of electrons with it. If that fourth ligand is a halogen, it has to bond as a halide X- to e.g. AlX3 or it will still be one electron short of a shell after it bonds. And AlX3 won't last long as a trihalide because a "less electro+ve" element like Al is by definition an element with more unshielded nuclear charge, making it a wonderfully inviting Lewis acid. You might expect group 15 elements, which also have an odd number of valence electrons, to share group 13's plight, but group 15 can form three bonds and still have two electrons left for a fourth (nonbonding) orbital. Group 3 elements, like group 13 elements, have only three valence electrons to donate to 4 s+p -derived orbitals, but they form stable trihalides because group 3 elements aren't very electronegative, so that ScX3 e.g. is a poor Lewis acid. Group 5 elements are potentially analogous in that they have 5 valence electrons for 6 s+d -derived orbitals, but like group 15 they can form neutral VX3 e.g. from s+p -derived orbitals, or neutral VX5 or VX4 (probably as V2X8) e.g. from d -derived orbitals. So apparently only group 13 elements form ionic polyhalides like [AlCl4]- because they have one fewer electron than they have valence orbitals and high enough electronegativity that all those orbitals must be filled. 3. I'm thinking it has a lot to do with those two 6s electrons being waaaay out in space with no one holding them tightly, compared to those 5d electrons which are so much closer and, as a group, so very spherically symmetric. In other words, you're out of easy electrons to abstract in the highest oxidation state. All that's left is the completed (sub)shells deeper in. 4. Dunno. Maybe Li+ is just sooooo little that the lattice energy is dominated by chloride-chloride repulsion, and lithium-chloride attraction just ain't enough to keep the family together. If "very reactive" is another way of saying "alkali and alkali earth metals", then very reactive metals make very stable lattices with high lattice energy, so your statement is *not* true. Lattice energy depends on ionic charge, the dimension of the lattice, and the crystal structure. Lattice energy generally decreases in a group from top to bottom because the cell dimension increases with the ionic radius. This is true of both anion and cation. Comparing cations from different groups is more difficult, because the crystal structure may be different. The lattice energy of MgO is about 4 times that of NaCl. Both form FCC crystals, so only their relative ionic charge matters. The lattice energy of MgCl2 is about 2 times that of NaCl, but crystalline MgCl2 is rhombohedral, not FCC, and this difference depends more on crystal structure than ionic charge (though it is a tempting coincidence). The group trend breaks down if the cation is too small to "touch" the anions it's coordinated with in the lattice. (Think stacks of billiard balls here.) That's unstable, like stacking billiard balls directly on top of billard balls without anything in the interstices to keep them from slipping side to side. When that happens, the lattice will reform with a different crystal structure that permits anions to "touch" cations. If that's not possible, the crystal will fall apart, with billiard balls sliding every which way. (I know, I agree, but I don't have another explanation that doesn't involve math.) If halides or carbonates of lithium don't crystallize properly, I suspect that this is why. Basically, reactivity doesn't have much to do with ionic crystals. Both Na+ and Mg+2 are cations; the important point is, they've both reacted as much as they can to become cations. (Poor dears.) 5. I'm not sure what you mean. It doesn't form stable complexes. OK, maybe as a Li+ Lewis acid ligand. I stand corrected. Lithium has an s and three p orbitals, so of course it can form 4 sigma MO with 4 ligands. In general chemistry you'd say "sp3" and be done, but in inorganic chemistry you'd probably rather mix the s and p(x,y,z) with reference to a character table. Either way Li+ can coordinate 4 ligands because it has 4 atomic orbitals that can contribute to 4 (pair) of molecular orbitals by mixing with 4 atomic orbitals from 4 ligands. Sorry, FlowerGirl. I was careless. 6. Can it? Could you give an example? Sure Be is more electronegative than Li, but BeLi2 is out (one bonding, one antibonding, bond order of zero), and adding more lithium just gives you dilithium. If you can cook up BeLi, please give me the recipe, because that would be *very* cool indeed. OK, I don't know WHAT I was thinking here. Be can contribute an s and a p orbital to mix with two Li s orbitals and form two (pair) of molecular orbitals. A glance at a character table will convince you that these will mix to yield a c- or d-infinity linear geometry. One Be e- and one Li e- in each bonding MO yields two stable bonds of BO=1. There's no reason this can't happen. Alkali metals though don't seem to be the "alkalies" you meant in your question. No matter. By the same token, [(-)OBeO(-)] will also form by again mixing a Be s and p with two ligand s orbitals. Same symmetry group, same bonds. The only difference is that here Be acts as an electron donor (Lewis base) while in LiBeLi Be acts as an electron acceptor (Lewis acid). 7. Two electrons around one leetle proton? There isn't enough electrostatic attraction to hold the electrons, and the thing is so small it can mount a nucleophilic attack on almost any electron-poor niche. Finally, you must be VERY careful of Wikipedia. It isn't a completely reliable source. (OMG! Really?) Look up "vanadium tetrachloride" (VCl4) in WP. Calculate the formal charge on vanadium in the picture. Weird, huh? There's one electron missing, which means that's either the picture of the cation [VCl4]+, or someone made a big mistake in depicting VCl4 with tetrahedral geometry.

From Youtube

Inorganic Chemistry overview :This is part of an African Virtual University course. See the whole course, with support materials, at oer.avu.org

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