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In organizational studies, resource management is the efficient and effective deployment for an organization's resources when they are needed. Such resources may include financial resources, inventory, human skills, production resources, or information technology (IT). In the realm of project management, processes, techniques and philosophies as to the best approach for allocating resources have been developed. These include discussions on functional vs. cross-functional resource allocation as well as processes espoused by organizations like the Project Management Institute (PMI) through their Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK) methodology to project management. Resource management is a key element to activity resource estimating and project human resource management. Both are essential components of a comprehensive project management plan to execute and monitor a project successfully. As is the case with the larger discipline of project management, there are resource management software tools available that automate and assist the process of resource allocation to projects and portfolio resource visibility including supply and demand of resources.
HR (Human Resource) Management
This is the science of allocating human resources among various projects or business units, maximizing the utilization of available personnel resources to achieve business goals; and performing the activities that are necessary in the maintenance of that workforce through identification of staffing requirements, planning and oversight of payroll and benefits, education and professional development, and administering their work-life needs. The efficient and effective deployment of an organization's personnel resources where and when they are needed, and in possession of the tools, training and skills required by the work.
Corporate Resource Management Process
Large organizations usually have a defined corporate resource management process which mainly guarantees that resources are never over-allocated across multiple projects.
One resource management technique is resource leveling. It aims at smoothing the stock of resources on hand, reducing both excess inventories and shortages.
The required data are: the demands for various resources, forecast by time period into the future as far as is reasonable, as well as the resources' configurations required in those demands, and the supply of the resources, again forecast by time period into the future as far as is reasonable.
The goal is to achieve 100% utilization but that is very unlikely, when weighted by important metrics and subject to constraints, for example: meeting a minimum service level, but otherwise minimizing cost.
The principle is to invest in resources as stored capabilities, then unleash the capabilities as demanded.
A dimension of resource development is included in resource management by which investment in resources can be retained by a smaller additional investment to develop a new capability that is demanded, at a lower investment than disposing of the current resource and replacing it with another that has the demanded capability.
In conservation, resource management is a set of practices pertaining to maintaining natural systems integrity. Examples of this form of management are air resource management, soil conservation, forestry, wildlife management and water resource management. The broad term for this type of resource management is natural resource management (NRM).
In computing, a Uniform Resource Locator (URL) is a Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) that specifies where an identified resource is available and the mechanism for retrieving it. In popular usage and in many technical documents and verbal discussions it is often incorrectly used as a synonym for URI. The best-known example of the use of URLs is for the addresses of web pages on the World Wide Web, such as
The Uniform Resource Locator was created in 1994 by Tim Berners-Lee and the URI working group of the Internet Engineering Task Force. The format is based on Unixfile path syntax, where forward slashes are used to separate directory or folder and file or resource names. Conventions already existed where server names could be prepended to complete file paths, preceded by a double-slash (//).
File formats may also be specified using a final dot suffix, so that requests for
file.txt may be served directly whereas
file.php needs to be sent to a PHP pre-processor before the processed result is served to the end user. The exposure of such implementation-specific details in public URLs is becoming less common; the necessary information can be better specified and exchanged using Internet media type identifiers, previously known as MIME types.
Berners-Lee later regretted the use of dots to separate the parts of the domain name within URIs, wishing he had used slashes throughout. For example, http://www.example.com/path/to/name would have been written http:com/example/www/path/to/name. Berners-Lee has also said that, given the colon following the URI scheme, the two forward slashes before the domain name were also unnecessary.
Every URL consists of some of the following: the scheme name (commonly called protocol), followed by a colon, then, depending on scheme, a domain name (alternatively, IP address), a port number, the path of the resource to be fetched or the program to be run, then, for programs such as Common Gateway Interface (CGI) scripts, a query string, and an optional fragment identifier.
The syntax is
- The scheme name defines the namespace, purpose, and the syntax of the remaining part of the URL. Software will try to process a URL according to its scheme and context. For example, a web browser will usually dereference the URL http://example.org:80 by performing an HTTP request to the host at example.org, using port number 80. The URL mailto:firstname.lastname@example.org may start an e-mail composer with the address email@example.com in the To field.
Other examples of scheme names include https:, gopher:, wais:, ftp:. URLs with https as a scheme (such as https://example.com/) require that requests and responses will be made over a secure connection to the website. Some schemes that require authentication allow a username, and perhaps a password too, to be embedded in the URL, for example ftp://firstname.lastname@example.org. Passwords embedded in this way are not conducive to secure working, but the full possible syntax is
- The domain name or IP address gives the destination location for the URL. The domain google.com, or its IP address 184.108.40.206, is the address of Google's website.
- The domain name portion of a URL is not case sensitive since DNS ignores case: http://en.example.org/ and HTTP://EN.EXAMPLE.ORG/ both open the same page.
- The port number is optional; if omitted, the default for the scheme is used. For example, http://vnc.example.com:5800 connects to port 5800 of vnc.example.com, which may be appropriate for a VNC remote control session. If the port number is omitted for an http: URL, the browser will connect on port 80, the default HTTP port. The default port for an https: request is 443.
- The path is used to specify and perhaps find the resource requested. It is case-sensitive, though it may be treated as case-insensitive by some servers, especially those based on Microsoft Windows. If the server is case sensitive and http://en.example.org/wiki/URL is correct, http://en.example.org/WIKI/URL/ or http://en.example.org/wiki/url/ will display an HTTP 404 error page, unless these URLs point to valid resources themselves.
- The query string contains data to be passed to software running on the server. It may contain name/value pairs separated by ampersands, for example ?first_name=John&last_name=Doe.
In 2008, total worldwide energy consumption was 474 exajoules () with 80 to 90 percent derived from the combustion of fossil fuels. This is equivalent to an average power consumption rate of 15 terawatts (). Not all of the world's economies track their energy consumption with the same rigor, and the exact energy content of a barrel of oil or a ton of coal will vary with quality.
Despite advances in efficiency and sustainability, of all the energy created since the industrial revolution, more than half has been consumed in the last two decades.
In 2009, world energy consumption decreased for the first time in 30 years (-1.1%) or 130Mtoe, as a result of the financial and economic crisis (GDP drop by 0.6% in 2009). This evolution is the result of two contrasting trends. Energy consumption growth remained vigorous in several developing countries, specifically in Asia (+4%). Conversely, in OECD, consumption was severely cut by 4.7% in 2009 and was thus almost down to its 2000 levels. In North America, Europe and CIS, consumptions shrank by 4.5%, 5% and 8.5% respectively due to the slowdown in economic activity. China became the world's largest energy consumer (18% of the total) since its consumption surged by 8% during 2009 (from 4% in 2008). Oil remained the largest energy source (33%) despite the fact that its share has been decreasing over time. Coal posted a growing role in the world's energy consumption: in 2009, it accounted for 27% of the total.
Most of the world's energy resources are from the sun's rays hitting earth. Some of that energy has been preserved as fossil energy, some is directly or indirectly usable; for example, via wind, hydro- or wave power. The term solar constant is the amount of incoming solar electromagnetic radiation per unit area, measured on the outer surface of Earth's atmosphere, in a plane perpendicular to the rays. The solar constant includes all types of solar radiation, not just visible light. It is measured by satellite to be roughly 1366 watts per square meter, though it fluctuates by about 6.9% during a yearâ€”from in early January to in early July, due to the Earth's varying distance from the sun, and by a few parts per thousand from day to day. For the whole Earth, with a cross section of , the total energy rate is 174 petawatts (), plus or minus 3.5%. This value is the total rate of solar energy received by the planet; about half, 89 PW, reaches the Earth's surface.
The estimates of remaining non-renewable worldwide energy resources vary, with the remaining fossil fuels totaling an estimated 0.4 YJ (1 YJ = 1024J) and the available nuclear fuel such as uranium exceeding 2.5 YJ. Fossil fuels range from 0.6-3 YJ if estimates of reserves of methane clathrates are accurate and become technically extractable. Mostly thanks to the Sun, the world also has a renewable usable energy flux that exceeds 120 PW (8,000 times 2004 total usage), or 3.8 YJ/yr, dwarfing all non-renewable resources.
The United StatesEnergy Information Administration regularly publishes a report on world consumption for most types of primary energy resources.
The twentieth century saw a rapid twentyfold increase in the use of fossil fuels. Between 1980 and 2006, the worldwide annual growth rate was 2%. According to the US Energy Information Administration's 2006 estimate, the estimated 471.8 EJ total consumption in 2004 was divided as follows, with fossil fuels supplying 86% of the world's energy:
Coal fueled the industrial revolution in the 18th and 19th century. With the advent of the automobile, airplanes and the spreading use of electricity, oil became the dominant fuel during the twentieth century. The growth of oil as the largest fossil fuel was further enabled by steadily dropping prices from 1920 until 1973. After the oil shocks of 1973 and 1979, during which the price of oil increased from 5 to 45 US dollars per barrel, there was a shift away from oil. Coal, natural gas, and nuclear became the fuels of choice for electricity generation and conservation measures increased energy efficiency. In the U.S. the average car more than doubled the number of miles per gallon. Japan, which bore the brunt of the oil shocks, made spectacular improvements and now has the highest energy efficiency in the world. From 1965 to 2008, the use of fossil fuels has continued to grow and their share of the energy supply has increased. From 2003 to 2008, coal, which is one of the dirtiest sources of energy, was the fastest growing fossil fuel..
As of December 2009, the world had 436 reactors. Since commercial nuclear energy began in the mid 1950s, 2008 was the first year that no new nuclear power plant was connected to the grid, although two were connected in 2009.
Annual generation of nuclear power has been on a slight downward trend since 2007, decreasing 1.8% in 2009 to 2558 TWh with nuclear power meeting 13â€“14% of the world's electricity demand.
In 2008, renewable energy supplied around 19% of the world's energy consumption. The renewables sector has been growing significantly since the last years of the 20th century, and in 2009 the total new investment was estimated to have been 150 billion US dollars. This resulted in an additional 80 GW of capacity during the year.
Worldwide hydroelectricity installed capacity reached 816 GW in 2005, consisting of 750 GW of large plants, and 66 GW of small hydro installations. Large hydro capacity totaling 10.9 GW was added by China, Brazil and India during the year, but there was a much faster growth (8%) small hydro, with 5 GW added, mostly in China where some 58% of the world's small hydro plants are now located. China is the largest hydro power producer in the world, and continues to add capacity. In the Western world, although Canada is the largest producer of hydroelectricity in the world, the construction of large hydro plants has stagnated due to environmental concerns. The trend in both Canada and the United States has been to micro hydro because it has negligible environmental impacts and opens up many more locations for power generation. In Briti
Modern humans (Homo sapiens ) are grouped with the mammals (class Mammalia) in the subphylum Vertebrata. Within the mammals, humans are assigned by taxonomists to the primates (order Primates), along with lemurs, monkeys, and apes. Humans are grouped by most taxonomists together with the surviving species of Hominoidea, or great apes (the others include two species of gorilla, two species of chimpanzee, orangutans, and simangs). However, all members of the human family can stand upright with no difficulty and are naturally bipedal , whereas apes are naturally quadrapedal, only standing upright when necessary. Humans are also the only surviving members of the family Hominidae and genus Homo. Extinct members of the genus include Homo habilis and Homo erectus. The Homo sp. probably evolved from one of several species of australopithecines: Australopithecus africanus, A. robustus, A. boisei, and the recently discovered A. garhi. "Lucy" (Australopithecus afarensis ) lived around 3.5 million years ago (abbreviated as mya) and may have been the ancestor of the evolutionary branch that led eventually to humans. It is not yet clear where the recently discovered Kenyanthropus platyops (who also lived around 3.5 mya) fits into the evolutionary sequence. About 2.5 mya, the first humans, genus Homo, first appeared in the fossil record. For the first half million years, early representatives of Homo lived in loose association with australopithecines, from whom they differed in two important ways. First, they were somewhat larger and had much larger brains than australopithecines. Second, they used tools. Their tool use is the origin of the names for one species of these early humans, Homo habilis, or "handy" man. H. habilis lived in the dry savannas and forest edges, probably surviving for most of the year on roots, bulbs, and tubers. Although roots, bulbs, and tubers are very nutritious, digging them up from the hard, dry, savanna soils is difficult with only bare hands. Roots and tubers are also deficient in protein. So H. habilis would have needed to supplement the carbohydrate-rich diet of roots and tubers with high-quality protein, the best source of which is meat. H. habilis was a hunter and meat eater. When you cannot run very fast and do not have big, sharp teeth, hunting large animals requires some form of social organization. So H. habilis individuals probably lived in small bands of closely related members. It is likely that some division of labor also existed, with the females doing most of the digging (something you could do while holding an infant) while the males hunted large game. Fossils of another early member of our genus, Homo erectus ("upright" man) first appeared in Africa around 2 mya and spread rapidly into Asia. The fossils of H. erectus found in Asia were originally known as Java man or Peking man. H. erectus was as large as humans but had a heavier build. H. erectus also made another significant technological advancement, fire. They also had more sophisticated tools that were probably used for cleaning and cutting meat, for scraping hides, and as weapons. H. Erectus survived in many parts of the world until around a quarter million years ago. The same evolutionary patterns established by the transition from Australopithecus to Homo erectus were extended even further with the evolution of Homo sapiens. The earliest members of our species had larger brains and smaller teeth than did H. erectus. Several types of (probably competing) H. sapiens existed at the same time. All were skilled big-game hunters, suggesting a high degree of social organization and, probably, language. Another distinctly human trait also appeared with H. sapiens. They apparently had religious practices and some concept of an afterlife. This led to burial rituals and the inclusion of tools, clothing, weapons, and food in the burial, presumably to aid the deceased in the afterlife. One type of early Homo sapiens, Neanderthal, was widespread in Europe and Asia between 75,000 and 30,000 years ago. Neanderthals were short, robustly built, and had brains that were somewhat larger than modern humans. They used a wide variety of tools and were skilled hunters. However, an even more modern human, Cro-Magnon, appeared around 100,000 years ago. Cro-Magnon peoples and Neanderthals lived at the same time, but Neanderthals abruptly vanished from their range. Some biologists think Cro-Magnons exterminated Neanderthals, whereas others propose that interbreeding may have obliterated the differences. Cro-Magnon humans had even more sophisticated tools, modern language capabilities, and made extraordinary cave paintings. Larger brains led inevitably to the evolution of human languages. Language, and the sophisticated social organization it makes possible, offers enormous evolutionary advantages. Not only were humans able to organize themselves into sophisticated hunting parties, they were also able to transmit information about other resources. Language also offers one other enormously important advantage. With language it is possible to transmit information from one generation to the next. The ability to pass along knowledge, traditions, rituals, and other information led to the development of culture. Cultural change can occur much more rapidly than genetic change. A cultural trait can spread through a population in less than one generation. The problem of cultural transmission is how to pass along cultural norms efficiently without being rigid and stifling the creativity necessary for a population to survive adverse changes in the environment. Unique cultural traditions have been identified in the tools, weapons, and other implements found associated with human fossils. Along with cultural traditions, the domestication of plants and animals also spread rapidly. As a result most human societies eventually became sedentary. Agriculture and pastoralism (herding of domestic animals) replaced hunting and gathering. Agriculture and pastoralism led to cities, expanded food supplies, stratified societies, and the rapid growth of the human population. Agriculture was independently invented three times at different places in the world. Agriculture was first discovered in the Middle East about 11,000 years ago and spread from there throughout Europe. From Middle Eastern agriculture we get cereal grains, grapes, and olives. European agriculture gave us rye, cabbage, celery, and carrots. Domesticated animals included cattle, sheep, goats, horses, pigs, dogs, cats, and chickens. Agriculture also developed in east Asia about the same time. From Asian agriculture we get rice, soybeans, citrus fruits, and mangoes. When humans first entered the New World, they did not bring agriculture or domesticated animals with them, except for dogs. So agriculture developed a third time in the New World and gave us corn, tomatoes, kidney and lima beans, peanuts, potatoes, chili peppers, and squash. Domesticated animals were rare in the New World and included only llamas, alpacas, and turkeys. Humans have successfully moved into every available nook and cranny on Earth. Our sophisticated technology allows us to survive comfortably where no other mammal or any complex organism could survive. Humans spend the winter at the South Pole. Humans live on mountaintops and in arid deserts. These are mere curiosities, but it is obvious that humans are able successfully to make a living in a wider variety of habitats and under a broader range of environmental conditions than can any other animal on Earth. For the first few million years of our evolution, humans lived in small groups and survived by hunting and gathering. The invention of agriculture allowed human populations to grow rapidly. They are still growing. If the number of humans on Earth is plotted against time, the curve stays essentially horizontal until about 1000 C.E. At that time, there were less than 100 million people in the entire world. From 1000 C.E. to 2000 C.E., the population growth curve turned sharply upward and now appears almost vertical. It took 2 million years to reach the first billion people, 130 years to reach the second billion,
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Answers:2 advantages of promoting from within an organization: - they already know the procedures and no need for training. - they already know the organization internally so they know what it needs for improvement and what would be useless for example. it's important not to promote from within your department some times because coworkers can become jealous and the person who is now their boss, used to be one just like them and they will have trouble treating him or respecting him as a boss and no longer as a fellow coworker. It's also important not to promote from within the department because getting someone from the outside will add on new ideas to the company, new strategies and procedures for better performances for example. I won't go on, it will take me forever to finish.
Answers:Recycling the wedding ring of each divorcees will help greatly. :-)))) If we assume there is an average of 1.5 divorce for 1000 inhabitants on earth, a population of 6 billions humans, a wedding ring is about 7 g x 2 for each divorce... It will give around 9 millions divorces a year, so 18 millions rings with a total weight of 126 tons. This is 1/2 of the production of South Africa and around 5 % of the yearly world production !
Answers:You're right! Although it does depend on the industry you go into. I'm an HR manager in a logistics company so I have responsibility for sites throughout the UK. The same might apply in retail, for example. Local authorities etc are going to be static, obviously! My last job covered the UK and Ireland so the regular trips to Dublin were good fun!
Answers:The greatest means of turning slope and subsidence hazards catastrophic is primarily by simply building on or near the hazards. You've heard the old riddle, If a tree falls in the forest, and nobody's there to hear it... Well, if a slope fails, and there are no lives or structures lost, how catastrophic is it? Conversely, you build a town at the bottom of a landslide and it fails, well... A second way is by exacerbating the hazard. For example, constructing engineered barriers that block off influx of sediment to a subsiding area. Most notably this was brought to global attention with the catastrophe of Hurricane Katrina in New Orleans. USACE has built levees to channel the flow of the Mississippi River, thus for years choking off the sediment flux needed to build up the delta that New Orleans is built on. Meanwhile, the city was sinking , creating a situation such that when finally along comes a major flood, the entire city is below the water level, and becomes inundated.