examples of homogeneous and heterogeneous mixtures

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From Wikipedia

Homogeneity and heterogeneity

Homogeneity and heterogeneity are concepts relating to the uniformity or lack thereof in a substance. A material that is homogeneous is uniform in composition or character; one that is heterogeneous lacks uniformity in one of these qualities.

The concepts are applicable to combinations at every level of complexity, from atoms to populations of animals or people, to galaxies. Hence, a substance may be homogeneous on a larger scale, compared to being heterogeneous on a smaller scale within the same substance. This is known as an effective medium approach, or effective medium approximations.

Heterogeneity

Heterogeneity is the state of being heterogeneous . It is the nature of opposition, or contrariety of qualities. Pertaining to the sciences, it is a substance that is diverse in kind or nature; composed of diverse parts. In other words, it is composed of dissimilar parts, hence the constituents are of a different kind. The parts (or constituents) are connected, and of a conglomerate mass, and viewed in respect to the parts of which it is made up.

Various disciplines understand heterogeneity, or being heterogeneous, in different ways. For example:

  • In physics it is understood as having more than one phase (solid, liquid, gas) present in a system or process.
  • In chemistry it means visibly consisting of different components.
  • With information technology it means a network comprising different types of computers, potentially with vastly differing memory sizes, processing power and even basic underlying architecture. Alternatively, a data resource with multiple types of formats.
  • Rocks (geology) are inherently heterogeneous, usually occurring at the micro-scale and mini-scale.

Homogeneity

Homogeneity is the state of being homogeneous. Pertaining to the sciences, it is a substance where all the constituents are of the same nature; consisting of similar parts, or of elements of the like nature. For example, homogeneous particles, homogeneous elements, homogeneous principles, or homogeneous bodies; or (algebra) possessing the same number of factors of a given kind, as with a homogeneous polynomial.

Mathematics

In mathematics, homogeneous may refer to:

Chemistry

A heterogeneous mixture is a mixture of two or more compounds. Examples are: mixtures of sand and water or sand and iron filings, a conglomerate rock, water and oil, a salad, trail mix, and concrete (not cement). During the sampling of heterogeneous mixtures of particles, the variance of the sampling error is generally non-zero. Gy's sampling theory quantitatively defines the heterogeneity of a particle as:

h_i = \frac{(c_i - c_\text{batch})m_i}{c_\text{batch} m_\text{aver}} .

where h_i, c_i, c_\text{batch}, m_i, and m_\text{aver} are respectively: the heterogeneity of the ith particle of the population, the mass concentration of the property of interest in the ith particle of the population, the mass concentration of the property of interest in the population, the mass of the ith particle in the population, and the average mass of a particle in the population.

Homogenization is the process of causing a heterogeneous mixture to become homogeneous, as is done with the making of homogenized milk.

Homogeneous and heterogeneous reactions

Homogeneous reactions are chemical reactions in which the reactants are in the same phase, while heterogeneous reactions have reactants in two or more phases. Reactions that take place on the surface of a catalyst of a different phase are also heterogeneous. A reaction between two gases, two liquids or two solids is homogeneous. A reaction between a gas and a liquid, a gas and a solid or a liquid and a solid is heterogeneous.

A mixture can be determined to be homogeneous when everything is settled and equal, and the liquid, gas, object is one color or the same form. Various models have been proposed to model the concentrations in different phases. The phenomena to be considered are mass rates and reaction rates. Surface area affects the reaction rate of heterogeneous reactions but not homogeneous reactions.

Biology

Genetic heterogeneity refers to multiple origins causing the same disorder in different individuals. Heterogeneity of ion channels means diversity of different types of channels serving a specific kind of current, e.g. by channels with different constitutive subunits.


Mixture

In chemistry, a mixture is a material system made up by two or more different substances which are (mixed) together but are not combined chemically. Mixture refers to the physical combination of two or more substances the identities of which are retained. The molecules of two or more different substances are mixed in the form of alloys, solutions, suspensions, and colloids.

Mixtures are the product of a mechanical blending or mixing of chemical substances like elements and compounds, without chemical bonding or other chemical change, so that each ingredient substance retains its own chemical properties and makeup. Nonetheless, despite there are no chemical changes to its constituents, the physical properties of a mixture, such as its melting point, may differ from those of the components. Some mixtures can be separated into their components by physical (mechanical or thermal) means. Azeotropes can be considered as a kind of mixture which usually pose considerable difficulties regarding the separation processes required to obtain their constituents (physical or chemical processes or, even a blend of them).

Mixtures can be either homogeneous or heterogeneous. A homogeneous mixture is a type of mixture in which the composition is uniform. A heterogeneous mixture is a type of mixture in which the composition can easily be identified, as there are two or more phases present. Air is a homogeneous mixture of the gaseous substances nitrogen, oxygen, and smaller amounts of other substances. Salt, sugar, and many other substances dissolve in water to form homogeneous mixtures. A homogeneous mixture in which there is both a solute and solvent present is also a solution.

The following table shows the main properties of the three families of mixtures.

The following table shows examples of the three types of mixtures.

Physics and Chemistry

A heterogeneous mixture is a mixture of two or more compounds. Examples are: mixtures of sand and water or sand and iron filings, a conglomerate rock, water and oil, a salad, trail mix, and concrete (not cement). Gy's sampling theory quantitatively defines the heterogeneity of a particle as:

h_i = \frac{(c_i - c_\text{batch})m_i}{c_\text{batch} m_\text{aver}} .

where h_i, c_i, c_\text{batch}, m_i, and m_\text{aver} are respectively: the heterogeneity of the ith particle of the population, the mass concentration of the property of interest in the ith particle of the population, the mass concentration of the property of interest in the population, the mass of the ith particle in the population, and the average mass of a particle in the population.

During the sampling of heterogeneous mixtures of particles, the variance of the sampling error is generally non-zero.

Pierre Gy derived, from the Poisson sampling model, the following formula for the variance of the sampling error in the mass concentration in a sample:

V = \frac{1}{(\sum_{i=1}^N q_i m_i)^2} \sum_{i=1}^N q_i(1-q_i) m_{i}^{2} \left(a_i - \frac{\sum_{j=1}^N q_j a_j m_j}{\sum_{j=1}^N q_j m_j}\right)^2 .

in which V is the variance of the sampling error, N is the number of particles in the population (before the sample was taken), q i is the probability of including the ith particle of the population in the sample (i.e. the first-order inclusion probability of the ith particle), m i is the mass of the ith particle of the population and a i is the mass concentration of the property of interest in the ith particle of the population.

It must be noted that the above equation for the variance of the sampling error is an approximation based on a linearization of the mass concentration in a sample.

In the theory of Gy, correct sampling is defined as a sampling scenario in which all particles have the same probability of being included in the sample. This implies that q i no longer depends on i, and can therefore be replaced by the symbol q. Gy's equation for the variance of the sampling error becomes:

V = \frac{1-q}{q M_\text{batch}^2} \sum_{i=1}^N m_{i}^{2} \left(a_i - a_\text{batch} \right)^2 .

where abatch is the concentration of the property of interest in the population from which the sample is to be drawn and Mbatch is the mass of the population from which the sample is to be drawn.


Homogeneous (chemistry)

A substance that is uniform in composition is a definition of homogeneous (IPA: /həmɔ�dʒɪnʌs, ho�modʒi�niʌs/) in Chemistry. This is in contrast to a substance that is heterogeneous. The definition of homogeneous strongly depends on the context used. In Chemistry, a homogeneous suspension of material means that when dividing the volume in half, the same amount of material is suspended in both halves of the substance. However, it might be possible to see the particles under a microscope. In Chemistry, another homogeneous substance is air. It is equally suspended, and the particles and gases and liquids cannot be analyzed separately or pulled apart.

Homogeneity of mixtures

In Chemistry, some mixtures are homogeneous. In other words, mixtures have the same proportions throughout a given sample or multiple samples of different proportion to create a consistent mixture. However, two homogeneous mixtures of the same pair of substances may differ widely from each other and can be homogenized to make a constant. Mixtures can be characterized by being separable by mechanical means e.g. heat, filtration, gravitational sorting, etc.

Solutions

A solution is a special type of homogeneous mixture. Solutions are homogeneous because, the ratio of solute to solvent remains the same throughout the solution even if homogenized with multiple sources, and stable because, the solute will not settle out, no matter how long the solution sits, and it cannot be removed by a filter or a centrifuge. This type of mixture is very stable, i.e., its particles do not settle, or separate. As homogeneous mixture, a solution has one phase (liquid) although the solute and solvent can vary: for example, salt water. In chemistry, a mixture is a substance containing two or more elements or compounds that are not chemically bound to each other but retain their own chemical and physical identities; - a substance which has two or more constituent chemical substances. Mixtures, in the broader sense, are two or more substances physically in the same place, but these are not chemically combined, and therefore ratios are not necessarily considered.



From Yahoo Answers

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Answers:Heterogeneous mixtures are mixtures in which the composition is not uniform: oil-and-vinegar salad dressing granite pizza Homogenous - mixtures in which the composition is uniform: Salt water brass (solid mixture of copper and zinc) margarine

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Answers:examples of elements, lead, potassium, mercury, hydrogen, helium, oxygen, carbon, chlorine. examples of homogenous mixtures A homogeneous mixture has the same uniform appearance and composition throughout. Many homogeneous mixtures are commonly referred to as solutions. A heterogeneous mixture consists of visibly different substances or phases. The three phases or states of matter are gas, liquid, and solid. Particle size distinguishes homogeneous solutions from other heterogeneous mixtures. Solutions have particles which are the size of atoms or molecules - too small to be seen. A colloid is a homogeneous solution with intermediate particle size between a solution and a suspension. Colloid particles may be seen in a beam of light such as dust in air in a "shaft" of sunlight. Milk, fog, and jello are examples of colloids. In contrast a suspension is a heterogeneous mixture of larger particles. These particles are visible and will settle out on standing. Examples of suspensions are: fine sand or silt in water or tomato juice. Corn oil is homogeneous, White vinegar is homogeneous. A sugar solution is homogeneous since only a colorless liquid is observed. Air with no clouds is homogeneous. heterogenous

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Answers:Homogeneous mixtures: They are mixtures in which the constituents don't appear separately 1. Blood 2. Sugar solution when sugar is completely dissolved. 3. Mixture of alcohol & water 4. A glass of orange juice 5.salty water (where the salt is completely dissolved) 6.brewed tea or coffee 7.soapy water 8.a dilute solution of hydrochloric acid 9.hard alcohol 10.wine Heterogenous mixtures: constituents appear seperatly 1. Oil & water. 2. Soil sample 3.sandy water 4.carbonated beverage or beer (the CO2 gas is mixed with the liquid) 5.orange juice with pulp in it water with ice cubes in it 6.chicken noodle soup 7. sand in a desert

Question:give 5 examples each

Answers:Homogenous mixtures have definite, true composition and propriety Examples are solutions 1 ) NaCl dissoving in water 2 ) sugar dissolving in water 3) Gold into mercury 4 ) water vapore in athmosphere 5 ) soft drinks where CO2 is trapped in the liquid Heterogenous mixtures are mixtures with definitr composition 1) granite 2) salad 3) trail 4) milk before homogenization 5) ponda

From Youtube

Heterogeneous and Homogeneous Mixture :Making strawberry milk (homogeneous mixture) and bowl of M&Ms (heterogeneous mixture).