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From Wikipedia

Herbivore

Herbivores are organisms that are adapted to eat plants. Herbivory is a form of predation in which an organismconsumes principally autotrophs such as plants, algae and photosynthesizing bacteria. More generally, organisms that feed on autotrophs in general are known as primary consumers. Comes from the Greek suffix "vora" (Greek -βό�α) meaning "which eat".

By strict interpretation of this definition, many fungi, some bacteria, many animals, some protists and a small number of parasitic plants might be considered herbivores. However, herbivory generally refers to animals eating plants. Fungi, bacteria and protists that feed on living plants are usually termed plant pathogens (plant diseases). Microbes that feed on dead plants are saprotrophs. Flowering plants that obtain nutrition from other living plants are usually termed parasitic plants.

Evolution of herbivory{{anchor|evolution}}

Our understanding of herbivory in geological time comes from three sources: fossilized plants, which may preserve evidence of defence (such as spines), or herbivory-related damage; the observation of plant debris in fossilised animal faeces; and the construction of herbivore mouthparts.

Long thought to be a Mesozoic phenomenon, evidence for herbivory is found almost as soon as fossils which could show it. Within under 20 million years of the first fossils of sporangia and stems towards the close of the Silurian, around , there is evidence that plants were being consumed by insects. Insects fed on the spores of early Devonian plants, and the Rhynie chert also provides evidence that organisms fed on plants using a "pierce and suck" technique.

Herbivory among terrestrial vertebrates (tetrapods) came much later. Early tetrapods were large amphibious piscivores. While amphibians continued to feed on fish and later insects, reptiles began exploring two new food types, tetrapods (carnivory), and later, plants (herbivory). Carnivory was a natural transition from insectivory for medium and large tetrapods, requiring minimal adaptation. In contrast, a complex set of adaptations was necessary for feeding on highly fibrous plant materials).

During the ensuing 75 million years, plants evolved a range of more complex organs - from roots to seeds. There is no evidence for these being fed upon until the middle-late Mississippian, . There was a gap of 50 to 100 million years between each organ evolving, and it being fed upon; this may be due to the low levels of oxygen during this period, which may have suppressed evolution. Further than their arthropod status, the identity of these early herbivores is uncertain. Hole feeding and skeletonisation are recorded in the early Permian, with surface fluid feeding evolving by the end of that period.

Arthropods have evolved herbivory in four phases, changing their approach to herbivory in response to changing plant communities.
Another stage of herbivore evolution is characterized by the evolution of tetrapod herbivores, with the first appearance in the fossil record near the Permio-Carboniferous boundary approximately 300 MYA. The earliest evidence of herbivory by tetrapod organisms is seen in fossils of jawbones where dental occlusion (process by which teeth from the upper jaw come in contact with those in the lower jaw) is present. The evolution of dental occlusion lead to a drastic increase in food processing associated with herbivory and provides direct evidence about feeding strategies based on tooth wear patterns. Examination of phylogenetic frameworks reveals that dental occlusion developed independently in several lineages through dental and mandibular morphologes, suggesting that the evolution and radiation of tetrapod herbivores occurred simultaneously within various lineages.

Food Chain

Herbivores form an important link in the food chain as they consume plants in order to receive the carbohydrates produced by a plant from photosynthesis. Carnivores in turn consume herbivores for the same reason, while omnivores can obtain their nutrients from either plants or herbivores. Due to an herbivore's ability to survive solely on tough and fibrous plant matter, they are termed the primary consumers in the food cycle(chain). Herbivory, carnivory, and omnivory and call be regarded as special cases of Consumer-Resource Systems .

Predator-prey Theory (herbivore-plant interactions)

According to the theory of predator-prey interactions, the relationship between herbivores and plants is cyclic. When prey (plants) are numerous their predators (herbivores) increase in numbers, reducing the prey population, which in turn causes predator number to decline. The prey population eventually recovers, starting a new cycle. This suggests that the population of the herbivore fluctuates around the carrying capacity of the food source, in this case the plant.

Several factors play into these fluctuating populations and help stabilize predator-prey dynamics. For example, spatial heterogeneity is maintained, which means there will always be pockets of plants not found by herbivores. This stabilizing dynamic plays an especially important role for specialist herbivores that feed on one species of plant and prevents these specialists from wiping out their food source. Prey defenses also help stabilize predator-prey dynamic, and for more information on these relationships see the section on Plant Defenses. Eating a second prey type helps herbivores’ populations stabilize. Alternating between two or more plant types provides population stability for the herbivore, while the populations of the plants oscillate. This plays an important role for generalist herbivores that eat variety of plants. Keystone herbivores keep vegetation populations in check and allow for a greater diversity of both herbivores and plants. When an i

Carnivores 2

Carnivores 2 is a first person shootingvideo game produced by Action Forms and released by WizardWorks Software in 1999. It is sequel of Carnivores and the second of the series.

Storyline

The DinoHunt Corp. has done it again! After further exploration of the strange dinosaur-infested planet, more islands have been opened to the growing number of customers hoping to experience the ultimate hunt.

Gameplay

This game is similar to Carnivores but with some changes. At start of the game you before must register a hunter or continue with a saved hunter. The point of the game is similar to the previous video game: hunting dinosaurs to get trophies and accumulate credits. A new hunter is given 100 credits. The player uses credits to select his hunting area, which dinosaurs he will hunt and what weapon he want to use. Each dinosaur, area, and weapon has its own cost, and the credits that the player has remaining determine what the player can and cannot bring on the hunt. When the player choose an item from the menu, other selections may become unavailable depending on his remaining credits. Available selections are highlighted in blue, selected items are yellow and unavailable items are gray. The player can easily have several dinosaurs to hunt, with several weapons selected at the same time as he advance in his hunting skills. As he hunt the selected dinosaurs, each successful kill will result in a number of credits added to his account. The player can kill more than one dinosaur per hunting expedition, allowing him to earn enough credits to move into more advanced areas with more expensive weapons and more dangerous dinosaurs. However, if the player is killed by a dinosaur, all credits accumulated on the specific hunt are forfeited. The player must be picked up by DinoHunt to keep the credits he earned. There are various methods of increasing or decreasing the credits per dinosaur. When the player kills or tranquilizes a dinosaur, he receive credits that are dependent on the type of dinosaur and on his selected equipment usage. For example, killing a dinosaur that was not selected in the menu will give only half of that dinosaur's total available credits. Tranquilizing rather than killing a dinosaur will increase player's credits per hunt by 25%. Also, using other items from the equipment list can also reduce credits received from the hunt. Radar, for example, will decrease by 30% the credits that the player receives on that particular hunt. First time hunters may wish to use the Observation Mode to familiarize themselves with dinosaur behaviour and different terrain.

Locations

Delapheus Hills: The smallest island on the tour. The rolling hills surround an enormous bay. Impassible mountains make deadly traps for the unwary. In the center of the island is a deep chasm and the deserted remains of a paleontology outpost.

Fort Ciskin: A good sized area consisting of dense pine forests encircling a murky swamps. In the southwest corner lies an abandoned settlement guarded by a towering "Dinosaur Wall", that now lies in ruins from the fury of a T-Rex.

Vengar Fjords: Lush pockets of vegetation, and thousands of inlets cover this area. This beautiful but treacherous piece of land includes an ancient volcano. The player must be careful when wandering the virtual maze of water and mountains created by glaciers milions of years ago.

Manya Jungle: Ringed with snow-capped mountains, this hunting area is rumored to be a nesting ground for some of the larger dinosaurs. Muddy marshes to the southwest, and a long abbandoned "Dinosaur Wall" make this one of the most mysterious areas on the tour.

Mount Ravan: This island, broken by waterways and mountains is the most difficult by far. The frozen peaks of Mt. Ravan overlook a thick tropical forest that may quickly become a deadly maze where hidden danger abounds. Be careful of the active lavaflow to the south as well.

Dinosaurs

Herbivores

Parasaurolophus"Crested Lizard"
Size: 15 to 24 feet in length
Weight: Up to 3.5 tons
Points: 5
Cost: 10 Credits

(Not Dangerous)

Ankylosaurus"Bent Lizard"
Size: 12 to 21 feet in length
Weight: Up to 2.5 tons
Diet: Plants
Points: 6
Costs: 15 Credits

(Not Dangerous)

Stegosaurus"Covered Lizard"
Size: 18 to 30 feet in length
Weight: Up to 7 tons
Diet: Plants
Points: 7
Cost: 20 Credits

(Not Dangerous)

Chasmosaurus"Cleft Lizard"
Size: 18 to 24 feet in length
Weight: Up to 4.5 tons
Diet: Fibrous Plants
Points: 9
Cost: 50 Credits
Note:The Chasmosaurus has three sharp horns that it uses to defend itself from predators. The player hopes it doesn't let it charge him!

(Dangerous If Wounded)

Carnivores

Allosaurus"Different Lizard"
Size: 12 to 18 feet in length
Weight: Up to 2.5 tons
Diet: Dinosaurs
Points: 10
Cost: 30 Credits

(Extremely Dangerous)

Velociraptor"Speedy Thief"
Size: 9 to 15 feet in length
Weight: Up to 2 tons
Diet: Dinosaurs
Points: 12
Cost: 100 Credits

(Extremely Dangerous)

Spinosaurus"Spiny Lizard"
Size: 12 to 18 feet in length
Weight: Up to 3 tons
Diet: Dinosaurs
Points: 15
Cost: 250 Credits

(Extremely Dangerous)

Ceratosaurus"Horn Lizard"
Size: 24 to 30 feet in length
Weight: Up to 6 tons
Diet: Dinosaurs
Points: 18
Cost: 300 Credits

(Extremely Dangerous)

Tyrannosaurus Rex"Tyrant Lizard King"
Size: 30 to 42 feet in length
Weight: Up to 8 tons
Diet: Everything that moves
Points: 25
Cost: 500 Credits
Note:The only way to kill a T-Rex is by shooting it in the eyes. This is an extremely dangerous dinosaur!

(Extremely Dangerous)

Each dinosaur will react to a hunter differently depending on its nature. Some are more adept at detecting player's scent, while others may see him in the distance, or hearing his footsteps. Once a dinosaur takes note of the player, a number of reactions can happen. Herbivores may run away or attack the player if they feel cornered. Carnivores may attack the player head on, or gather in an organized pack to flank the player and take him out. The player must keep in mind that regardless of which dinosaur he choose to hunt, there are others living on the island that do not appear on the radar. The player may be hunting a Stegosaurus and be surprised by a Velociraptor!

Other creatures

Moschops
From Yahoo Answers

Question:im writing a classification essay, and need a thesis staement (topic sentence) any suggestions, then i need a thesis for my next 3 paragraphs...so i need on for each (omnivores. herbivores, and carnivores) i know a little about them but can anyone please elaborate on them?

Answers:Omnivores are any animal that eat anything, humans for example are considered omnivores. Herbivires are animals that only eat plants, nothing else, giraffes for example. And Carnivores are animals that eat pure meat!! Like lions and crap! For a thesis statement you can put: Did you know that not all animals eat the same things?

Question:I know plants is not a carnivore or omnivore but is it an herbivore?

Answers:None of the above would be the best, single answer since plants are *autotrophs* (any organism capable of self-nourishment) capable of photosynthesis. However, some plants are also carnivorous - e.g. Venus flytrap Carnivores, herbivores, and omnivores are classified as *heterotrophs.* Here are some carnivorous plants - http://carnivoreplants.net/

Question:I found this online: From "The Comparative Anatomy of Eating", by Milton R. Mills, MD Facial Muscles CARNIVORE: Reduced to allow wide mouth gape HERBIVORE: Well-developed OMNIVORE: Reduced HUMAN: Well-developed Jaw Type CARNIVORE: Angle not expanded HERBIVORE: Expanded angle OMNIVORE: Angle not expanded HUMAN: Expanded angle Jaw Joint Location CARNIVORE: On same plane as molar teeth HERBIVORE: Above the plane of the molars OMNIVORE: On same plane as molar teeth HUMAN: Above the plane of the molars Jaw Motion CARNIVORE: Shearing; minimal side-to-side motion HERBIVORE: No shear; good side-to-side, front-to-back OMNIVORE: Shearing; minimal side-to-side HUMAN: No shear; good side-to-side, front-to-back Major Jaw Muscles CARNIVORE: Temporalis HERBIVORE: Masseter and pterygoids OMNIVORE: Temporalis HUMAN: Masseter and pterygoids Mouth Opening vs. Head Size CARNIVORE: Large HERBIVORE: Small OMNIVORE: Large HUMAN: Small Teeth: Incisors CARNIVORE: Short and pointed HERBIVORE: Broad, flattened and spade shaped OMNIVORE: Short and pointed HUMAN: Broad, flattened and spade shaped Teeth: Canines CARNIVORE: Long, sharp and curved HERBIVORE: Dull and short or long (for defense), or none OMNIVORE: Long, sharp and curved HUMAN: Short and blunted Teeth: Molars CARNIVORE: Sharp, jagged and blade shaped HERBIVORE: Flattened with cusps vs complex surface OMNIVORE: Sharp blades and/or flattened HUMAN: Flattened with nodular cusps Chewing CARNIVORE: None; swallows food whole HERBIVORE: Extensive chewing necessary OMNIVORE: Swallows food whole and/or simple crushing HUMAN: Extensive chewing necessary Saliva CARNIVORE: No digestive enzymes HERBIVORE: Carbohydrate digesting enzymes OMNIVORE: No digestive enzymes HUMAN: Carbohydrate digesting enzymes Stomach Type CARNIVORE: Simple HERBIVORE: Simple or multiple chambers OMNIVORE: Simple HUMAN: Simple Stomach Acidity CARNIVORE: Less than or equal to pH 1 with food in stomach HERBIVORE: pH 4 to 5 with food in stomach OMNIVORE: Less than or equal to pH 1 with food in stomach HUMAN: pH 4 to 5 with food in stomach Stomach Capacity CARNIVORE: 60% to 70% of total volume of digestive tract HERBIVORE: Less than 30% of total volume of digestive tract OMNIVORE: 60% to 70% of total volume of digestive tract HUMAN: 21% to 27% of total volume of digestive tract Length of Small Intestine CARNIVORE: 3 to 6 times body length HERBIVORE: 10 to more than 12 times body length OMNIVORE: 4 to 6 times body length HUMAN: 10 to 11 times body length Colon CARNIVORE: Simple, short and smooth HERBIVORE: Long, complex; may be sacculated OMNIVORE: Simple, short and smooth HUMAN: Long, sacculated Liver CARNIVORE: Can detoxify vitamin A HERBIVORE: Cannot detoxify vitamin A OMNIVORE: Can detoxify vitamin A HUMAN: Cannot detoxify vitamin A Kidney CARNIVORE: Extremely concentrated urine HERBIVORE: Moderately concentrated urine OMNIVORE: Extremely concentrated urine HUMAN: Moderately concentrated urine Nails CARNIVORE: Sharp claws HERBIVORE: Flattened nails or blunt hooves OMNIVORE: Sharp claws HUMAN: Flattened nails This sounds pretty convincing to me, but everywhere else it seems to be insisted that human beings are meant to be omnivores. Gorillas are the closest animal to humans and there herbivores. Give me some info. How do you feel about that info up there?

Answers:I think the definition of omnivore is simply that we eat both meat and veggies. It's a functional definition, despite what our anatomy may tell us. I think a lot of those physiological traits of omnivores/carnivores were bypassed in humans due to the fact we use tools, cook our meat and have other means that do not require us to have sharp claws or the typical carnivore digestive tract. No one can say whether we were MEANT to be omnivores or not, but there are plenty of humans who are either omnivores or herbivores and are perfectly healthy. Also, I think chimps, not gorillas are the closest living relatives of humans and they are omnivores.

Question:and decomposer (last word)

Answers:Okay...lets see. GRASS ------> RABBIT -------> BEAR -------> LION -------> BACTERIA ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ producer herbivore omnivore carnivore decomposer ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ (are greens)(eats greens)(eats meat&green)(eats meat)("clean-up crew)

From Youtube

Humans are Herbivores: Dr. William Clifford Roberts-3 :I'm afraid that most of us conduct our lives as if we were omnivores, in that we eat flesh, and we also eat vegetables and fruit. But there's no question as some philosophers indicated 2000 years ago that human beings are far more like herbivores than carnivores. Greetings, vibrant viewers, to today's edition of Healthy Living featuring an esteemed vegan cardiologist from the United States, Dr. William Clifford Roberts. In the following excerpts from an interview with Dr. Roberts, he discusses how the diet we choose often determines whether we live a life of wellness and vitality or suffer from one or many of the devastating chronic or so-called "lifestyle" diseases that are now prevalent throughout the world...

Humans are Herbivores: Dr. William Clifford Roberts-1 :www.suprememastertv.com I'm afraid that most of us conduct our lives as if we were omnivores, in that we eat flesh, and we also eat vegetables and fruit. But there's no question as some philosophers indicated 2000 years ago that human beings are far more like herbivores than carnivores. Greetings, vibrant viewers, to today's edition of Healthy Living featuring an esteemed vegan cardiologist from the United States, Dr. William Clifford Roberts. In the following excerpts from an interview with Dr. Roberts, he discusses how the diet we choose often determines whether we live a life of wellness and vitality or suffer from one or many of the devastating chronic or so-called "lifestyle" diseases that are now prevalent throughout the world...