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Examples of Haloalkanes

The organic compounds which are composed of carbon and hydrogen atoms, known as hydrocarbons. They can be classified as aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons. The aliphatic hydrocarbons such as alkanes, alkenes, alkynes are composed of carbon and hydrogen which are bonded in straight or branched manner. On the basis of single, double and triple covalent bonds, aliphatic hydrocarbons are classified as alkanes, alkenes and alkynes. Alkanes have only single covalent bond between carbon atoms such as methane, ethane, butane etc. Alkenes have at least one double bond between two carbon atoms like ethene, propene etc.

The alkyne molecule has triple covalent bond between two carbon atoms.
The aromatic hydrocarbons are cyclic compounds with delocalised electron system such as benzene. Aliphatic or aromatic compounds contain some functional groups which provide some unique characterises to the molecules.

Some common examples of functional groups are hydroxyl group in alcohol, halo group in haloalkanes and haloarenes, carbonyl group in aldehyde and ketone etc. If halo group like chloro, fluoro, bromo or iodo is directly bonded with the alkyl group, it is called as haloalkanes.

Similarly haloarenes have halo group directly bonded on aromatic ring. On the basis of different types of halo groups, haloalkanes can be classified as chloroalkane, fluoroalkane, iodoalkane and bromoalkane.

Haloalkanes are more reactive compare to alkane due to the presence of halogen group on the carbon atom of alkyl group. The haloalkanes or halogeno-alkanes are halogen derivatives of alkanes. According to the number of halogen atoms in the molecule, haloalkanes can be mono, di, tri, etc. types. The monohalogen alkyl halides are classified as methyl, primary, secondary, or tertiary depending upon the number of alkyl groups attached to the carbon bearing the halogen.

A methyl halide has no alkyl group therefore it is an example of primary halide whereas a secondary halide has two and a tertiary halide has three alkyl groups attached to the carbon bearing the halogen. This character is decided by ( 3-n)°, where ‘n’ is the number of  H-atoms at the carbon with halogen atoms. In di-halogen derivatives, when both the halogen atoms are attached to the same carbon atom, they are said to be in gemical position. They are called alkylidene halide. When the two halogen atoms are on the adjacent carbon atoms, they are said to be in the vicinal position. When the halogen atoms are at each of the terminal carbon atoms, they are named as poly-methylene halide. In allylic halides, the halogen is attached to a sp3 hybridised carbon atom, next to the carbon-carbon double bond.

Similarly benzylic halides are the compounds in which the halogen atom is bonded to a sp3-hybridised carbon atom next to an aromatic ring.
In these organic halides, halogen atom attached to sp2 hybridised carbon atom. It includes vinylic halide and benzylic halide. Vinylic halides are the compounds in which the halogen atom is bonded to a sp2-hybridised carbon atom of a carbon-carbon double bond. In aryl halide or haloarene, the halogen atom is bonded to the sp2-hybridised carbon atom of an aromatic ring.