examples of fractional distillation
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Fractional distillation is the separation of a mixture into its component parts, or fractions, such as in separating chemical compounds by their boiling point by heating them to a temperature at which several fractions of the compound will evaporate. It is a special type of distillation. Generally the component parts boil at less than 25 Â°C from each other under a pressure of one atmosphere (atm). If the difference in boiling points is greater than 25 Â°C, a simple distillation is used.
Fractional distillation in a laboratory makes use of common laboratory glassware and apparatuses, typically including a Bunsen burner, a round-bottomed flask and a condenser, as well as the single-purpose fractionating column.
- heat source, such as a hot plate with a bath, and ideally with a magnetic stirrer.
- distilling flask, typically a round-bottom flask
- receiving flask, often also a round-bottom flask
- fractionating column
- distillation head
- thermometer and adapter if needed
- condenser, such as a Liebig condenser, Graham condenser or Allihn condenser
- vacuum adapter (not used in image to the right)
- boiling chips, also known as anti-bumping granules
- Standard laboratory glassware with ground glass joints, e.g. quickfit apparatus.
As an example, consider the distillation of a mixture of water and ethanol. Ethanol boils at 78.4 Â°C while water boils at 100 Â°C. So, by gently heating the mixture, the most volatile component will concentrate to a greater degree in the vapor leaving the liquid. Some mixtures form azeotropes, where the mixture boils at a lower temperature than either component. In this example, a mixture of 96% ethanol and 4% water boils at 78.2 Â°C, being more volatile than pure ethanol. For this reason, ethanol cannot be completely purified by direct fractional distillation of ethanol-water mixtures.
The apparatus is assembled as in the diagram. (The diagram represents a batch apparatus, as opposed to a continuous apparatus.) The mixture is put into the round bottomed flask along with a few anti-bumping granules (or a Teflon coated magnetic stirrer bar if using magnetic stirring), and the fractionating column is fitted into the top. As the mixture boils, vapor rises up the column. The vapor condenses on the glass platforms, known as trays, inside the column, and runs back down into the liquid below, refluxing distillate. The column is heated from the bottom. The efficiency in terms of the amount of heating and time required to get fractionation can be improved by insulating the outside of the column in an insulator such as wool, aluminium foil or preferably a vacuum jacket. The hottest tray is at the bottom and the coolest is at the top. At steady state conditions, the vapor and liquid on each tray are at equilibrium. Only the most volatile of the vapors stays ingaseous form all the way to the top. The vapor at the top of the column, then passes into the condenser, which cools it down until it liquefies. The separation is more pure with the addition of more trays (to a practical limitation of heat, flow, etc.) The condensate that was initially very close to the azeotrope composition becomes gradually richer in water. The process continues until all the ethanol boils out of the mixture. This point can be recognized by the sharp rise in temperature shown on the thermometer.
Typically the example above now only reflects the theoretical way fractionation works. Normal laboratory fractionation columns will be simple glass tubes (often vacuum jacketed, and sometimes internally silvered) filled with a packing, often small glass helices of 4 to 7 mm diameter. Such a column can be calibrated by the distillation of a known mixture system to quantify the column in terms of number of theoretical plates. To improve fractionation the apparatus is set up to return condensate to the column by the use of some sort of reflux splitter (reflux wire, gago, Magnetic swinging bucket, etc.) - a typical careful fractionation would employ a reflux ratio of around 10:1 (10 parts returned condensate to 1 part condensate take off).
In laboratory distillation, several types of condensers are commonly found. The Liebig condenser is simply a straight tube within a water jacket, and is the simplest (and relatively least expensive) form of condenser. The Graham condenser is a spiral tube within a water jacket, and the Allihn condenser has a series of large and small constrictions on the inside tube, each increasing the surface area upon which the vapor co
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Answers:This is really quite simple for you to construct as once liquefied, the gases simply boil off in order of their boiling points. You don't say what level you want to do this at eg as normal or are you trying to separate individual rare gases like Kr as well. The necessary detail can be found by searching on the individual gases. The basic stages for your diagram are : 1] Air is filtered to remove dust 2] Water vapour condenses, and is removed using absorbent filters 3]carbon dioxide freezes at 79 C, and is removed 4] It is then cooled in stages until it reaches 200 C. At this temperature it is a liquid. 5] The liquid nitrogen and oxygen are then separated by fractional distillation. 6] nitrogen boils off first at 196 C 7] oxygen then boils off at 183 C
Answers:glass beads providing large surface area,hence condesation more effective.
Answers:1: Yes, the mixture of sand and water can be heated to drive off the water as vapour. If the water is required, the process can be carried out as a simple distillation process where the separated water vapour (steam) can be recondensed. (The easiest way is to filter the sand out of the mixture and dry it). 2: Alcohol and water solution (mixture) can also be separated by the same process according to the difference in the boiling temperatures of the alcohol and water. (This is the process used to produce Ethanol (drinking alcohol) from a fermented sugar solution) The temperature of the system must be carefully controlled at the boiling temperature of the lightest component by a 'Reflux System' which will condense and return heavier vapour from the distillate to the distillation flask. The rest of the vapour, high in the lighter fraction, goes on to the condensation and recovery stage. For purity, the condensate should be re-distilled 2 or 3 times.
Answers:I think this should be the calculation: Total yield = (40.24/100 x 7.896g) + (10.69/100 x 7.901g) + (66.47/100 x 7.800g)