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Children's literature

Children's literature is for readers and listeners up to about age twelve and is often illustrated. The term is used in senses which sometimes exclude young-adult fiction, comic books, or other genres. Books specifically for children existed by the 17th century. Scholarship on children's literature includes professional organizations, dedicated publications and university courses.

Defining children's literature

There is some debate on what constitutes children's literature.

Books written by children
A much-overlooked kind of children's literature is work written by children and young teens, such as The Young Visiters by Daisy Ashford (aged nine) or the juvenilia of Jane Austen, written to amuse brothers and sisters. Anne Frank wrote a novel and many short stories in addition to her diary. Barbara Newhall Follett wrote four books, beginning with a novel called The House Without Windows at the age of nine; when the manuscript was destroyed in a fire, she rewrote it from memory. In 1937 two schoolchildren, Pamela Whitlock and Katharine Hull sent their manuscript of The Far-Distant OxustoArthur Ransome, who persuaded his publisher Jonathan Cape to produce it, characterising it as "the best children's book of 1937". Dorothy Straight's How the World Began and S.E. Hinton's The Outsiders are more recent examples.

Books written for children
Perhaps the most common definition of children's literature is those books intentionally written for children. Nancy Anderson, associate professor in the College of Education at the University of South Florida in Tampa, defines children's literature as all books written for children, "excluding works such as comic books, joke books, cartoon books, and nonfiction works that are not intended to be read from front to back, such as dictionaries, encyclopedias, and other reference material". Some of this work is also very popular among adults. J. K. Rowling's Harry Potter series was originally written and marketed for children, but it was so popular among children and adults that The New York Timescreated a separatebestseller list. Often no consensus is reached whether a given work is best categorized as adult or children's literature, and many books are marketed for both adults and children.

Books chosen for children
The most restrictive definition of children's literature are those books various authorities determine are "appropriate" for children, such as teachers, reviewers, scholars, parents, publishers, librarians, retailers, and the various book-award committees.

Parents wishing to protect their children from the unhappier aspects of life often find the traditional fairy tales, nursery rhymes and other voyages of discovery problematic, because often the first thing a story does is remove the adult influence, leaving the central character to learn to cope on his or her own: prominent examples of this include Snow White,Hansel and Gretel,BambiandA Series of Unfortunate Events.

Many see such isolation of child characters from supporting adults as necessary preparation for the transition to adulthood. The school story became a common device for this, beginning with Tom Brown's Schooldays (1857) by Thomas Hughes and F.W. Farrar's Eric, or, Little by Little, although the framework had been explored as early as 1749 bySarah Fielding in The Governess, or The Little Female Academy. Life begins for Tom Sawyer and Huckleberry Finn in theMark Twain stories (1876 and 1885) once Aunt Polly's ineffectual tutelage is shaken off. In the classic British novels Tom's Midnight Garden(Philippa Pearce, 1958) and Jessamy(Barbara Sleigh, 1967), for example, the responsibility is enhanced by isolating the child not just spatially, but in time, through the use of time slip. Arthur Ransome used the device of children acting for themselves extensively in his Swallows and Amazons series (1930–48) and included poignant discussion of it (the "duffer" question in Swallows and AmazonsandSwallowdale).

Books chosen by children
The broadest definition of children's literature applies to books that are actually selected and read by children. Children choose many books, such as comics, which some would not consider to be literature at all in the traditional sense; they also choose literary classics and recognized great works by modern writers, and often enjoy stories which speak on multiple levels. In the opinion of novelist Orson Scott Card, "one can make a good case for the idea that children are often the guardians of the truly great literature of the world, for in their love of story and unconcern for stylistic fads and literary tricks, children unerri

Diary - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

1 History; 2 Published diaries; 3 Journal writing software; 4 Internet diaries.... For example, some diary software now stores entries in encrypted format, ...

Dairy farming

Dairy farming is a class of agricultural, or an animal husbandry, enterprise, for long-term production of milk, usually from dairy cows but also from goats and sheep, which may be either processed on-site or transported to a dairy factory for processing and eventual retail sale.

Most dairy farms sell the male calves born by their cows, usually for veal production, or breeding depending on quality of the bull calf, rather than raising non-milk-producing stock. Many dairy farms also grow their own feed, typically including corn, alfalfa, and hay. This is fed directly to the cows, or is stored as silage for use during the winter season.


Dairy farming has been part of agriculture for thousands of years. Historically it has been one part of small, diverse farms. In the last century or so larger farms doing only dairy production have emerged. Large scale dairy farming is only viable where either a large amount of milk is required for production of more durable dairy products such as cheese, butter, etc or there is a substantial market of people with cash to buy milk, but no cows of their own.

Hand milking

Centralized dairy farming as we understand it primarily developed around villages and cities, where residents were unable to have cows of their own due to a lack of grazing land. Near the town, farmers could make some extra money on the side by having additional animals and selling the milk in town. The dairy farmers would fill barrels with milk in the morning and bring it to market on a wagon. Until the late 19th century, the milking of the cow was done by hand. In the United States, several large dairy operations existed in some northeastern states and in the west, that involved as many as several hundred cows, but an individual milker could not be expected to milk more than a dozen cows a day. Smaller operations predominated.

For most herds, milking took place indoors twice a day, in a barn with the cattle tied by the neck with ropes or held in place by stanchions. Feeding could occur simultaneously with milking in the barn, although most dairy cattle were pastured during the day between milkings. Such examples of this method of dairy farming are difficult to locate, but some are preserved as a historic site for a glimpse into the days gone by. One such instance that is open for this is at Point ReyesNational Seashore.

Vacuum bucket milking

The first milking machines were an extension of the traditional milking pail. The early milker device fit on top of a regular milk pail and sat on the floor under the cow. Following each cow being milked, the bucket would be dumped into a holding tank. This developed into the Surge hanging milker. Prior to milking a cow, a large wide leather strap called a surcingle was put around the cow, across the cow's lower back. The milker device and collection tank hung underneath the cow from the strap. This innovation allowed the cow to move around naturally during the milking process rather than having to stand perfectly still over a bucket on the floor.

With the availability of electric power and suction milking machines, the production levels that were possible in stanchion barns increased but the scale of the operations continued to be limited by the labor intensive nature of the milking process. Attaching and removing milking machines involved repeated heavy lifting of the machinery and its contents several times per cow and the pouring of the milk into milk cans. As a result, it was rare to find single-farmer operations of more than 50 head of cattle.

Step-Saver milk transport

As herd size began to increase, the bucket milker system became laborious. A vacuum milk-transport system known as the Step-Saver was developed to transport milk to the storage tank. The system used a long vacuum hose coiled around a receiver cart, and connected to a vacuum-breaker device in the milkhouse, allowing farmers to milk many cows without the necessity of walking increasingly longer distances carrying heavy buckets of milk.

Milking pipeline

The next innovation in automatic milking was the milk pipeline. This uses a permanent milk-return pipe and a second vacuum pipe that encircles the barn or milking parlor above the rows of cows, with quick-seal entry ports above each cow. By eliminating the need for the milk container, the milking device shrank in size and weight to the point where it could hang under the cow, held up only by the sucking force of the milker nipples on the cow's udder. The milk is pulled up into the milk-return pipe by the vacuum system, and then flows by gravity to the milkhouse vacuum-breaker that puts the milk in the storage tank. The pipeline system greatly reduced the physical labor of milking since the farmer no longer needed to carry around huge heavy buckets of milk from each cow.

The pipeline allowed barn length to keep increasing and expanding, but after a point farmers started to milk the cows in large groups, filling the barn with one-half to one-third of the herd, milking the animals, and then emptying and refilling the barn. As herd sizes continued to increase, this evolved into the more efficient milking parlor.

Milking parlors

Innovation in milking focused on mechanizing the milking parlor to maximize throughput of cows per operator which streamlined the milking process to permit cows to be milked as if on an assembly line, and to reduce physical stresses on the farmer by putting the cows on a platform slightly above the person milking the cows to eliminate having to constantly bend over. Many older and smaller farms still have tie-stall or stanchion barns, but worldwide a majority of commercial farms have parlors.

The milking parlor allowed a concentration of money into a small area, so that more technical monitoring and measuring equipment could be devoted to each milking station in the parlor. Rather than simply milking into a common pipeline for example, the parlor can be equipped with fixed measurement systems that monitor milk volume and record milking statistics for each animal. Tags on the animals allow the parlor system to automatically identify each animal as it enters the parlor.

Recessed parlors

More modern farms use recessed parlors, where the milker stands in a recess such that his arms are at the level of the cow's udder. Recessed parlors can be herringbone, where the cows stand in two angled rows either side of the recess and the milker accesses the udder from the side, parallel, where the cows stand side-by-side and the milker accesses the udder from the rear or, more recently, rotary (or carousel), where the cows are on a raised circular platform, facing the center of the circle, and the platform rotates while the milker

Activity book

An activity book is a type of book, generally aimed at children, which contains interactive content such as games, puzzles, quizzes, pictures to colour and other elements which involve writing or drawing in the book itself. The book may, or may not, have a loose narrative or contain other non-interactive elements structured around the interactive elements. Activity books may be made for entertainment, education or a mixture of both.

Specific types of activity book include colouring books and puzzle books. A book is normally referred to as an activity book if it combines a variety of interactive elements and does not fall neatly into one of these more specific categories.


Where's Wally?

The Where's Wally series of books (known as Where's Waldo in the USA) by Martin Handford consists of both puzzle books, where the reader must search for characters hidden in pictures, and activity books such as Where's Waldo?: The Ultimate Fun Book, which include a wider range of games and activities as well as the normal puzzles.

Horrible Histories

The Horrible Histories series by Terry Deary, and its spin-offs, include a number of educational activity books.

Diary of a Wimpy Kid

The Diary of a Wimpy Kid Do-It-Yourself Book by Jeff Kinney is an activity book which contains space for readers to keep a written or drawn diary or journal as well Wimpy Kid-themedas puzzles and cartoons.

From Yahoo Answers

Question:Hi, I'm just doing a report about World War 1 and I was wondering if anyone has any primary source material which can be diary entries, photos, songs, cartoons, letters.. etc.. I've looked on google but I'm struggling to find what I need. I need sources that relate to going to War, on the battlefield (trench warfare), death/injury, coming home and after the war. Thanks!

Answers:Well can you a few of my favorite sites but be aware a few of them have pop ups that annoy the c out of me.. http://www.collectionscanada.ca/first-world-war/interviews/025015-1500-e.html example of an interview http://www.collectionscanada.ca/first-world-war/interviews/025015-1510-e.html """Q. How does a new man get himself killed? A. He's nervous, they didn't know where they were going to and they didn't know how to walk, how to grab things. The first noise, the first thing they could hear, they wanted to see it. Instead it was the opposite thing, they had to head down first and wait after and that's where our great casualties were coming from and that's what we had to prevent and that was the training that we did for our soldiers. Q. Were you nervous when you were a private? A. No, I would not say that I was nervous. I was like all the others. I would not say that we were afraid to be killed but we were trying to make a good service, what we had there to do. Altogether, everybody did a good job out of that but there was that special training that we had to pass to the others, the men coming through trenches. You knew something better and they could carry on better. Q. Well, instead of teaching them how to defeat the enemy, you taught them how to stay alive. A. No, in doing their work they were staying alive. No one could say that you were sure of going there and coming back. That was a bad policy. Anyone who said he was going there to be decorated, he was drawn back right away because he was not a good fighter, he was not a good man. We were there trying to make the best of it. Making the best of it is to organize our lives, that was the main thing. Q. It was a difficult life. A. A very difficult life. First, a soldier had to be happy. To be happy he had to be well-fed but in trenches we cannot expect that because we did not have the food and we could not even cook the food that we had so we had to make the best of it. That's part of the character that we had to go through. In making the men happy we could see what was going on and try to live through it, not in trying to save lives but he was saving his life in being cautious because dead men were no use for the army. We had to do what we had to do and do it in the right way.""" http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/FWWtrench.htm http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/ and a particularly good Diary site http://www.firstworldwar.com/diaries/index.htm an example http://www.firstworldwar.com/diaries/edwinjones.htm """January 17th 1916 Entered the Persian Gulf - a sight never to be forgotten. The boat was only allowed to go very slowly, and we could see all the Palm Groves and native houses - of course, some palaces. We were greeted with many cheers, and even the smallest children raced alongside the River Tigris asking for pennies. January 20th 1916 Came alongside of quay at Basrah, and oh, what a terrible night! Started to unload all heavy stuff, and managed to get same on shore when a terrible storm started. Poured with rain, and thundering and lightening. Had to go on shore and do duty on guard. Reed was with me, but it was impossible to keep dry or warm. At 9 p.m. the Sergeant-in-Charge came, and said we were to go back on board, but the difficulty was to get there. Sergeant went up the rope-ladder first and I followed, but Reed was too frightened to climb, so we had to lower a rope to pull him along. Slept on board.""" http://lu.softxs.ch/mackay/RLM_Diary.html And with a Song in my Soul I pass along link and a few snippets, therre is a nig list of songs! http://nfo.net/usa/ww1.html """"America Here's My Boy", The Peerless Quartet's hit. "America, I Love You", Edgar Leslie lyric and Archie Gottlier music. (Kalmar & Puck Music Co., 142 West 45th St., NYC 1915) "And He'd Say "Oo-La-La Wee-Wee", A Harry Ruby and George Jessel (1919) tune was a big Billy Murray (and others) vocal hit "Belgian Rose", (digitally re-engineered by Mr. Verne Buland) Singers Campbell and Burr had the hit. "Beside a Belgian Water Tank" "Bombed!" "Coast Artillery Song" "Darktown Strutters Ball, The" "Dixie is Dixie Once Again" "Don't Bite The Hand That's Feeding You" "Don't Cry Frenchy, Don't Cry", A duet by Charles Hart/Elliott Shaw was a hit. "" But CARTOONS are my favorite http://rutlandhs.k12.vt.us/jpeterso/uboatcar.htm http://www.trinity.wa.edu.au/plduffyrc/subjects/sose/coop/posters.htm http://www.firstworldwar.com/poetsandprose/bairnsfather.htm Hope this helps - - - never know if I have done enough not enough or way to much! Peace

Question:Be honest. Here are the requirements for my review. Heading - This section should include your name, date, teacher, book title, etc. Introduction - Tell what you are getting ready to discuss and describe how the book is organized; minimum of one paragraph. Summary - This will be the longest portion of your paper and will summarize the chapters of the book; this section should be a minimum of ten paragraphs. Opinion/Review Statement - This is the section where you give your opinion of the book and whether or not you would recommend it to others; make sure to provide evidence and examples to support your opinion; this sections should be a minimum of one paragraph. Im only 13 by the way. Here is my review. A book review about The Diary of a Young Girl by Anne Frank by Kelsey Cook. Teacher is Molly Dyer. 3\1\10. The past two weeks I have read the book The Diary of a Young Girl by Anne Frank. This book is about a 13 year old Jewish girl named Anne Frank. This book is a collection of diary entrees written by Anne during the holocaust. These entrees are written from when Anne was 13 until she was 15 years of age. In her diary Anne writes about the difficulties while living in hiding and the proses of growing up and learning new things about life, and about herself. The story opens up with Anne's 13th birthday. She tells of how she got her diary for her birthday and all the wonderful things she did for her birthday. She also describes all of her close friends and says that she really can't confide in any of them and hopes she can confide in her diary instead. Anne lives in Amsterdam, Netherlands and goes to a Jewish school. She has a very happy life living with her mother, Edith Frank, her father, Otto Frank, and her sister Margot. Then all of the sudden Anne's life is turned upside down. The Nazis start to invade the Netherlands. The Frank's are forced to go into hiding. They go to Otto Frank's business building and take refuge in the attic. Their friends the Van Daans join them with there son Peter. Mr. Dussel, a old dentist, joins them as well. Their hiding place is concealed with a swinging bookcase that only they, and the people who are hiding, them know about. Anne finds that living in hiding isn't as easy as she thought it would be. She sees that living in a confide area where you have to be as quiet as a mouse builds up tension between people. Anne feels like everyone has chosen her to pick on and make fun of. Everything she does is criticized by the adults of the Secret Annex as Anne calls it. Mrs. Van Daan is always saying that Anne is to young to be talking the way she does or to young to be reading the books that she does. This upsets Anne greatly and writes down all of her feelings in her beloved diary that she has now named Kitty. Anne gets very annoyed with everybody everyday now. Nobody understands her and nobody cares about her. She can not confide in anyone at all because she feels like they would all just criticize her. Another reason for annoyance is the fact that all the adults argue amongst themselves about the tiniest things. Anne feels like they are being hypocrites by criticizing her but then going back and doing wrong things themselves. There are many robberies at the office building. The thiefes have been stealing food from the ware house that they need to survive. As well as expensive items from the offices. There has also been a lot of bomings and air rades at night. These scare Anne a great deal and cause her to worry for her life and the lives of the others. Everything is the same day in and day out. Anne is very bored and tiresome of her school work and longs to go outside and enjoy nature, but she can not leave because the danger is to great. She also longs to have a true friend that she can confide in and trust. She is tired of the quarels between the adults and wishes she could get away from it all. She just wants to be a normal average girl again. Anne is seeing that Peter is starting to come out of his shell more and more everyday. She thinks that he is truely funny and could be a great person if he wasnt so shy all the time. Life is the same each and everyday and Anne is still very tired of it. She is starting to become very depressed and is having to take pills for it. She wishes things could just be happy and normal again. Anne is starting to see that if you are just happy in the circumstances you are in then life is better all the way around. She is trying to be nice to everybody and in exchange is not having to take her anti-depressant pills anymore. She has decided to talk to Peter and to try and be friends with him and it is going very well. They have a lot more in common than she thought. He is still very shy and timid around her though. Anne is very good friends with Peter now. They go to the loft of the attic everyday now and talk. Life is brightening up for Anne and she is much happier and is loving life now. Anne is

Answers:Its very good so far, I didn't get bored reading which is a good thing :'L! It was interesting, I am doing the Nazis in history just now. There are a few spelling mistakes which can easily be sorted. These are most of them if not all of them (these are them corrected). entries process thieves bombings an old dentist truly :')

Question:I have to write one myself and I like some examples to look at :D

Answers:You can use the Renaissance Learning site to check the word count of a lot of books, so if you can think of short books for young children, plug in the titles and see if they have the info. (FYI to the person suggesting Diary of a Wimpy Kid, that is more like 20,000 words.) I've linked to the site in my sources. Here are a few I thought of and looked up for you, in the general range: Amelia Bedelia Helps Out (1742 words) http://tinyurl.com/yzg59gc Stellaluna (1463) http://tinyurl.com/yle28kb The Enormous Crocodile (2871 words) http://tinyurl.com/yjozlbf I'd say go to the library and look around in the kids' section to get an idea of how they're written and how long they are-- and if you'd like to know specific word counts, you can use the library computers to plug in a few titles to the renlearn site.

Question:Asperger's Syndrome, Part 6 by Michael McCroskery Child Development and Asperger's Syndrome Cognitive and social skills, which shape personality and character, develop throughout life. However, genetic or environmental obstacles can obstruct development, especially early in life. One such obstacle is Asperger s Syndrome. Asperger's Syndrome (or AS) is a congenital neurobiological condition that affects 0.25% of the population. AS is linked to autism spectrum disorder, and includes autistic-like behavior and marked deficiencies in social and communication skills. AS individuals are of average to above average intelligence, some with unusual gifts and creativity. As a diagnosis, it has been known in Europe since the 1940's, but has only been included in our medical diagnostic manuals since 1994. Thus many adults and children remain undiagnosed. Consequently AS is relatively unknown and not clearly understood, even among professionals. AS is indeed a puzzle, and researchers are working to identify the pieces and form them into a meaningful picture. My experiences as an adult recently diagnosed with Asperger's, together with my studies in child development, suggest that individuals with AS are like young children--stuck in time, so to speak, never able to advance beyond early stages in social, cognitive and language development. For example, most AS difficulties center around social competencies. A salient characteristic of young children is egocentrism--the inability to recognize that other people think and feel differently than oneself. Persons with Asperger's Syndrome remain in this egocentric state, unable to interpret the thoughts and emotions of others, or to experience empathy. Another name given to this condition is "mind blindness"--the incapacity to visualize the mind states of others. Thus it is hard for AS individuals to develop normal friendships, as either children or adults. Without empathy, they become emotionally stunted. A related problem is the inability to carry out social referencing through understanding nonverbal cues, such as facial expressions or body language. Such cues are "invisible" to those with AS. A piece of the AS puzzle related to cognitive skills is attentiveness. "Attention span" is the number of mental elements that one can remember at any given time. During preschool years children exhibit "centration," focusing on one piece of information at a time, and briefly at that. The ability to process several elements simultaneously, or to remain focused on a task, comes with greater cognitive sophistication. Unfortunately, the tendency towards centration seems to remain with the AS individual into adulthood. One diagnosis commonly given prior to accurate diagnosis with Asperger's Syndrome is "attention deficit disorder." A third part of the Asperger's puzzle relates to language. An early stage of language development includes "telegraphic speech"-- abbreviated speech in which words not essential to the meaning of a sentence are omitted. People with AS seem not to develop beyond this stage, further stunting their communication skills. The easy flow of spontaneous social conversation is usually beyond their capacities. They must learn social "scripts" through special training and repetition. Even then, AS speech tends to be stilted and formal. Also, children in early stages of language development are quite literal. Figurative use of language, symbolic representation, nuances and double meanings are a later development. Once again, the individual with Asperger's remains in a childhood realm--that of literalism. Linguistic sophistications such as jokes, puns and idioms are hard for AS individuals to grasp. Even the most basic of social interactions become a confusing and humiliating experience. Understandably, AS individuals encounter enormous difficulties during the transition into adolescence, and later into adult life, since they have not completed the requisite developmental tasks or moved beyond early stages in language, cognitive and social skills. They frequently remain emotionally dependent upon parents or family members, and suffer from separation anxiety and insecurity when trying to live on their own. Friendships with peers, romantic relationships, marriage and parenting, and entry into the work world are usually beyond their capacity. They remain, in many debilitating ways, stuck in time, trapped in the AS puzzle. They are, in essence, childlike beings attempting to live in an adult world, but without the support and understanding that children are afforded. References Asperger Syndrome: Through the Life Span. University of Delaware. 11 July 1996 Asperger's Syndrome- Information Package. Autism Society of America. 23 April 1997 Asperger's Syndrome and Making Sense. Cross, Hubert. 11 January 1999 Christopher Marsh: Asperger's Syndrome and me. 12 January 1999 O' Neil, John. "A Syndrome With a Mix of Skills and Deficits." The New York T This article is on multiple sites throughout the Internet If you found the question interesting, answer it, dont' just give it a star. Deborah, isn't it curious how boys are 7 times more likely to get autism dx and girls are more likely to get AS dx than boys I think. think of AS as a mental condition rather than a disease.

Answers:Some of it is interesting and it explains some things that are usually mentioned, but not explained much in other articles. The article only covers a small part of AS though. Since you went into such detail about this part of AS, I think you should at least mention that there is much more to AS than this, because people who don't know much about it could think this is it and that there are no other symptoms or problems in AS. I'm also not sure about the comparison with children. Aspies do have some childlike traits, but you make it sound like we need to be treated like children, which is definitely not what we need. Adult aspies should be treated as adults, but with acceptance and support when needed. I think the article needs to be a bit more clear on this. Other than that, well done.

From Youtube

How The Body Creates Powerful, Life-Long Immunity Without Vaccination or Immunization :www.autismisreversible.info - The vaccination process itself - whereby artificial and highly toxic substances are introduced into the blood - bypasses the normal route of entry for pathogens (the gut, lungs or skin). This unnatural process not only fails to activate other required immune-building factors besides the building of antibodies, but can also contribute to the overall disintegration of the immune system (which can and does lead to a variety of chronic illnesses such as Asthma, ADHD, and even Autism). For example, the synthetic immunity created by vaccination has a reinfection chance of eighty percent, whereas when immunity to a disease is acquired naturally, the possibility of reinfection is only about three percent. Furthermore, numerous studies have concluded that a healthy body with a healthy immune system will fully recover from "dreaded" childhood diseases, even polio (renamed aseptic meningitis after polio vaccination began). In this video Naturopath and Clinical Nutritionist David J. Getoff explains how we develop life-long immunity to infectious diseases by first getting them, and then recovering from them! He explains Children get immunity from the mother from birth going through the vagina. More immunity is created as the child breast-feeds. As the child is exposed to various bacteria in his or her environment, the immune system identifies it and develops immunity to it if it is pathogenic. It's not required to have a perfectly clean house or ...