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Descriptive statistics describe the main features of a collection of data quantitatively. Descriptive statistics are distinguished from inferential statistics (or inductive statistics), in that descriptive statistics aim to summarize a data set quantitatively without employing a probabilistic formulation, rather than use the data to make inferences about the population that the data are thought to represent. Even when a data analysis draws its main conclusions using inferential statistics, descriptive statistics are generally also presented. For example in a paper reporting on a study involving human subjects, there typically appears a table giving the overall sample size, sample sizes in important subgroups (e.g., for each treatment or exposure group), and demographic or clinical characteristics such as the average age, the proportion of subjects of each sex, and the proportion of subjects with related comorbidities.
Inferential statistics tries to make inferences about a population from the sample data. We also use inferential statistics to make judgments of the probability that an observed difference between groups is a dependable one, or that it might have happened by chance in this study. Thus, we use inferential statistics to make inferences from our data to more general conditions; we use descriptive statistics simply to describe what's going on in our data.
Use in statistical analyses
Descriptive statistics provide simple summaries about the sample and the measures. Together with simple graphics analysis, they form the basis of quantitative analysis of data.
Descriptive statistics summarize data. For example, the shooting percentage in basketball is a descriptive statistic that summarizes the performance of a player or a team. This number is the number of shots made divided by the number of shots taken. A player who shoots 33% is making approximately one shot in every three. One making 25% is hitting once in four. The percentage summarizes or describes multiple discrete events. Or, consider the scourge of many students, the grade point average. This single number describes the general performance of a student across the range of their course experiences.
Describing a large set of observations with a single indicator risks distorting the original data or losing important detail. For example, the shooting percentage doesn't tell you whether the shots are three-pointers or lay-ups, and GPA doesn't tell you whether the student was in difficult or easy courses. Despite these limitations, descriptive statistics provide a powerful summary that may enable comparisons across people or other units.
Univariate analysis involves the examination across cases of a single variable, focusing on three characteristics: the distribution; the central tendency; and the dispersion. It is common to compute all three for each study variable.
The distribution is a summary of the frequency of individual or ranges of values for a variable. The simplest distribution would list every value of a variable and the number of cases who had that value. For instance, computing the distribution of gender in the study population means computing the percentages that are male and female. The gender variable has only two, making it possible and meaningful to list each one. However, this does not work for a variable such as income that has many possible values. Typically, specific values are not particularly meaningful (income of 50,000 is typically not meaningfully different from 51,000). Grouping the raw scores using ranges of values reduces the number of categories to something for meaningful. For instance, we might group incomes into ranges of 0-10,000, 10,001-30,000, etc.
Frequency distributions are depicted as a table or as a graph. Table 1 shows an age frequency distribution with five categories of age ranges defined. The same frequency distribution can be depicted in a graph as shown in Figure 2. This type of graph is often referred to as a histogram or bar chart.
The mean is the most commonly used method of describing central tendency. To compute the mean, take the sum of the values and divide by the count. For example, the mean quiz score is determined by summing all the scores and dividing by the number of students taking the exam. For example, consider the test score values:
15, 20, 21, 36, 15, 25, 15
The sum of these 7 values is 147, so the mean is 147/7 =21.
The median is the score found at the middle of the set of values, i.e., that has as many cases with a larger value as have a smaller value. One way to compute the median is to sort the values in numerical order, and then locate the value in the middle of the list. For example, if there are 500 values, the median is the average of the two values in 250th and 251st positions. If there are 501 values, the value in 250th position is the median. Sorting the 7 scores above produces:
15, 15, 15, 20, 21, 25, 36
There are 7 scores and score #4 represents the halfway point. The median is 20. If there are an even number of observations, then the median is the mean of the two middle scores. In the example, if there were an 8th observation, with a value of 25, the median becomes the average of the 4th and 5th scores, in this case 20.5.
The mode is the most frequently occurring value in the set. To determine the mode, compute the distribution as above. The mode is the value with the greatest frequency. In the example, the modal value 15, occurs three times. In some distributions there is a "tie" for the highest frequency, i.e., there are multiple modal values. These are called multi-modal distributions.
Notice that the three measures typically produce different results. The term "average" obscures the difference between them and is better avoided. The three values are equal if the distribution is perfectly "normal" (i.e., bell-shaped).
Dispersion is the spread of values around the central tendency. There are two common measures of dispersion, the range and the standard deviation. The range is simply the highest value minus the lowest value. In our example distribution, the high value is 36 and the low is 15, so the range is 36 − 15 = 21.
During the 1960s there were plenty of reasons to be depressed: leaders were assassinated, the military was involved in one questionable conflict after another, and French philosophers claimed that life was meaningless. The response of several writers of experimental fiction was to laugh in the face of death and despair, and the reaction was so widespread that it earned a name: black humor. Writers of black humor portrayed antiheroes caught up in an absurd world in which traditional values seemed no longer to apply and in which the individual appeared lost in a maze of systems. As bleak as they were, the novels were still funny. Examples include John Barth's The Sot-Weed Factor (1960), Joseph Heller's Catch-22 (1961), Thomas Pynchon's V. (1963), John Hawkes's Second Skin (1964), and Kurt Vonnegut, Jr.'s Slaughterhouse-Five (1969). Both Catch-22 and Slaughterhouse-Five, for instance, include serious depictions of the horrors and stupidity of war, but both also include comic characters and situations. In Slaughterhouse-Five, the reader follows both Billy Pilgrim's horrific experiences during the war and his abduction by one-eyed aliens shaped like plungers. Pynchon's The Crying of Lot 49 (1966) includes, in addition to its themes of conspiracy and paranoia, a strip-poker game for which the protagonist prepares by putting on every item of clothing in her suitcase and a hilarious description of a grisly Jacobean play. If you were among the thousands who played Trivial Pursuit during the 1980s and had said that the phrase catch-22 came before the book of the same title in response to one of the Literature questions, you would have been wrong: the book came first. Have you ever been in a situation in which you want a job but are told you do not have experience, and you know you cannot get experience unless you get the job? That's catch-22. As Webster's defines it, the term can also refer to anything that is illogical or unreasonable; something that causes the opposite of the desired effect; a case with two alternatives, both bad; or simply as a catch. As used in the source of the phrase, however, catch-22 refers to a no-win problem whose solution is impossible because the situation presents a self-reversing paradox. In Joseph Heller's 1961 novel Catch-22 there are several examples of what the term means, but the best known involves its protagonist Yossarian, a bombardier in World War II who wants to stop fighting and go home. Only there's a catchâ€”Catch-22, to be precise. A man "would be crazy to fly more missions and sane if he didn't, but if he was sane, he had to fly them. If he flew them he was crazy and didn't have to; but if he didn't, he was sane and had to." Used in the novel as an indictment of illogical bureaucratic policy, catch-22 has since become a commonly used term. Stephen W. Potts, "Catch-22": Antiheroic Antinovel (Boston: Twayne, 1989). Certainly black humor existed before the 1960s, but it was at its height during the decade. Nor has it entirely disappeared: black humor has remained a frequent approach in modern fiction in the decades since the 1960s. Bruce Jay Friedman, ed., Black Humor (New York: Bantam, 1965); Max F. Schulz, Black Humor Fiction of the Sixties: A Pluralistic Definition of Man and His World (Athens: Ohio University Press, 1973).
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Answers:Definition: Adjectives are words that function to describe nouns. Specifically, adjectives describe the action, state, or quality that nouns refer to. Descriptive adjectives are the largest class of the four types of adjectives, the others being adjectives of quantity, demonstrative adjectives, and pronominal adjectives When using multiple descriptive adjectives in a sentence, there is an order in which they should be arranged. Adjectives that describe opinion typically preceded adjectives that describe color, size, shape, etc. For example, the sentence The ugly red chair sat in the corner is preferable to The red ugly chair sat in the corner. In addition, adjectives are usually arranged in a sentence from those that are more general in scope to those that are more specific. For example, "The big Egyptian mask hanging on the wall" is preferable to The Egyptian big mask hanging on the wall and "The blue silken curtains hanging in the bedroom" is preferable to The silken blue curtains hanging in the bedroom. Writers and speakers can refer to a list of descriptive adjectives for ideas on how to better explain the action, state, or quality that a noun in a sentence refers to. Understanding that there are three main types of descriptive adjectives can provide further insight on how these important words can be used. With a good descriptive adjective resource and a little creativity, you can begin to add more flavor to your ideas when speaking or writing in English.
Answers:Only if you have documented evidence to back up what you present about yourself in the research paper. Otherwise, it is like any other undocumented source... IE unacceptable. If you went to a doctor and a psychologist, and there is verifiable documentation that states you were diagnosed with Anorexia, you can get just the fact that you WERE Anorexic into the paper. If your opinions on the topic were documented and published by another source, then you could get those opinions into the research paper. end of line
Answers:Almost every firm, government agency, and other type of organization has one or more financial managers who oversee the preparation of financial reports, direct investment activities, and implement cash management strategies. Because computers are increasingly used to record and organize data, many financial managers are spending more time developing strategies and implementing the long-term goals of their organization. The duties of financial managers vary with their specific titles, which include controller, treasurer or finance officer, credit manager, cash manager, and risk and insurance manager. For duties of each of these titles, pls click on the link below. A bachelor s degree in finance, accounting, economics, or business administration is the minimum academic preparation for financial managers. However, many employers now seek graduates with a master s degree, preferably in business administration, economics, finance, or risk management. These academic programs develop analytical skills and provide knowledge of the latest financial analysis methods and technology. Experience may be more important than formal education for some financial manager positions most notably, branch managers in banks. Banks typically fill branch manager positions by promoting experienced loan officers and other professionals who excel at their jobs. Other financial managers may enter the profession through formal management training programs offered by the company. The American Institute of Banking, which is affiliated with the American Bankers Association, sponsors educational and training programs for bank officers through a wide range of banking schools and educational conferences.