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A conjunctive adverb is an adverb that connects two clauses. Conjunctive adverbs show cause and effect, sequence, contrast, comparison, or other relationships.
Common conjunctive adverbs
- as a result
- just as
- in addition
- in comparison
- in contrast
- in fact
- that is
The following rules are considered to be correct punctuation for conjunctive adverbs:
- Use a semicolon or period before the conjunctive adverb to separate two independent clauses joined by a conjunctive adverb. A conjunctive adverb is not strong enough to join two independent clauses without the aid of a semicolon.
- Use a comma following the conjunctive adverb when it appears at the beginning of the second clause unless the adverb is one syllable.
Like other adverbs, conjunctive adverbs may move around in the clause (or sentence) in which they appear. When they appear at the end of the clause, they are preceded by a comma. If they appear in the middle of the clause, they are normally enclosed in commas, though this rule is not absolute and is not always applied to very short clauses.
- He can leap tall buildings in a single bound; furthermore, Dwight Schrute is a beast.
- He can leap tall buildings in a single bound. Furthermore, Dwight Schrute is a beast.
- Bret enjoys video games; therefore, he is a crazy nerd.
- Bret enjoys video games. He is a crazy nerd, therefore.
- He went to the store; however, he did not buy anything.
- He went to the store. He did not buy anything, however.
- Stephanie lent me a barrel of pickled plums; consequently, she is my friend.
- Stephanie lent me a barrel of pickled plums. She is consequently my friend.
- I sat down alongside Adam; henceforth, he sang.
- Elaine wanted to high-five the friendly giant; consequently, she had to jump to reach him.
- [http://www.uottawa.ca/academic/arts/writcent/hypergrammar/adverbs.html HyperGrammar: What is an Adverb?]. Copyright 1994, 1995, and 1996 by the Faculty of Arts at the University of Ottawa.
In grammar, a conjunction (abbreviated or ) is a part of speech that connects two words, sentences, phrases or clauses together. This definition may overlap with that of other parts of speech, so what constitutes a "conjunction" should be defined for each language. In general, a conjunction is an invariable grammatical particle, and it may or may not stand between the items it conjoins.
The definition can also be extended to idiomatic phrases that behave as a unit with the same function as a single-word conjunction (as well as, provided that, etc.).
Coordinating conjunctions, also called coordinators, are conjunctions that join two or more items of equal syntactic importance, such as words, main clauses, or sentences. In English the mnemonic acronym FANBOYS can be used to remember the coordinators for, and, nor, but, or, yet, and so. These are not the only coordinating conjunctions; various others are used, including "and nor" (British), "but nor" (British), "or nor"(British), "neither" ("They don't gamble; neither do they smoke"), "no more" ("They don't gamble; no more do they smoke"), and "only" ("Can we perform? Only if we practice").
Here are the meanings and some examples of the FANBOYS coordinating conjunctions in English:
- for: presents a reason ("He is gambling with his health, for he has been smoking far too long.") (though "for" is more commonly used as a preposition)
- and: presents non-contrasting item(s) or idea(s) ("They gamble, and they smoke.")
- nor: presents a non-contrasting negative idea ("They don't gamble, nor do they smoke.")
- but: presents a contrast or exception ("They gamble, but they don't smoke.")
- or: presents an alternate item or idea ("Every day they gamble, or they smoke.")
- yet: presents a contrast or exception ("They gamble, yet they don't smoke.")
- so: presents a consequence ("He gambled well last night, so he smoked a cigar to celebrate.")
Correlative conjunctions are pairs of conjunctions that work together to coordinate two items. English examples include bothâ€¦and, [n]eitherâ€¦[n]or, and not [only]â€¦but [also], whether... or.
- Either do your work or prepare for a trip to the office.
- Not only is he handsome but he is also brilliant.
- Neither the basketball team nor the football team is doing well.
- Both the cross country team and the swimming team are doing well.
- Whether you stay or go is your decision.
Subordinating conjunctions, also called subordinators, are conjunctions that introduce a dependent clause. The most common subordinating conjunctions in the English language include the following: after, although, as much as, as long as, as soon as, because, before, if, in order that, lest, since, so that, than, that, though, unless, until, when, whenever, where, wherever, whether, and while. Complementizers can be considered to be special subordinating conjunctions that introduce complement clauses (e.g., "I wonder whether he'll be late. I hope that he'll be on time"). Some subordinating conjunctions (until, while), when used to introduce a phrase instead of a full clause, become prepositions with identical meanings.
In many verb-finallanguages, subordinate clausesmust precede the main clause on which they depend. The equivalents to the subordinating conjunctions of non-verb-final languages such as English are either
Such languages in fact often lack conjunctions as a part of speech because:
- the form of the verb used is formally nominalised and cannot occur in an independent clause
- the clause-final conjunction or suffix attached to the verb is actually formally a marker of case and is also used on nouns to indicate certain functions. In this sense, the subordinate clauses of these languages have much in common with postpositional phrases.
In other West-Germanic languages like German or Dutch, the word order after a subordinating conjunction is different from the one in an independent clause, e.g. in Dutch want (for) is coordinating, but omdat (because) is subordinating. Compare:
- Hij gaat naar huis, want hij is ziek. â€“ He goes home, for he is ill.
- Hij gaat naar huis, omdat hij ziek is. â€“ He goes home because he is ill.
Similarly, in German, "denn" (for) is coordinating, but "weil" (because) is subordating:
- Er geht nach Hause, denn er ist krank. â€“ He goes home, for he is ill.
- Er geht nach Hause, weil er krank ist. â€“ He goes home because he is ill.
A compoundsentenceis composed of at least twoindependent clauses. It does not require a dependent clause. The clauses are joined by a coordinating conjunction (with or without a comma), a correlative conjunction (with or without a comma), or a semicolon that functions as a conjunction. A conjunction can be used to make a compound sentence. The use of a comma to separate two short independent clauses in a sentence is accepted.
- My friend invited me to a tea party, but my parents didn't let me go.
- Do you want to stay here, or would you like to go shopping with me?
From Yahoo Answers
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