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From Wikipedia

Middle Passage

The Middle Passage was the stage of the triangular trade in which millions of people from Africa were taken to the New World, as part of the Atlantic slave trade. Ships departed Europe for African markets with manufactured goods, which were traded for purchased or kidnapped Africans, who were transported across the Atlantic as slaves; the slaves were then sold or traded for raw materials, which would be transported back to Europe to complete the voyage. A single voyage on the Middle Passage was a large financial undertaking, and they were generally organized by companies or groups of investors rather than individuals.

Traders from the Americas and Caribbean received the enslaved Africans. European powers such as Portugal, England, Spain, France, the Netherlands, Denmark, Sweden, and Brandenburg, as well as traders from Brazil and North America, took part in this trade. The enslaved Africans came mostly from eight regions: Senegambia, Upper Guinea, Windward Coast, Gold Coast, Bight of Benin, Bight of Biafra, West Central Africa and Southeastern Africa.

An estimated 15% of the Africans died at sea, with mortality rates considerably higher in Africa itself in the process of capturing and transporting indigenous peoples to the ships. The total number of African deaths directly attributable to the Middle Passage voyage is estimated at up to two million; a broader look at African deaths directly attributable to the institution of slavery from 1500 to 1900 suggests up to four million African deaths.

For two hundred years, 1440–1640, Portugese slavers had a near monopoly on the export of slaves from Africa. During the eighteenth century, when the slave trade transported about 6 million Africans, British slavers carried almost 2.5 million.

Journey

The duration of the transatlantic voyage varied widely, from one to six months depending on weather conditions. The journey became more efficient over the centuries; while an average transatlantic journey of the early sixteenth century lasted several months, by the nineteenth century the crossing often required fewer than six weeks.

African kings, warlords and private kidnappers sold captives to Europeans who held several coastal forts. The captives were usually force-marched to these ports along the western coast of Africa, where they were held for sale to the European or American slave traders in the barracoons. Typical slave ships contained several hundred slaves with about thirty crew members. The male captives were normally chained together in pairs to save space; right leg to the next man's left leg — while the women and children may have had somewhat more room. The captives were fed beans, corn, yams, rice, and palm oil. Slaves were fed one meal a day with water, but if food was scarce, slaveholders would get priority over the slaves. Sometimes captives were allowed to move around during the day, but many ships kept the shackles on throughout the arduous journey.

Most contemporary historians estimate that between 9.4 and 12 million Africans arrived in the New World. Disease and starvation due to the length of the passage were the main contributors to the death toll with amoebic dysentery and scurvy causing the majority of deaths. Additionally, outbreaks of smallpox, syphilis, measles, and other diseases spread rapidly in the close-quarter compartments. The rate of death increased with the length of the voyage, since the incidence of dysentery and of scurvy increased with longer stints at sea as the quality and amount of food and water diminished. In addition to physical sickness, many slaves became too depressed to eat or function efficiently because of the loss of freedom, family, security, and their own humanity.

Slave treatment and resistance

While treatment of slaves on the passage was varied, slaves' treatment was often horrific because the captured African men and women were considered less than human; they were "cargo," or "goods" and treated as such; they were transported for marketing. For example the Zong,a British slaver took too many slaves on its voyage to the New World. Overcrowding combined with malnutrition and disease killed several crew members and around 60 slaves. Bad weather made the Zong's voyage slow, the captain decided to drown his slaves at sea, so the owners could collect insurance on the slaves. Over 100 slaves were killed and a number of slaves chose to kill themselves. The Zong incident became fuel for the abolitionist movement and a major court case, as the insurance company refused to compensate for the loss.

While slaves were generally kept fed and supplied with drink, as healthy slaves were more valuable, if resources ran low on the long, unpredictable voyages, the crew received preferential treatment. Slave punishment was very common, as on the voyage the crew had to turn independent people into obedient slaves. Whipping and use of the cat o' nine tails was a common occurrence; sometimes slaves were beaten for “melancholy.� The worst punishments were for rebelling; in one instance a captain punished a failed rebellion by killing one involved slave immediately, and forcing two other slaves to eat his heart and liver.

Slaves resisted in a variety of ways. The two most common types of resistance were refusal to eat and suicide. Suicide was a frequent occurrence, often by refusal of food or medicine or jumping overboard, as well as by a variety of other opportunistic means. Over the centuries, some African peoples, such as the Kru, came to be understood as holding substandard value as slaves, because they developed a reputat

Reading comprehension

Reading comprehension is defined as the level of understanding of a writing.

Proficient reading depends on the ability to recognize words quickly and effortlessly. If word recognition is difficult, students use too much of their processing capacity to read individual words, which interferes with their ability to comprehend what is read.

Many educators in the USA believe that children need to learn to analyze text (comprehend it) even before they can read it on their own, and comprehension instruction generally begins in pre-Kindergarten or Kindergarten. But other US educators consider this reading approach to be completely backward for very young children, arguing that the children must learn how to decode the words in a story through phonics before they can analyze the story itself.

During the last century comprehension lessons usually comprised students answering teachers' questions, writing responses to questions on their own, or both. The whole group version of this practice also often included "Round-robin reading", wherein teachers called on individual students to read a portion of the text (and sometimes following a set order). In the last quarter of the 20th century, evidence accumulated that the read-test methods assessed comprehension more than they taught it. The associated practice of "round robin" reading has also been questioned and eliminated by many educators.

Instead of using the prior read-test method, research studies have concluded that there are much more effective ways to teach comprehension. Much work has been done in the area of teaching novice readers a bank of "reading strategies," or tools to interpret and analyze text. There is not a definitive set of strategies, but common ones include summarizing what you have read, monitoring your reading to make sure it is still making sense, and analyzing the structure of the text (e.g., the use of headings in science text). Some programs teach students how to self monitor whether they are understanding and provide students with tools for fixing comprehension problems.

Instruction in comprehension strategy use often involves the gradual release of responsibility, wherein teachers initially explain and model strategies. Over time, they give students more and more responsibility for using the strategies until they can use them independently. This technique is generally associated with the idea of self-regulation and reflects social cognitive theory, originally conceptualized by Albert Bandura.

Teaching reading comprehension

The U.S. National Reading Panel conducted a comprehensive literature search on teaching reading comprehension. They concluded that (1) vocabulary knowledge, (2) reading comprehension instruction based on reading strategies, and (3) practices were critical to effective reading comprehension teaching.

One strategy for reading comprehension is the technique called SQ3R. This stands for Survey, Question, Read, Recite, and Review. In order to get an understanding of the text, you should survey the chapters. This consists of quickly looking at the title, headings and any subheadings. Look at any end of chapter questions as well. While surveying, you ask questions about the topics you have scanned, such as, "What did my teacher say about this chapter?"

The next thing is to begin reading. In a chapter book, you would read the majority of the words. In a textbook, just read quickly for the key words. There are words seen in the chapter questions, teacher made questions and in the titles or subtitles of the chapter.

After reading a portion or section of the book, recite what you have read out loud. By orally summarizing what you just read it helps to cement the content in your memory.

The last technique is top review what you have read again. By writing down key facts from the chapter and reviewing it, you will better understand the information. You can also check the website "Study Guides and Strategies" [http://www.studygs.net/texred2.html]

Vocabulary

Several theories of vocabulary instruction exist, namely, one focused on intensive instruction of a few high value words, one focused on broad instruction of many useful words, and a third focused on strategies for learning new words.

The idea of focusing intensely on a few words was popularized by Isabel Beck, Margaret McKeown, and Linda Kucan in their book for teachers called Bringing Words to Life: Robust Vocabulary Instruction (2002). They argued that words occur in three "tiers," the lowest (tier 1) being common words such as eat and fish, the top (tier 3) being very content-specific words such as photosynthesis and geopolitical. The tier 2 words were what they considered general academic vocabulary, words with many uses in academic contexts, such as analyze and frequent. Beck et al. suggested that teachers focus on tier 2 words and that they should teach fewer of these words with greater intensity. They suggested that teachers offer multiple examples and develop activities to help students practice these words in increasingly independent ways.

The method of focusing of broad instruction on many words was developed by Andrew Biemiller. He argued, contra Beck et al., that more words would benefit students more, even if the instruction was short and teacher-directed. He suggested that teachers teach a large number of words before reading a book to students, by merely giving short definitions, such as synonyms, and then pointing out the words and their meaning while reading the book to students (Biemiller & Boote, 2006). The method contrasts with the Beck et al. approach by emphasizing quantity versus quality. There is no evidence to suggest the primacy of either approach.

The final vocabulary technique, strategies for learning new words, can be further subdivided into instruction on using context and instruction on using morphemes, or meaningful units within words to learn their meaning. Morphemic instruction has been shown to produce positive outcomes for students reading and vocabulary knowledge, but context has proved unreliable as a strategy and it is no longer considered a useful strategy to teach students. This conclusion does not disqualify the value in "learning" morphemic analysis" - prefixes, suffixes and roots - but rather suggests that it be imparted incidentally and in context. Accordingly, there are methods designed to achieve this, such as Incidental Morpheme Analysis (Manzo, Manzo, Thomas, 2004, p. 163-4).

Reading strategies

Before the 1980s, little comprehension instruction occurred in the United States (National Reading Panel, 2000). Palinscar and Brown (1984) developed a technique called reciprocal teaching that taught students to predict, summarize, clarify, and ask questions for sections of a text. The technique had positive outcomes. Since then, the use of strategies like summarizing after each paragraph have come to be seen as effective strategies for building students' comprehension. The idea is that students will develop stronger reading comprehension skills on their own if the t

Other Comprehensive Basis of Accounting

°Other Comprehensive Basis of Accounting (OCBOA) in the United Statesaccounting, refers to a system of accounting other than GAAP. As explained in The Journal of Accountancy in an online issue:[http://www.aicpa.org/PUBS/JOFA/oct2003/ratcliff.htm] Under SAS no. 62, Special Reports, an OCBOA is any one of

  • A statutory basis of accounting (for example, a basis of accounting insurance companies use under the rules of a state insurance commission).
  • Income-tax-basis financial statements.
  • Cash-basis and modified-cash-basis financial statements.
  • Financial statements prepared using definitive criteria having substantial support in accounting literature that the preparer applies to all material items appearing in the statements (such as the price level basis of accounting).

In situations where GAAP-basis statements aren’t necessary because of loan covenants, regulatory requirements or similar circumstances, an OCBOA not may just be the answer.



From Yahoo Answers

Question:Rules of Reading and Comprehension, Letter by Letter, Word by Word and Passage by Passage? For example: From the Beatles: " I Read the News Today" How to read this as a passage, as a rhythm of words, word by word (I, Read, The, News, Today) and as each letter by letter ( I stand for, R stands for, e stands for, a stands for, d stands for etc.) and back to the Comprehension of the Passage until Contentment kicks in or not, but HOW! Gema Suparmanputra Onbekend to answer that: "Only be Kind, when You Don't Feel Terrorized". Still would like to learn the rules...

Answers:I can't remember either not being able to read or having any trouble learning to read, and I remember being three. It's always been second nature. I'm pretty sure I see all the letters, recognize words, and read whole passages, because I am a champion speller with a mammoth vocabulary, but I have one hell of a time with Indonesian names and the like. I have to stop and sound out "Gema Suparmanputra Onbekend" as if I'm in first grade.

Question:Hello, I am currently studying for SAT. I have a problem in Critical Reading section. In Short-Passage Reading Comprehension, I generally do good, but I do poorly on the Long-Passage Reading Comprehension. I try skimming and others but I always end up not really get the materials, and skimming seemed not to work on Non-Fiction passage. What kind of methods or strategies do you use when handling SAT-Critical Section: Long-Passage Reading Comprehension? How does skimming work on the Non-Fiction passages?

Answers:I'm assuming your problem is you have trouble paying attention while you're reading the passage? My advice: read it sentence by sentence. In your head, literally visualize what the text is saying. It takes longer, but it definitely helps.

Question:Read the following passage, and then answer the questions: On a September day in 1991, two Germans were climbing the mountains between Austria and Italy. High up on a mountain pass, they found a body of a man lying on the ice. At that height (3,200 meters) the ice is usually permanent. But 1991 had been an especially warm year. The mountain ice had melted more than usual and so the body had come to the surface. It was laying face downward. The skeleton was in perfect condition, except for a large wound in the head. There was still skin on the bones and the remains of some clothes. The hands were still holding the wooden handle of an axe. On the feet there were simple leather and cloth boots. Nearby was a pair of gloves made of tree bark and a holder for arrows. Who was this man? How and when had he died? Everybody had a different answer to these questions. The mountain climbers who had found the body said it seemed thousands of years old. But others thought that it might be before this century. Perhaps it was the body of a soldier who died in World War I. In fact several World War I soldiers had already been found in that area of the mountains. On the other hand, a Swiss woman believed it might be her father. He had died in these mountains 20 years before and his body had never been found. A- Answer the following questions: 4- What struck the two German climbers about the body? And what is ment by the word (struck) in the previous question?

Answers:The word "struck" is being used in its connotative sense, in other words, not as the dictionary definition of struck/strike which means to hit. Rather, it refers to what the Germans "noticed about the man in the ice; what was particularly interesting, unusual, out of the ordinary, important. Now that you know what the question means, what do you think the two Germans particularly noticed about the body in the ice? This part you can answer yourself.

Question:Here are some sentences to fill in the blanks adapted from 2 Comprehension Cloze Passages. Q1) John and his partner quickly examined both the injured mother and her child. The mother __________ of a severe headache and appeared to have fractured her leg while her child sustained only __________ cuts and bruises. Both mother and child were sent to hospital for __________. Q2) A motorcyclist and his female __________ rider were reported to be seriously injured.

Answers:1/ John and his partner quickly examined both the injured mother and her child. The mother complained of a severe headache and appeared to have fractured her leg while her child sustained only minor cuts and bruises.Both mother and child were sent to hospital for recuperation. 2/A motorcyclist and his female co-rider were reported to be seriously injured.

From Youtube

How to Break Down a Science Reading Comprehension Passage :BeatTheGMAT.com expert Dana walks through an example of how you can break down one of the toughest question types on the GMAT--the Science RC passage.

Using Reciprocal Teaching Strategies to Boost Reading Comprehension :Students using reciprocal teaching activities to improve their understanding of a passage of narrative text. Reciprocal teaching strategies support adolescent literacy skills development by helping to create a dialog between students and teacher about a passage of text. Both the students and teacher take turns acting as the instructor and asking text comprehension questions. The program being used in this example is SRA Read to Achieve - a middle school and high school literacy intervention program from SRA/McGraw-Hill.