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From Wikipedia

Proper noun

A proper noun or proper name is a noun representing unique entities (such as London,Jupiter,John Hunter, orToyota), as distinguished from a 'common noun which describe a class of entities (such as city, planet, person or car). Proper nouns are not normally preceded by an article or other limiting modifier (such as any or some), and are used to denote a particular person, place, or object without regard to any descriptive meaning the word or phrase may have (for example, a town called "Newtown" may be, but does not necessarily have to be, a new [recently built] town).


In English and most other languages that use the Latin alphabet, proper nouns are usually capitalized. Languages differ in whether most elements of multiword proper nouns are capitalized (e.g., American English House of Representatives) or only the initial element (e.g., Slovenian Državni zbor 'National Assembly'). In German, nouns of all types are capitalized. In past centuries, orthographic practices in English, including noun capitalization, varied widely, with less standardization than today. Documents from the 18th century show some writers capitalizing all nouns and others capitalizing certain nouns based on varying ideas of their importance in the discussion. For example, the end (but not the beginning) of the Declaration of Independence (1776) and all of the Constitution (1787) show nearly all nouns capitalized, the Bill of Rights (1789) capitalizes a few common nouns but not most of them, and the Thirteenth Constitutional Amendment (1865) only capitalizes proper nouns. Today English orthography has been standardized to the point that capitalizing common nouns is considered formally incorrect outside of sentence-initial or title case contexts. Although informal writing often dismisses formal orthographic standards (by mutual consent of the communicators), an epistemological stance of orthographic "right and wrong" governs formal writing.

Today the meaning of proper noun capitalization is uniqueness within an implicit context, that is, it provides a name to an instance of a general type when the instance is unique within an implicit context. Most often the implicit context is "the whole world" or "the universe"; thus London, Jupiter, John Hunter, and Toyota are effortlessly understood as being cosmically unique; they derive their proper-noun status (and thus their capitalization) from that fact, and those properties are unequivocal (no one could argue with them). But in instances where a context shift is possible, and the context shift causes a shift from uniqueness to nonuniqueness, the capitalization or lowercasing decision may become a matter of perspective, as discussed below (see especially the examples under "Specific designators"). Sometimes the same word can function as both a common noun and a proper noun, depending on context. Two variants of this principle can be distinguished, although the distinction is blurred by real-world use of the labels to refer to instances of both types. They have no universally agreed names (that is, no standardized metalanguage), but the names "capitonym" and "specific designator" have some currency.

Specific designators

There are many words that are generally common nouns but that can easily "serve temporary proper noun duty" (or "contextual proper noun duty"). Some examples are agency, avenue, boulevard, box, building, bureau, case, chapter, city, class, college, day, edition, floor, grade, group, hospital, level, office, page, paragraph, part, phase, road, school, stage, step, street, type, university, week. The temporary proper noun duty occurs when the common noun is paired with a number or other word to create a name for a specific instance of an abstraction (that is, a specific case of a general type). It is then referred to as a "specific designator". For example:

  • Mary lives on the third floor of the main building. (common noun senses throughout)
  • Mary lives on Floor 3 of the Main Building. (same information content but recast cognitively as proper names. There is no etic difference except the cognitive one of the specificity that the capitalization imbues. It establishes an implicit sense that "within our commonly understood context [the building complex that we are standing in], the main building being referenced is the only main building. It is a unique object [as far as our context is concerned].)
  • My bookmark takes me to the main page of the English Wikipedia.
  • What is the proper name of that page?
  • It is the Main Page.
  • Sanjay lives on the beach road. [the road that runs along the beach]
  • Sanjay lives on Beach Road. [the specific road that is named with the capitalized proper name "Beach Road". It is a unique instance of a road in the world, although its proper name is unique only within our province. Our neighboring province also has a road named Beach Road.]
  • In 1947, the U.S. established the Central Intelligence Agency.
  • In 1947, the U.S. established a central intelligence agency to coordinate its various foreign intelligence efforts. It was named the Central Intelligence Agency.
  • India has a ministry of home affairs. It is called the Ministry of Home Affairs. (Within the context of India, it is the only ministry of home affairs, so you can name it by capitalizing the common noun. Within the context of planet Earth, it is a unique organization, but capitalizing the common noun is not a viable way to arrive at a unique proper name for it, because other countries also may use that same name for their unique organization. Another way to say the same idea is that within India's namespace, the naming convention provides sufficient uniqueness of the identifier, but with

Sentence (linguistics)

In the field of linguistics, a sentence is an expression in natural language, and often defined to indicate a grammatical unit consisting of one or more words that generally bear minimal syntactic relation to the words that precede or follow it. A sentence can include words grouped meaningfully to express a statement, question, exclamation, request or command.

As with all language expressions, sentences may contain both function and content words, and contain properties distinct to natural language, such as characteristic intonation and timing patterns.

Sentences are generally characterized in most languages by the presence of a finite verb, e.g. "The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog".

Components of a sentence


A clause consists of a subjectand apredicate. The subject is typically anoun phrase, though other kinds of phrases (such as gerund phrases) work as well, and some languages allow subjects to be omitted. The predicate is a finite verb phrase: a finite verb together with zero or more objects, zero or more complements, and zero or more adverbials.

There are two types of clauses: independent and subordinate (dependent). An independent clause demonstrates a complete thought; it is a complete sentence: for example, "I am sad." A subordinate clause is not a complete sentence: for example, "because I had to move."

See also copula for the consequences of the verb to be on the theory of sentence structure.

Complete sentences

A simple complete sentence consists of a single clause (subject and predicate). Other complete sentences consist of two or more clauses (see below).


By structure

One traditional scheme for classifying English sentences is by the number and types of finiteclauses:

By purpose

Sentences can also be classified based on their purpose:

  • A "declarative sentence" or "declaration", the most common type, commonly makes a statement: "I am going home."
  • An "interrogative sentence" or "question" is commonly used to request information — "When are you going to work?" — but sometimes not; "see" rhetorical question.
  • An "exclamative sentence" or "exclamation" is generally a more emphatic form of statement expressing emotion: "What a wonderful day this is!"
  • An "imperative sentence" or "command" tells someone to do something: "Go to work at 7:30 in the morning."

Major and minor sentences

A major sentence is a regular sentence; it has a subject and a predicate. For example: I have a ball. In this sentence one can change the persons: We have a ball. However, a minor sentence is an irregular type of sentence. It does not contain a finite verb. For example, "Mary!" "Yes." "Coffee." etc. Other examples of minor sentences are headings (e.g. the heading of this entry), stereotyped expressions (Hello!), emotional expressions (Wow!), proverbs, etc. This can also include nominal sentences like The more, the merrier. These do not contain verbs in order to intensify the meaning around the nouns and are normally found in poetry and catchphrases.

Sentences that comprise a single word are called word sentences, and the words themselves sentence words.

From Yahoo Answers

Question:plss answer it now

Answers:Nouns are 'things' and common nouns are things that don't need a capital letter. Common nouns egg, duck, car, train, bus Proper nouns Paris, London, New York etc BTW, tankt202 has listed a bunch of adjectives, not nouns but I'm sure he/she meant well!

Question:I mean, i know the general idea of some of them, but i would REALLY appreciate it if you could maybe write out some sentences, and point out what is what. I have a final that has around 11-15 questions based on this.

Answers:PRONOUNS- They replace a noun Examples: he, she, they, we, them, me, you, us Sentences: Linda went to the mall with THEM too. Brianna told US to clean up our mess. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ADJECTIVES- They describe a noun; Description words Examples: pretty, slender, green, happy Sentence: My friend is a SENSITIVE human being. Look at the tomato's RED color and JUICY flavor. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ VERBS- Action words, words that describe what you're doing Examples: jump, skip, play, laugh Sentence: My mother and I SHOUT at my brother in the stands of the soccer game. I would like to EAT out at Subway or DRIVE to Burger King to eat lunch. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ADVERBS- Words that replace a noun (usually end in "ly") Examples: happily, slowly, gracefully Sentences: My brother always SELFISHLY always thinks about himself, and never others. The ballerina GRACEFULLY arrived on stage and danced her heart out. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ COMMON NOUNS- A noun is a person, place or thing with no specific name Examples: park, radio, man, light bulb, street sign Sentence: The CHRISTMAS TREE had lights blinked repeatedly. My SHOE STRING kept on flying off of my shoe. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ PROPER NOUNS- A PROPER noun is a noun with a SPECIFIC name. Examples: Michael Jackson, Big Ben, John F.Kennedy International Airport, New York City Sentences: Many people credit MICHAEL JACKSON for being the greatest performer of al time. The EMPIRE STATE BUILDING is one of the tallest buildings in New York City, and in the world. Hope I helped!!!

Question:In each sentence tell me which is the proper nouns and the common nouns. 1.the Agean Seas is located between Greece and Turkey. 2.The capital of the state of Texas is Austin. 3.The mountain range called the Alps is not only located in the country of Switzerland,but also in France,Germany,Austria,and Italy. 4.The largest exhibit of paintings and sketches by Vincent Van Gogh is on display in a museum in Amsterdam. 5.Beethoven,the renowned composer,was born in Bonn,Germany. 6.The subject of vampires is widely explored in books and in movies. 7.President Thomas Jefferson sent expeditions to explore the territory called the Louisiana Purchase. 8.The Trojan War is reputed to have started as the resuly of a beuty contest between the goddesses Minerca,Juno,and Venus. 9.Times Square is in the heart of the theatre district in New York. 10.The arenal Volcano erupts regularly in Costa Rica. 11.A flight on the Concorde will take you from New York to Paris in four hours.

Answers:Stop tryign to cheat and do your homework.

Question:I'm just a little confused with this first sentence. you have to fill in the BOLD with whatever noun and then the sentence has to make sense. how do i make sense of this??! The festive ABSTRACT NOUN of the Thanksgiving CONCRETE NOUN filled our CONCRETE NOUN. ??? so far i mean all i can think of is The festive FEELING of Thanksgiving DAY filled our HEARTS. ????

Answers:maybe The festive ambiance of the Thanksgiving feast filled our hearts.

From Youtube

French Slang Nouns :Common nouns used in everyday speech in France that foreigners should be able to understand. You can find these words in a good dictionary, but they are often missing from language learning materials. The words are: bagnole, caisse, bahut, fac, flotte, pige, cl bard, bouquin, bagarre, piaule, borne, fringues, clope, s che, potins, boulot. Standard French equivalents are given after the sample sentences. For more informal French & slang, please visit www.ielanguages.com

GMAT Prep - Verbal - Sentence Correction - Collective Nouns and Generic Nouns as Subjects by Knewton :Go to www.knewton.com for hundreds of GMAT math and verbal concepts, thousands of practice problems and much more. Knewton GMAT is a GMAT prep course that redefines everything you thought you knew about online learning. Subject-verb agreement can be particularly tricky when the subject of our sentence is a collective noun for a generic noun. Now a collective noun names a class or a group. Nouns like "jury," "committee," or "group" are collective nouns. A generic noun represents a typical member of a group. Let's see how collective nouns usually function in a sentence. Usually, the things described as a collective noun functions as a unit, and is therefore treated as a singular noun. For instance, take this sentence, "The committee grant its permission for the artist to place her sculpture in the park." The collective noun, "committee" is talking about a number of people, but they're acting as one unit to give permission for this artist to place her sculpture in the park. Therefore, the noun, "committee" takes the singular verb "grants" and the singular pronoun, "its" when talking bout what it does. However, things can get a little bit trickier when the members of a collective noun or the things described by a collective noun function as individuals rather than a group. Look at this example: "The committee put their signatures on the document." Since all of the members of the committee would have to individually sign a document, and they couldn't act as a group in this ...