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Examples of Cocci Bacteria





Bacteria are unicellular prokaryotic microorganism and often cause human and animal disease such as Leptospira bacteria cause livestock disease. 
Whereas some bacteria such as actinomycetes produce antibiotics like streptomycin and nocardicin and some live symbiotically in the guts of animals or on the roots of certain plants and converting nitrogen into a usable form.

There are more than thousands of species of bacteria on earth, so a variety of characteristics are used to classify them like their visual characteristics or laboratory tests or number and location of flagella. 
On the basis of the bacterium's shape and cell arrangement, bacteria can be classified into three categories; cocci, bacilli, and spirilla.
•    Cocci are round cells and can exist singly or in pairs. The single cell of cocci is known as coccus.
•    Bacilli are rod-shaped bacteria and single cell is known as bacillus. 
The length of a cell depends upon age or environmental conditions.  They can also occur singly or in pairs, or in chains. For examples; coliform bacteria.
•    Spirilla bacteria have gently curved shape or corkscrew-like spiral shape. The single cell is called as spirillum. 

Cocci bacteria can be oval, elongated, or flattened on one side. 
Sometimes they may remain attached after cell division and often used to help identify certain cocci. 
The pair of Cocci is called as diplococcic (Neisseria) while the chain of Cocci is known as streptococci (Streptococcus). 
When Cocci divide in two planes and remain in groups of four, it is known as tetrads. 
Similarly Cocci which divide in three planes and remain in groups cube like groups of eight are known as sarcinae (Micrococci). 
One more examples of Cocci are staphylococci (Staphylococcus) which divide in multiple planes and form grape like clusters or sheets.
  
Fig: Type of Cocci bacteria
Some common examples of cocci bacteria with their morphology are as follows;
           Name                              Morphology                            Gram Stain

1.        Staph aureus                    clusters/tetrads                        Gram-Positive Cocci
2.        S. epidermidis                  clusters                                   Gram-Positive Cocci
4.        S. saphrophyticus            clusters                                    Gram-Positive Cocci 
5.        S. haemolyticus               clusters                                     Gram-Positive Cocci
6.        S. hominis                        tetrads and clusters                   Gram-Positive Cocci
7.        S. capitis                                                                          Gram-Positive Cocci
8.        S. schleiferi                                                                      Gram-Positive Cocci
9.        S. warneri                                                                        Gram-Positive Cocci
10.      S. lugdenenis                                                                 Gram-Positive Cocci
11.      Strep pyrogenes (gr. A)    chains                                      Gram-Positive Cocci
12.      S. agalactiae (gr. B)        chains                                          Gram-Positive Cocci
13.       E. faecalis                     clusters                                    Gram-Positive Cocci
14.       E. faecium                                                                    Gram-Positive Cocci
15.       Enterococci (other)         chains                                      Gram-Positive Cocci
16.       S. pneumoniae               lancet shaped diplococci,          Gram-Positive Cocci
17.       S. mutans group             chains, or short rods                 Gram-Positive Cocci
18.       S. salivarus group                                                         Gram-Positive Cocci
19.       S. sanguis group                                                          Gram-Positive Cocci
20.       S. mitis group                                                              Gram-Positive Cocci
21.       S. angiosus group          chains                                    Gram-Positive Cocci
22.       A. adiacens                                                                 Gram-Positive Cocci
23.       S. milleri                                                                     Gram-Positive Cocci
24.       S. bovis                        chains                                    Gram-Positive Cocci
25.       N. gonorrhea                diplococci                                Gram-Negative Cocci
26.       N. meningitides            diplococci                                Gram-Negative Cocci





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From Wikipedia

Gram-positive bacteria

Gram-positivebacteria are those that are stained dark blue or violet by Gram staining. This is in contrast to Gram-negative bacteria, which cannot retain the crystal violet stain, instead taking up the counterstain (safranin or fuchsine) and appearing red or pink. Gram-positive organisms are able to retain the crystal violet stain because of the high amount of peptidoglycan in the cell wall. Gram-positive cell walls typically lack the outer membrane found in Gram-negative bacteria.

When treated as a clade, the term "posibacteria" is sometimes used.

Characteristics

The following characteristics are generally present in a Gram-positive bacterium:

  1. cytoplasmic lipid membrane
  2. thick peptidoglycan layer
  3. *teichoic acids and lipoids are present, forming lipoteichoic acids which serve to act as chelating agents, and also for certain types of adherence.
  4. capsule polysaccharides (only in some species)
  5. flagellum (only in some species)
  6. *if present, it contains two rings for support as opposed to four in Gram-negative bacteria because Gram-positive bacteria have only one membrane layer.
  7. The individual peptidoglycan molecules are cross-linked by pentaglycine chains by a DD-transpeptidase enzyme. In gram-negative bacteria, the transpeptidase creates a covalent bond directly between peptidoglycan molecules, with no intervening bridge.

Classification

In the original bacterial phyla, the Gram-positive organisms made up the phylumFirmicutes, a name now used for the largest group. It includes many well-known genera such as Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Enterococcus, (which are cocci) andBacillus, Corynebacterium, Nocardia, Clostridium, Actinobacteria, andListeria(which are rods and can be remembered by themnemonic obconical). It has also been expanded to include the Mollicutes, bacteria-like Mycoplasmathat lack cell walls and cannot be Gram stained, but are derived from such forms.Actinobacteria are the other major group of Gram-positive bacteria, which have a high guanine and cytosine content in their genomes (high G+C group). This contrasts with the Firmicutes, which have a low G+C content.

Both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria may have a membrane called an S-layer. In Gram-negative bacteria, the S-layer is directly attached to the outer membrane. In Gram-positive bacteria, the S-layer is attached to the peptidoglycan layer. Unique to Gram-positive bacteria is the presence of teichoic acids in the cell wall. Some particular teichoic acids, lipoteichoic acids, have a lipid component and can assist in anchoring peptidoglycan, as the lipid component is embedded in the membrane.

Exceptions

The Deinococcus-Thermus bacteria have Gram-positive stains, although they are structurally similar to Gram-negative bacteria.

Pathogenesis

Most pathogenic bacteria in humans are Gram-positive organisms. Classically, six Gram-positive genera are typically pathogenic in humans. Two of these, StreptococcusandStaphylococcus, arecocci (sphere-shaped bacteria). The remaining organisms are bacilli (rod-shaped bacteria) and can be subdivided based on their ability to form spores. The non-spore formers are CorynebacteriumandListeria(a coccobacillus), whileBacillusandClostridiumproduce spores. The spore-forming bacteria can again be divided based on theirrespiration: Bacillus is a facultative anaerobe, while Clostridium is an obligate anaerobe.



From Yahoo Answers

Question:When you have found the different types can you please tell me 2 examples of each of the different bacterias. where they are found and what effects they have please provide links to where you got the information from

Answers:cocci (spherical) bacilli (rod-shaped) spirella (spiral-shape)

Question:

Answers:Bacteria have been used for thousands of years in the production of food. Cheese, pickles, soy sauce, sauerkraut, vinegar, wine and yogurt are all examples of the usefulness of bacteria. Bacteria are used in the chemical industry to make pharmaceuticals and agrichemicals. Since they grow easily and quickly, they can be used in molecular biology, genetics and biochemistry. Some bacteria, such as acidophilus, are considered "friendly." Many species of bacteria live in our intestines, promoting good digestion and immune health. Our understanding of bacteria allows the biotechnology field to produce insulin, growth factors and antibodies for the medical industry. Future Uses Bioremediation is the waste-processing of toxic pollutants by bacteria, in order to turn harmful sewage into innocuous substances. Biological pest control is an environmentally friendly way to protect crops, with little to no effect on humans, wildlife, or pollinators and other beneficial insects. Bacteria can even be used to help us produce electricity without fossil fuels. for more information.. check this link out>> http://in.answers.yahoo.com/search/search_result;_ylt=Al_am8ZzgL_4WdLH298zzIu5HQx.;_ylv=3?keywords_filter=all&p=advantages+of+bacteria&keywords_search=%3CSPAN%3E%3CSPAN%3E%3CSPAN%3E%3CSPAN%3ESearch+Answers%3C%2FSPAN%3E%3C%2FSPAN%3E%3C%2FSPAN%3E%3C%2FSPAN%3E

Question:I need an example of each of these: a. bacillus b. coccus c.spirochete d.spirilla e.vibrio

Answers:1) Example of bacilli : Bacillus anthracis ( The cause of Anthrax). 2) Example of cocci: N. meningitidis or Neisseria meningitidis (also called the meningococcus) => one of the most common causes of bacterial meningitis and the causative agent of meningococcal septicemia. 3) Example of spirillum :- S. minus => causes a type of rat-bite fever 4) Example of spirochete :- Lyme Disease 5) Example of vibrio :- Vibrio cholera, is the pathogen that causes cholera

Question:Question: Give an example of a situation in which aerobic bacteria could not survive.

Answers:At the bottom of a pond. Aerobic bacteria are the ones that need oxygen to survive.

From Youtube

"Bacteria!" Music Video with Bloopers! :A video done by a group of college students for a Microbiology extra credit project. The song is based on "Disturbia" by Rihanna, and the video has a Scooby Doo theme. Bloopers are included after the video. Lyrics: whats going on here? why does it look like? were goin to the lab now there's no gas in the tube, no fermentation today liquified means it moved, thanks to the gelatin test thioglycolate test, don't wanna think about it feels like im going insane, yeah put my loop in the flame to sterilize it flame the top of the tube or else you'll spread it isolated my strain, Keler, look at it! it looks like pneumonia lets do a gram stain is it a rod or a cocci? this stuff hurts my brain i need my flowchart to decide whats its damn name your train of thought will be altered so if you must culture, be wise regarding BACTERIA I dont know which Ill find BACTERIA are you sure that its this kind? BACTERIA just can't get them off my mind BACTERIA BACTERIA.... Faded Bergey's on the shelf Need volume 1, 2, or 3 just can't read it by myself guess i'm not leaving early i think i'm in doubt, can't figure this SHHH out it's so close, but not right Catalase, that ain't right, need to retest it use aseptic technique, before you stab it isolated my strain, Keler, look at it! it looks like E. coli lets do a gram stain is it a rod or a cocci? this stuff hurts my brain i need my flowchart to decide whats its damn name your train of thought will be altered so if you must culture, be wise ...

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