Examples of Cocci Bacteria
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Gram-positivebacteria are those that are stained dark blue or violet by Gram staining. This is in contrast to Gram-negative bacteria, which cannot retain the crystal violet stain, instead taking up the counterstain (safranin or fuchsine) and appearing red or pink. Gram-positive organisms are able to retain the crystal violet stain because of the high amount of peptidoglycan in the cell wall. Gram-positive cell walls typically lack the outer membrane found in Gram-negative bacteria.
When treated as a clade, the term "posibacteria" is sometimes used.
The following characteristics are generally present in a Gram-positive bacterium:
- cytoplasmic lipid membrane
- thick peptidoglycan layer
- *teichoic acids and lipoids are present, forming lipoteichoic acids which serve to act as chelating agents, and also for certain types of adherence.
- capsule polysaccharides (only in some species)
- flagellum (only in some species)
- *if present, it contains two rings for support as opposed to four in Gram-negative bacteria because Gram-positive bacteria have only one membrane layer.
- The individual peptidoglycan molecules are cross-linked by pentaglycine chains by a DD-transpeptidase enzyme. In gram-negative bacteria, the transpeptidase creates a covalent bond directly between peptidoglycan molecules, with no intervening bridge.
In the original bacterial phyla, the Gram-positive organisms made up the phylumFirmicutes, a name now used for the largest group. It includes many well-known genera such as Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Enterococcus, (which are cocci) andBacillus, Corynebacterium, Nocardia, Clostridium, Actinobacteria, andListeria(which are rods and can be remembered by themnemonic obconical). It has also been expanded to include the Mollicutes, bacteria-like Mycoplasmathat lack cell walls and cannot be Gram stained, but are derived from such forms.Actinobacteria are the other major group of Gram-positive bacteria, which have a high guanine and cytosine content in their genomes (high G+C group). This contrasts with the Firmicutes, which have a low G+C content.
Both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria may have a membrane called an S-layer. In Gram-negative bacteria, the S-layer is directly attached to the outer membrane. In Gram-positive bacteria, the S-layer is attached to the peptidoglycan layer. Unique to Gram-positive bacteria is the presence of teichoic acids in the cell wall. Some particular teichoic acids, lipoteichoic acids, have a lipid component and can assist in anchoring peptidoglycan, as the lipid component is embedded in the membrane.
The Deinococcus-Thermus bacteria have Gram-positive stains, although they are structurally similar to Gram-negative bacteria.
Most pathogenic bacteria in humans are Gram-positive organisms. Classically, six Gram-positive genera are typically pathogenic in humans. Two of these, StreptococcusandStaphylococcus, arecocci (sphere-shaped bacteria). The remaining organisms are bacilli (rod-shaped bacteria) and can be subdivided based on their ability to form spores. The non-spore formers are CorynebacteriumandListeria(a coccobacillus), whileBacillusandClostridiumproduce spores. The spore-forming bacteria can again be divided based on theirrespiration: Bacillus is a facultative anaerobe, while Clostridium is an obligate anaerobe.
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Answers:cocci (spherical) bacilli (rod-shaped) spirella (spiral-shape)
Answers:Bacteria have been used for thousands of years in the production of food. Cheese, pickles, soy sauce, sauerkraut, vinegar, wine and yogurt are all examples of the usefulness of bacteria. Bacteria are used in the chemical industry to make pharmaceuticals and agrichemicals. Since they grow easily and quickly, they can be used in molecular biology, genetics and biochemistry. Some bacteria, such as acidophilus, are considered "friendly." Many species of bacteria live in our intestines, promoting good digestion and immune health. Our understanding of bacteria allows the biotechnology field to produce insulin, growth factors and antibodies for the medical industry. Future Uses Bioremediation is the waste-processing of toxic pollutants by bacteria, in order to turn harmful sewage into innocuous substances. Biological pest control is an environmentally friendly way to protect crops, with little to no effect on humans, wildlife, or pollinators and other beneficial insects. Bacteria can even be used to help us produce electricity without fossil fuels. for more information.. check this link out>> http://in.answers.yahoo.com/search/search_result;_ylt=Al_am8ZzgL_4WdLH298zzIu5HQx.;_ylv=3?keywords_filter=all&p=advantages+of+bacteria&keywords_search=%3CSPAN%3E%3CSPAN%3E%3CSPAN%3E%3CSPAN%3ESearch+Answers%3C%2FSPAN%3E%3C%2FSPAN%3E%3C%2FSPAN%3E%3C%2FSPAN%3E
Answers:1) Example of bacilli : Bacillus anthracis ( The cause of Anthrax). 2) Example of cocci: N. meningitidis or Neisseria meningitidis (also called the meningococcus) => one of the most common causes of bacterial meningitis and the causative agent of meningococcal septicemia. 3) Example of spirillum :- S. minus => causes a type of rat-bite fever 4) Example of spirochete :- Lyme Disease 5) Example of vibrio :- Vibrio cholera, is the pathogen that causes cholera
Answers:At the bottom of a pond. Aerobic bacteria are the ones that need oxygen to survive.