examples of chemical processes in daily life
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Chemical engineering is the branch of engineering that deals with the application of physical science (e.g., chemistry and physics), and life sciences (e.g., biology, microbiology and biochemistry) with mathematics and economics, to the process of converting raw materials or chemicals into more useful or valuable forms. In addition to producing useful materials, modern chemical engineering is also concerned with pioneering valuable new materials and techniques - such as nanotechnology, fuel cells and biomedical engineering. Chemical engineering largely involves the design, improvement and maintenance of processes involving chemical or biological transformations for large-scale manufacture. Chemical engineers ensure the processes are operated safely, sustainably and economically. Chemical engineers in this branch are usually employed under the title of process engineer. A related term with a wider definition is chemical technology. A person employed in this field is called a chemical engineer.
Chemical engineering timeline
In 1824, French physicist Sadi Carnot, in his "On the Motive Power of Fire", was the first to study the thermodynamics of combustion reactions. In the 1850s, German physicist Rudolf Clausius began to apply the principles developed by Carnot to chemical systems at the atomic to molecular scale. During the years 1873 to 1876 at Yale University, American mathematical physicist Josiah Willard Gibbs, the first to be awarded a Ph.D. in engineering in the U.S., in a series of three papers, developed a mathematical-based, graphical methodology, for the study of chemical systems using the thermodynamics of Clausius. In 1882, German physicist Hermann von Helmholtz, published a founding thermodynamics paper, similar to Gibbs, but with more of an electro-chemical basis, in which he showed that measure of chemical affinity, i.e., the "force" of chemical reactions, is determined by the measure of the free energy of the reaction process. The following timeline shows some of the key steps in the development of the science of chemical engineering:
- 1805â€“ John Dalton published Atomic Weights, allowing chemical equations to be balanced and the basis for chemical engineering mass balances.
- 1882â€“ a course in "Chemical Technology" is offered at University College London
- 1883â€“ Osborne Reynolds defines the dimensionless group for fluid flow, leading to practical scale-up and understanding of flow, heat and mass transfer
- 1885â€“ Henry Edward Armstrong offers a course in "chemical engineering" at Central College (later Imperial College), London.
- 1888â€“ There is a Department of Chemical Engineering at Glasgow and West of Scotland Technical College offering day and evening classes.
- 1888â€“ Lewis M. Norton starts a new curriculum at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT): Course X, Chemical Engineering
- 1889â€“ Rose Polytechnic Institute awards the first bachelor's of science in chemical engineering in the US.
- 1891â€“ MIT awards a bachelor's of science in chemical engineering to William Page Bryant and six other candidates.
- 1892â€“ A bachelor's program in chemical engineering is established at the University of Pennsylvania.
- 1898â€“ Bachelor of science program in chemical engineering is established at the University of Michigan.
- 1901â€“ George E. Davis produces the Handbook of Chemical Engineering
- 1905â€“ the University of Wisconsin awards the first Ph.D. in chemical engineering to Oliver Patterson Watts.
- 1908â€“ the American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE) is founded.
- 1922â€“ the UK Institution of Chemical Engineers (IChemE) is founded.
Chemical engineering is applied in the manufacture of a wide variety of products. The chemical industry has a large scope, manufacturing inorganic and organic industrial chemicals, ceramics, fuels and From Yahoo Answers
Answers:Burning a log of wood Mixing an acid with a base, producing water and a salt. Photosynthesis - a process in which carbon dioxide and water are changed into sugars by plants. Cracking heavy hydrocarbons to create lighter hydrocarbons (part of the process of refining oil). Cooking examples: popcorn, cake, pancakes, and eggs Oxidation examples: rust or tarnishing Combustion Mixing chemicals Rotting of fruit
Answers:1. Reproduction; all organisms can copy themselves if they are only one cell in size or can copy the DNA (the genetic material) to a cell that can grown into a complete organism. 2. Growth; growing is just a single cell reproducing or copying itself by the process of mitosis. The whole organism grows by adding cells through this process. 3. Have cells; their life material is assembled in little organized units built mostly out of proteins. 4. Have DNA; this genetic material is a chemical code which assembles chemicals to make the proteins that your cells are made of. The DNA molecule can also copy itself, making growth and reproduction possible. 5. Need energy; all organisms need energy for all life activities. Even thinking requires a considerable amount of energy. Plants get energy through photosynthesis, and animals get energy from cellular respiration. 6. Reaction to their environment; all organisms can sense their environment and react to it. Even a tree grows up while the roots grow down. And leaves always grow toward the light. 7. Carrying out homeostasis (maintain a constant internal environment); even though the environment around a cell can change a lot (example: hot to cold), the inside of the cell needs to stay the same. Keeping a constant internal environment is called homeostasis. For example, when you exercise, your body heats up. You then sweat to cool down to get the cell environment back to normal.
Answers:Catabolic means "breaks down" basically. The answer is the third one, chemical digestion.
Answers:Well, a recipe could be considered an algorithm for cooking a particular food. So if you want, I'll give you an algorithm for my grandma's meatloaf.