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Push technology, server push, describes a style of Internet-based communication where the request for a given transaction is initiated by the publisher or central server. It is contrasted with pull technology, where the request for the transmission of information is initiated by the receiver or client.
Push services are often based on information preferences expressed in advance. This is called a publish/subscribe model. A client might "subscribe" to various information "channels". Whenever new content is available on one of those channels, the server would push that information out to the user.
Synchronous conferencing and instant messaging are typical examples of push services. Chat messages and sometimes files are pushed to the user as soon as they are received by the messaging service. Both decentralised peer-to-peer programs (such as WASTE) and centralised programs (such as IRC or XMPP) allow pushing files, which means the sender initiates the data transfer rather than the recipient.
Email is also a push system: the SMTP protocol on which it is based is a push protocol (see Push e-mail). However, the last step â€”from mail server to desktop computerâ€” typically uses a pull protocol like POP3 or IMAP. Modern e-mail clients make this step seem instantaneous by repeatedly polling the mail server, frequently checking it for new mail. The IMAP protocol includes the IDLE command, which allows the server to tell the client when new messages arrive. The original BlackBerry was the first popular example of push technology for email in a wireless context.
Another popular type of Internet push technology was PointCast Network, which gained popularity in the 1990s. It delivered news and stock market data. Both Netscape and Microsoft integrated it into their software at the height of the browser wars, but it later faded away and was replaced in the 2000s with RSS (a pull technology).
Other uses are push enabled web applications including market data distribution (stock tickers), online chat/messaging systems (webchat), auctions, online betting and gaming, sport results, monitoring consoles and sensor network monitoring.
HTTP server push
Generally the web server does not terminate a connection after response data has been served to a client. The web server leaves the connection open such that if an event is received, it can immediately be sent to one or multiple clients. Otherwise the data would have to be queued until the client's next request is received. Most web servers offer this functionality via CGI (e.g. Non-Parsed Headers scripts on Apache).
Another mechanism is related to a special MIME type called
multipart/x-mixed-replace, which was introduced by Netscape in 1995. Web browsers would interpret this as a document changing whenever the server felt like pushing a new version to the client. It is still supported by Firefox, Opera and Safari today, but traditionally ignored by Microsoft. It can be applied to HTML documents, but also for streaming images in webcam applications.
The WHATWG Web Applications 1.0 proposal included a mechanism to push content to the client. On September 1, 2006, the Opera web browser implemented this new experimental technology in a feature called "Server-Sent Events." It is now being standardized as part of HTML5. Another related part of HTML5 is the WebSockets API, which allows a web server and client to communicate over a full-duplex TCP connection.
Long polling is a variation of the traditional polling technique and allows emulation of an information push from a server to a client. With long polling, the cli
Information technology consulting (also called IT consulting, Computer consultancy, Computing consultancy, technology consulting or business and technology services) is a field that focuses on advising businesses on how best to use information technology to meet their business objectives. In addition to providing advice, IT consultancies often implement, deploy, and administer IT systems on businesses' behalf, known as Outsourcing.
The IT consulting industry can be viewed as a Four-tier system:
- Professional services firms which maintain large professional workforces and command high bill rates.
- Staffing firms, which place technologists with businesses on a temporary basis, typically in response to employee absences, temporary skill shortages and technical projects.
- Independent consultants, who are self-employed or who function as employees of staffing firms (for US tax purposes, employed on "W-2"), or as independent contractors in their own right (for US tax purposes, on "1099").
- Information Security Consultants
Prerequisites and Major obstacles
Once a business owner defined the needs to take a business to the next level, a decision maker will define a scope, cost and a time-frame of the project . The role of the IT Consultancy company to support and nurture the company from the very beginning of the project till the end, and deliver the project not only in the scope, time and cost but also with a complete customer satisfaction.
Project Scoping and Planning
The usual problem is that a business owner doesn't know the detail of what the project is going to deliver until it is started the process. In many cases, the incremental effort in some projects can lead to significant financial loss.
The worst problem is that the baseline for evaluating the managers appointed to manage the project becomes blurred - making it more difficult to hold him or her accountable.
Business Process and System Design
The scope of a project is linked intimately to the proposed business processes and systems that the project is going to deliver. Regardless of whether the project is to launch a new product range or discontinue unprofitable parts of the business, the change will have some impact on business processes and systems. The documentation of your business processes and system requirements are as fundamental to project scoping as an architects plans would be to the costing and scoping of the construction of a building.
Project Management Support
The most successful business projects are always those that are driven by an employee who has the authority, vision and influence to drive the required changes in a business. It is highly unlikely that a business owner (decision maker or similar) will realize the changes unless one has one of these people in the employment. However, the project leadership role typically requires significant experience and skills which are not usually found within a company focused on day-to-day operations. Due to this requirement within more significant business change projects / programs, outside expertise is often sought from firms which can bring this specific skill set to the company.
Under normal circumstances a fee for IT consulting is measured on a per day, per Consultant basis. There is however an alternative option; fixed fee IT Consulting. A fixed fee IT consulting contract applies only to projects which are well defined, for example:
- Infrastructure refreshment projects
- Network design
- Troubleshooting IT Consulting
- Implementation of specific well described features, such as monitoring platforms
- Infrastructure Capacity Planning
Generally, fixed fee IT consulting is for a specific amount of work, within a defined timeframe.
Many companies are now moving towards a fixed priced IT consulting model.
This trend is expected to continue as more companies now require delivery of IT Consulting services within a defined time and price structure.
Open ended consultancy models generally favour the consulting firm, as the consultancy firm is rewarded on a per day basis, there is no incentive to complete assignments within a fixed time. The result often being project overruns and significant cost overrun.
There are few IT companies providing fixed fee IT consulting services. Those who do provide a fixed alternative are increasing revenues year on year. This has resulted in a revenue increase of some 600% over the previous year.
Management consulting and IT consulting
There is a relatively unclear line between management consulting and IT consulting. There are sometimes overlaps between the two fields, but IT consultants often have degrees in computer science, electronics, technology, or management information systems while management consultants often have degrees in accounting, economics, Industrial Engineering, finance, or a generalized MBA (Masters in Business Administration).
According to the Institute for Partner Education & Development, IT consultants' revenues come predominantly from design and planning based consulting with a mixture of IT and Business Consulting. This is different from a Systems Integrator in that you do not normally take title to product. Their value comes from their ability to integrate and support technologies as well as determining product and brands.
The German Jewish theoretical physicist Albert Einstein formulated the special theory of relativity in 1905. Relativity is that area of physics that has to do with how observers in motion with respect to the phenomenon observed can account for their observations given that two different frames of reference (that of the observer and that of what is observed) are involved. Einstein labeled his 1905 theory "special" because it dealt with a limited range of phenomena, namely uniform linear motion at constant but high velocities. The consequences of special relativity became cornerstones of twentieth-century physics and displaced some of the central tenets of Newtonian physics that had been pillars of scientific thought for two centuries. First, Einstein showed that time, space, and matter are interdependent, as expressed in the famous formula e - mc2 , where e is energy, m is mass, and c is the speed of light. The mass of material objects is determined by their energy; if they give off energy, their mass decreases. Mass increases with velocity and since the velocity of light is so great, a small mass traveling at the speed of light is equivalent to a vast amount of energy. (Atomic energy is an example of the special theory but was not based on it.) Second, time is not absolute: it depends on the circumstances of the ob-servers. Third, there are no privileged observers: what one person sees or measures may not be what another person measures, even if both think they are measuring the same phenomenon, especially if one is moving faster than the other. For example, according to the special theory, a person on a moving train and another on an adjacent embankment do not see the same light signal on the railroad station at the same time and thus cannot say that the two observations were simultaneous. Fourth, space is not absolute; it is only a conventional way of describing the relationships of objects. Fifth, as American physicist Albert Michelson had already demonstrated, the ether, an invisible substance that supposedly filled the entire universe and through which light waves were propagated, does not exist. The theory gave rise to all kinds of widely discussed paradoxes that delighted Einstein and his supporters and enraged physicists opposed to the theory. The most famous was the "twin paradox" of the space traveler. An astronaut travels through space at speeds approaching that of light for many years. When he returns to Earth, he finds his twin brother to be an old man while he has hardly aged at all. Einstein's theory explained that at very high speeds time slows down. There were few theoretical physicists in the United States when Einstein published his theory. Most physicists were experimentalists and were hostile to the theory that struck many of them as hopelessly abstract and counter to intuition and common sense. Moreover, they were committed to Maxwell's principles of electrodynamics, which purported space to be filled with aether. The first Americans to comment on relativity were Gilbert N. Lewis, professor of physical chemistry at MIT, and his student, Richard C. Tolman. In a paper published in 1909 they argued that Einstein's theory was both practical and based on empirical evidence. Other American scientists, with considerably less understanding, ridiculed special relativity, attacking it as metaphysical and unrelated to observation. Many were bothered by the counterintuitive nature of the theory and asserted that if a scientific theory were true, it would be, almost by definition, comprehensible to everyone. Tolman, on the other hand, always responded to such doubts by reasserting his conviction that Einstein's hypotheses could be tested by experiment. Both Einstein's early supporters and detractors in the United States, therefore, appealed to American scientific traditions of practicality and experimental verification. In 1914 Einstein broadened his concepts to include nonlinear motion in a general theory of relativity. This introduced his famous theory of curved space. When certain predictions contained in the theory were later verified (as when observations during the solar eclipse of 1919 confirmed that light rays emitted by stars bent when passing through the gravitational field of the sun), many scientists who previously had been skeptical now accepted the special theory as well. Einstein won the Nobel Prize in 1921, not for relativityâ€”still considered too controversialâ€”but for another of his discoveries of 1905, the photoelectric effect. The first book in English on special relativity was published by mathematician Robert D. Carmichael of Indiana University in 1912. At the same time, physicist Percy W. Bridgman began to work out the role of relativity in the philosophy of modern physics. But, perhaps because of the difficulty of the theory and its lingering aura of controversy, coverage of the theory in textbooks was sparse. Prior to World War II most American textbooks simply presented special relativity as a theory suggested by the Michelson-Morley experiment, which was understood as having proven that the speed of light was invariant. Such discussions were wrong on two counts: first, Michelson-Morley measured the speed of light but made no claims regarding its invariance; second, Einstein was in all likelihood unaware of that famous experiment when he conceived his theory. In 1906, four years after he had founded the Edison Portland Cement Company at Stewartsville, New Jersey, Thomas Edison announced that his solution to the problem of the housing shortage and inner city slums was the reinforced concrete house, which, if he had his way, could be built in a week. Edison thought he might be able to pour an entire house in one operation. Houses could then roll off a production line and be sold at a low price. Such houses could be built almost entirely of fire-resistant materials, thus also saving the cost of fire insurance. Edison identified bentonite clay as a substance that had the binding and stability requirements suitable to such monumental concrete structures and determined that more than one structure would have to be built on a single site in order to save on construction costs. All architectural and decorative features, from staircases to exterior flourishes, were included in the mold, and colors were added to the concrete mix to avoid any separate painting of the structure. After years of hoopla Edison had failed to produce a single house. Finally two houses were cast in Montclair, New Jersey (they remain standing today), but Edison decided that the process was too grandiose and complex. He then designed a smaller, two-bedroom model with a front porch, weighing 250,000 pounds, some 200,000 less than the Montclair prototypes. This house was built in South Orange, New Jersey, in 1910. Edison's ideas for the utility of concrete extended even to house-hold furnishings. He boasted that a line of furniture made from a kind of foamy concrete would cost half as much as wood and outlast the marriages of their buyers. In 1911 he actually molded some prototypes, including cabinets, a bathtub, and even a piano! Edison's cement business was to have some great achievements, including the building of Yankee Stadium, and several successful Edison houses were built in Union, New Jersey, in 1917, but the idea never caught on. In spite of the longevity of those houses that were built, Edison, at least in the area of design, was a prophet without honor. Michael Peterson, "Thomas Edison's Concrete Houses," The American Heritage of Invention and Technology, 11 (Winter 1996): 50-56. Thomas F. Glick, ed., The Comparative Reception of Relativity (Dordrecht, Netherlands: D. Reidel, 1987).
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Answers:A general description of biotechnology is using living things to create products or to do tasks for human beings. Biotechnology is the practice of using plants, animals and micro-organisms such as bacteria, as well as biological processes - such as the ripening of fruit or the bacteria that break down compost - to some benefit. For example, biotechnology is used in in industry, medicine and agriculture to produce foods, medicines, test for diseases and remove waste. Salary ranges depend on your specialization with in bio tech Click on the second liink and then click on careers it gives you salaty ranges for the various specialization(in Ausi dollars) but the dollar id just about at parity so it will give you a bgood idea.iutmf It can also be used to solve problems and conduct research. Over time, biotechnology has formed the basis of learning about people and diseases. Biotechnology has also underpinned the development of treatments. This section explains the basic science behind biotechnology, including gene technology. It can be used as an introduction to the topic, or as a cross-reference when working through the rest of this resource. Careers Have you thought about what you want to be when you leave school? This is a question we are asked from very early in life and the decisions you make through school can influence the work you will do. One option for students is to study genetics, medicine, botany, agriculture and other biotechnology-related disciplines. But studying subjects such as these does not mean you need to follow these to the exclusion of everything else. And just because you hold a higher university degree does not necessarily mean that you must do bench research. Biotechnology-related degrees can be excellent starting points for a range of exciting and varied careers. These career profiles also show that plans can change as time goes on, and you find other areas that interest you
Answers:C. Advances in one may lead to advances in the other. Science is our understanding of the world. Technology is our use of tools and our understanding of the world to change that world. It is NOT one of the natural sciences. The two are closely related since what seems like impractical advances in science often become practical advances in technology (example quantum mechanics seems to be abstract and really out there but all modern chemistry and advanced electronics use quantum mechanics to explain how they work. The cell phone is a product of quantum mechanics).
Answers:When most people think of opportunities for careers in biotechnology, they think of a scientist in a white coat in a laboratory developing drugs to improve the quality of life. However, biotechnology has a wide variety of career opportunities ranging from sales and marketing, to research and development, to manufacturing and quality control and assurance. The biotechnology industry continues to flourish nationwide. Not only are the total number of biotechnology companies increasing, but employment in the biotechnology field continues to grow as well. Biotechnology is a $30 billion a year industry that has produced some 160 drugs and vaccines. There are more than 370 biotech drug products and vaccines currently in clinical trials targeting more than 200 diseases, including various cancers, Alzheimer s disease, heart disease, diabetes, multiple sclerosis, AIDS and arthritis. Biotechnology is responsible for hundreds of medical diagnostic tests that keep the blood supply safe from the AIDS virus and detect other conditions early enough to be successfully treated. Home pregnancy tests are also biotechnology diagnostic products. Genetic engineering is sweeping the world s farms. Seven million farmers in 18 countries grew genetically engineered crops on 16.72 million acres last year. Consumers already are enjoying biotechnology foods such as papaya, soybeans and corn. Hundreds of biopesticides and other agricultural products also are being used to improve our food supply and to reduce our dependence on conventional chemical pesticides. Environmental biotechnology products make it possible to clean up hazardous waste more efficiently by harnessing pollution-eating microbes without the use of caustic chemicals. Industrial biotechnology applications have led to cleaner processes that produce less waste and use less energy and water in such industrial sectors as chemicals, pulp and paper, textiles, food, energy, and metals and minerals. For example, most laundry detergents produced in the United States contain biotechnology-based enzymes. DNA fingerprinting, a biotech process, has dramatically improved criminal investigation and forensic medicine, as well as afforded significant advances in anthropology and wildlife management. There are 1,473 biotechnology companies in the United States, of which 314 are publicly held. Market capitalization, the total value of publicly traded biotech companies (U.S.) at market prices, was $311 billion as of mid-March 2004. The biotechnology industry has mushroomed since 1992, with U.S. revenues increasing from $8 billion in 1992 to $39.2 billion in 2003. The U.S. biotechnology industry employed 198,300 people as of Dec. 31, 2003. Biotechnology is one of the most research-intensive industries in the world. The U.S. biotech industry spent $17.9 billion on research and development in 2003. The top eight biotech companies spent an average of $104,000 per employee on R&D in 2003. The biotech industry is regulated by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Department of Agriculture (USDA). Source: Biotechnology Industry Organization
Answers:I am pretty sure the word botany is the study of plants: aka not technology. I am confused by that "let me ask if this is correct ..." question. But some sciences that use technology, let me see, ~engineers: physics (science) and the use of modern tool (ie computer graphics) (tecnology) ~radiologist: studies the human anatomy (science) an the use of computers and x-ray machines (technology) ~microbiology: studies cells and other microscopic organisms (science) uses micrscopes, computers etc. (technology) ~you could use botany if you did- botany: study of plants (science) use of digital humidity,light, etc censors (technology) ~aero space engineer (astronaut... i think): study of the unviverse, outer space, etc; physics (sciene) uses computers, high tech microscopes, etc (technology) Ok here is five, hope this helps