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From Wikipedia


An autotroph, also called a producer, is an organism that produces complex organic compounds (such as carbohydrates, fats, and proteins) from simple inorganic molecules using energy from light (by photosynthesis) or inorganic chemical reactions (chemosynthesis). They are the producers in a food chain, such as plants on land or algae in water. They are able to make their own food and can fix carbon. Therefore, they do not utilize organic compounds as an energy source or a carbon source. Autotrophs can reduce carbon dioxide (add hydrogen to it) to make organic compounds. The reduction of carbon dioxide, a low-energy compound, creates a store of chemical energy. Most autotrophs use water as the reducing agent, but some can use other hydrogen compounds such as hydrogen sulfide. An autotroph converts physical energy from sun light (in case of green plants) into chemical energy in the form of reduced carbon.

Autotroph can be phototrophs or lithotrophs (chemoautotrophs). Phototrophs use light as an energy source, while lithotrophs oxidize inorganic compounds, such as hydrogen sulfide, elemental sulfur, ammonium and ferrous iron. Phototrophs and lithotrophs use a portion of the ATP produced during photosynthesis or the oxidation of inorganic compounds to reduce NADP+ to NADPH in order to form organic compounds.


Autotrophs are fundamental to the food chains of all ecosystems in the world. They take energy from the environment in the form of sunlight or inorganic chemicals and use it to create energy-rich molecules such as carbohydrates. This mechanism is called primary production. Other organisms, called heterotrophs, take in autotrophs as food to carry out functions necessary for their life. Thus, heterotrophs — all animals, almost all fungi, as well as most bacteria and protozoa— depend on autotrophs for the energy and raw materials they need. Heterotrophs obtain energy by breaking down organic molecules (carbohydrates, fats, and proteins) obtained in food. Carnivorous organisms ultimately rely on autotrophs because the nutrients obtained from their heterotroph prey come from autotrophs they consumed.


Some organisms rely on organic compounds as a source of carbon, but are able to use light or inorganic compounds as a source of energy. Such organisms are not defined as autotrophic, but rather as heterotrophic. An organism that obtains carbon from organic compounds but obtains energy from light is called a photoheterotroph, while an organism that obtains carbon from organic compounds but obtains energy from the oxidation of inorganic compounds is termed achemoheterotrophor chemolithoheterotroph.

Evidence suggests that some fungi may also obtain energy from radiation. Such radiotrophic fungi were found growing inside a reactor of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant.


  • Autotroph
    • Chemoheterotroph
    • Photoheterotroph

Sports nutrition

Sports nutrition is the study and practice of nutrition and diet as it relates to athletic performance. It is concerned with the type and quantity of fluid and food taken by an athlete, and deals with nutrients such as vitamins, minerals, supplements and organic substances such as carbohydrates, proteins and fats. Although an important part of many sports training regimens, it is most commonly considered in strength sports (such as weight lifting and bodybuilding) and endurance sports (for example cycling, running, triathlon).Sports and running are important for a healthy lifestyle.



From the time when the ancient Greeks and Romans started the Olympic games, the athletes had their own special regimen for great performance which included diet and nutrition. For example, Milo of Croton, the wrestler with legendary strength who won five successive Olympic Games from 532 to 516 B.C., ate “9|kg of meat, 9|kg of bread and 8.5|l|USpt of wine a day,� according to Athenaeus and Pausanias (Grandjean). Alcohol was commonly drunk as an ergogenic aid to increase performance in the Olympics through the early 1900s.


The view of sports nutrition today has much evolved from the ancient Olympic gladiators’ meal plan. Scientists are continually interested in learning more about this abiding subject. Research shows that the coupling of exercise and proper diet is what produces a healthy lifestyle that can maintain the “prevention/management of [chronic diseases such as] noninsulin-independent diabetes, hypertension, coronary heart disease, osteoporosis, obesity, mental health, colon cancers, stroke and back injury.� In 2008, US News reported that 65% of Americans exercised regularly by working out, playing sports, and/or other physical activities, thus the importance of proper nutrition is of great interest to athletes and exercisers for optimal performance and long term benefits. In addition to diet, social and cultural influences, lifestyle habits, motivation and training determine successful athletic performance (Maughan). However, states Maughan, “without proper nutrition, the full potential of the athlete will not be realized, because performance will not be at its peak, training levels may not be sustained, recovery from injury will be slower, and the athlete may become more susceptible to injury and infection.� Understanding sports nutrition leads to optimal athletic performance and lifetime health benefits and can thus be evaluated by the intake of certain nutrients and supplements when exercising, by learning the way the body utilizes these materials and how these practices complement future diet and exercise of the individual.


Sports nutrition has many goals to enhance performance. First, it improves performance by improving body composition, which increases speed, quickness, mobility, and strength. Second, it will help the speed of recovery, which will in turn create more capacity for practicing and competition as the body is becoming more fit and adjusted to the coupling of the good nutrition incorporated into the workout regimen. Third, it will allow one to increase energy for both practice and competition, which will definitely help one's performance. Strategic diet will also increase immunity, allowing one to stay healthy and be able to continue and intensify practice and training. Most importantly, it will improve your overall health as proper health is essential to all aspects of life. It is important for an athlete to maintain weight by increase muscle and decreasing fat. Weight gain places strain on cardiovascular and respiratory systems which slowing an athlete down and creating more stress on the body. While weight loss means that a person is not getting enough nutrients to sustain the body causing poor recovery and extreme fatigue. athlete does this by eating foods high in protein, complex carbohydrates and other micronutrients. Athletes need to avoid junk foods that are low in nutrients and high in saturated fat and sugar. Most of all athletes should eat foods that have the most nutritional benefit for the amount of calories it is.


Many athletes consider taking dietary supplements because they are looking for the “magic ingredient� to increase performance. In the extreme case of performance-enhancing supplements, athletes (particularly bodybuilders) may choose to use illegal substances such as anabolic steroids, compounds which are related to the hormone testosterone, which can quickly build mass and strength, but have many adverse effects such as high blood pressure and negative gender specific effects. Blood doping, another illegal ergogenic, was discovered in the 1940s when it was used by World War II pilots.

Dietary protein began to be consumed in the 1940s and muscle building results were found in resistance and strength training athletes. Protein intake is a part of the nutrient requirements for the regular athlete and is an important component of exercise training, because it can also aid in performance and recovery. Dietary protein intake for well-trained athletes should occur before, during and after physical activity as it is advantageous in gaining muscle mass and strength. However, if too much protein and amino acid supplements are consumed (especially by the Average Joe exerciser), it can be more harmful than beneficial; health risks include: “dehydration, gout, calcium loss, liver, and renal damage [and] gastrointestinal side effects include diarrhea, bloating, and water loss" (Lawerence). A bountiful protein diet must be paired with a healthy, well-rounded meal plan and regular resistance exercise. Yet, characteristics such as the type of exercise, intensity, duration, the carbohydrate values of diet, the individual's sex and age and also the amount of background training and training environment.

Creatine may be helpful for well-trained athletes to increase exercise performance and strength in concordance with their dietary regimen. Also, the substance glutamine, found in whey protein supplements, is the most abundant free amino acid found in the human body. For well-trained and well-nourished athletes it is considered that glutamine may have a possible role in stimulated anabolic processes such muscle glycogen and protein synthesis. Other popular supplements studies done include androstenedione, chromium, and ephedra. The findings show that there are no substantial benefits from the extra intake of these supplements, yet higher health risks and costs.

High energy supplements have shown to increase the p

Animal nutrition

There are seven major classes of nutrients: carbohydrates, fats, fiber, minerals, protein, vitamin, and water.

These nutrient classes can be categorized as either macronutrients (needed in relatively large amounts) or micronutrients (needed in smaller quantities). The macronutrients are carbohydrates, fats, fiber, proteins, and water. The micronutrients are minerals and vitamins.

The macronutrients (excluding fiber and water) provide structural material (amino acids from which proteins are built, and lipids from which cell membranes and some signaling molecules are built), energy. Some of the structural material can be used to generate energy internally, and in either case it is measured in joules or calories (sometimes called "kilocalories" and on other rare occasions written with a capital C to distinguish them from little 'c' calories). Carbohydrates and proteins provide 17 kJ approximately (4 kcal) of energy per gram, while fats provide 37 kJ (9 kcal) per gram., though the net energy from either depends on such factors as absorption and digestive effort, which vary substantially from instance to instance. Vitamins, minerals, fiber, and water do not provide energy, but are required for other reasons. A third class dietary material, fiber (i.e., non-digestible material such as cellulose), seems also to be required, for both mechanical and biochemical reasons, though the exact reasons remain unclear.

Molecules of carbohydrates and fats consist of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms. Carbohydrates range from simple monosaccharides (glucose, fructose, galactose) to complex polysaccharides (starch). Fats are triglycerides, made of assorted fatty acidmonomers bound to glycerol backbone. Some fatty acids, but not all, are essential in the diet: they cannot be synthesized in the body. Protein molecules contain nitrogen atoms in addition to carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen. The fundamental components of protein are nitrogen-containing amino acids, some of which are essential in the sense that humans cannot make them internally. Some of the amino acids are convertible (with the expenditure of energy) to glucose and can be used for energy production just as ordinary glucose. By breaking down existing protein, some glucose can be produced internally; the remaining amino acids are discarded, primarily as urea in urine. This occurs normally only during prolonged starvation.

Other micronutrients include antioxidants and phytochemicals which are said to influence (or protect) some body systems. Their necessity is not as well established as in the case of, for instance, vitamins.

Most foods contain a mix of some or all of the nutrient classes, together with other substances such as toxins or various sorts. Some nutrients can be stored internally (e.g., the fat soluble vitamins), while others are required more or less continuously. Poor health can be caused by a lack of required nutrients or, in extreme cases, too much of a required nutrient. For example, both salt and water (both absolutely required) will cause illness or even death in too large amounts.


Carbohydrates may be classified as monosaccharides, disaccharides, or polysaccharides depending on the number of monomer (sugar) units they contain. They constitute a large part of foods such as rice, noodles, bread, and other grain-based products. Monosaccharides contain one sugar unit, disaccharides two, and polysaccharides three or more. Polysaccharides are often referred to as complex carbohydrates because they are typically long multiple branched chains of sugar units. The difference is that complex carbohydrates take longer to digest and absorb since their sugar units must be separated from the chain before absorption. The spike in blood glucose levels after ingestion of simple sugars is thought to be related to some of the heart and vascular diseases which have become more frequent in recent times. Simple sugars form a greater part of modern diets than formerly, perhaps leading to more cardiovascular disease. The degree of causation is still not clear, however.


A molecule of dietary fat typically consists of several fatty acids (containing long chains of carbon and hydrogen atoms), bonded to a glycerol. They are typically found as triglycerides (three fatty acids attached to one glycerol backbone). Fats may be classified as saturated or unsaturated depending on the detailed structure of the fatty acids involved. Saturated fats have all of the carbon atoms in their fatty acid chains bonded to hydrogen atoms, whereas unsaturated fats have some of these carbon atoms double-bonded, so their molecules have relatively fewer hydrogen atoms than a saturated fatty acid of the same length. Unsaturated fats may be further classified as monounsaturated (one double-bond) or polyunsaturated (many double-bonds). Furthermore, depending on the location of the double-bond in the fatty acid chain, unsaturated fatty acids are classified as omega-3 or omega-6 fatty acids. Trans fats are a type of unsaturated fat with trans-isomer bonds; these are rare in nature and in foods from natural sources; they are typically created in an industrial process called (partial) hydrogenation.

Many studies have shown that unsaturated fats, particularly monounsaturated fats, are best i

Saprotrophic nutrition

Saprotrophic nutrition (sæprɵˈtrɒfɪk) is a process of chemoheterotrophic extra-cellular digestion involved in the processing of dead or decayed organic matter which occurs in saprotrophs or heterotrophs, and is most often associated with fungi, for example MucorandRhizopus. The process is most often facilitated through theactive transport of such materials through endocytosis within the internal mycelium and its constituent hyphae.



As matter decomposes within a medium in which a saprotroph is residing, the saphrotroph breaks such matter down into their composites;

These products are re-absorbed into the hypha through the cell wall via endocytosis and passed on throughout the mycelium complex. This facilitates the passage of such materials throughout the organism and allows for growth, and if necessary, repair.


In order for a saprotrophic organism to facilitate optimal growth and repair, favourable conditions and nutrients must be present. Optimal conditions refers to several conditions which optimise the growth of saprotrophic organisms, such as;

  1. Presence of water - 80-90% of the fungus is composed of water by mass, and requires excess water for absorption due to the evaporation of internally retent water.
  2. Presence of oxygen - Very few saphrotrophic organisms can endure anaerobic conditions due to their growth above media such as water or soil.
  3. Neutral-acidic pH - The condition of neutral or mildly acidic conditions under pH 7 are required.
  4. Low-medium temperature - The majority of saprotrophic organisms require temperatures between 1 Â°C and 35 Â°C, with optimum growth occurring at 25 Â°C.

The majority of nutrients taken in by such organisms must be able to provide carbon, proteins, vitamins and in some cases, ions. Due to the carbon composition of the majority of organisms, dead and organic matter provide rich sources of polysaccharides disaccharides such as glucose, maltose and starch.

In terms of nitrogen-rich sources, saprotrophs require combined protein for the creation of proteins, which is facilitated by the absorption of amino acids, and usually taken from rich soil. Although both ions and vitamins are rare, thiamine or ions such as potassium, phosphorus and magnesium aid the growth of the mycelium.

From Yahoo Answers


Answers:Ok heterotrophs are the organism that finds food, does matter if they just digest them or the hunt for the food, its the same, so all you have to remeber is the organism that doesn;t make food for themselve the organism that are heterotrophs are anything but plants, meaning fungi, protist, animals, Autotroph are the organism taht make their food, plants are one, and their is some organism that can make their own food but also hunt for their food, mostly marine plankton

Question:I already know that a venus flytrap is an autotroph, because it eats flies and other small insects strictly for proteins. Is there one that exists that's both??? thank you!!

Answers:ANSWER: Yes! EXAMPLE: Euglena. It is a single-celled organism that has both plant- and animal-like characteristics. It is classified as a Eukaryote from Kingdom Protista. CHARACTERISTICS: It can photosynthesize when there is light, therefore, it can make its own food. But when light is not available it can get food from its aquatic environment. It can also swim by the motion of its flagella. For more information and a killer video, see the site below:

Question:what is the difference between an autotroph and a heterotrph? Describr the source or energy each relies upon.

Answers:Greek autos = self and trophe = nutrition) is an organism that produces complex organic compounds from simple inorganic molecules and an external source of energy, such as light or chemical reactions of inorganic compounds. Autotrophs are considered producers in a food chain. Plants and other organisms that carry out photosynthesis are phototrophs (or photoautotrophs). Bacteria that utilize the oxidation of inorganic compounds such as hydrogen sulfide, ammonium or ferrous iron as an energy source are chemoautotrophs (some are known as lithotrophs). Autotrophs are a vital part of the food chains of all ecosystems. They take energy from the environment (sunlight or inorganic sources) and use it to process carbon-based and other organic molecules that are used to carry out various biological functions such as cell growth. Other organisms, called heterotrophs, utilize autotrophs as food to carry out these same functions. Thus, heterotrophs animals, fungi, as well as most bacteria and protozoa depend on autotrophs for both energy and raw materials to make complex organic molecules. This mechanism is called primary production in the sea. Heterotrophs obtain energy by breaking down organic molecules obtained in food. Carnivorous animals ultimately rely on autotrophs because the energy and organic building blocks obtained from their prey comes from autotrophs they preyed upon. There are some species of organisms that require organic compounds as a source of carbon, but are able to use light or inorganic compounds as a source of energy. Such organisms are not defined as autotrophic, but rather as heterotrophic. An organism that obtains carbon from organic compounds but obtains energy from light is called a photoheterotroph, while an organism that obtains carbon from organic compounds but obtains energy from the oxidation of inorganic compounds is termed a chemoheterotroph. A heterotroph (Greek heterone = (an)other and trophe = nutrition) is an organism that requires organic substrates to get its carbon for growth and development. A heterotroph is known as a consumer in the food chain. Contrast with autotrophs which use inorganic carbon dioxide or bicarbonate as sole carbon source. All animals are heterotrophic, as well as fungi and many bacteria. Some parasitic plants have also turned fully or partially heterotrophic, whereas carnivorous plants use their flesh diet to augment their nitrogen supply, but are still autotrophic. Heterotrophs are unable to synthesize organic, carbon based compounds independently from the inorganic environment's sources (e.g. Animalia, unlike Plantae, cannot photosynthesize) and therefore must obtain their nutrition from another heterotroph or an autotroph. For a species to be termed a heterotroph, it must obtain its carbon from organic compounds. If it obtains nitrogen from organic compounds, but not energy, it will be deemed an autotroph. If a species obtains carbon from organic compounds then there are two possible subtypes of these heterotrophs: * photoheterotroph obtains energy from light and must obtain carbon in an organic form * chemoheterotroph obtains energy from the the consumption of organic molecules and an organic form of carbon In simpler terminology, a heterotroph is an organism that is incapable of making its own food from light or inorganic compounds, and feeds on organisms or the remains of other organisms to get its necessary energy to survive.

Question:Don't worry this is not a question so I can copy your answer to answer from the text book. I'm just confused on the difference. What one uses photosynthesis ? Aren't they the same thing?

Answers:Producer: provides food for others. And example would be a cow is the producer and man would be a consumer. The cow provides food to man. Autotroph: provides food for self..hence photosynthesis. Plants do photosynthesis which is energy from the sun, plant creates its own sugars for food.

From Youtube

How to Teach Kid's Nutrition : Physical Activities for Kids :Get some examples of fun activities for four and five year olds that will keep them physically fit withexpert childcare tips in this free online healthy kids diet video clip. Expert: Pamela Grier Bio: Pamela Grier has been working in the childcare industry for more than three years. She works at a 5-star childcare facility. Filmmaker: Reel Media LLC

Muscle Building Nutrition - Part 1 B :www.LeeHayward.com I'm going to break down the elements that make up a good muscle building meal. First off you need to consume a high protein intake. The general rule of 1 gram of protein per pound of bodyweight daily is a good place to start. I know there is a lot of controversy over protein intake, but the bottom line is I've never met a single person yet who was big and muscular who did not consume a high protein diet. Every single one of your meals needs to have a good source of protein. You should space your protein intake out equally over 6 small meals per day. You don't have to be 100% spot on with this, but try your best to space your protein intake out so that you provide your body with a continuous supply of amino acids to help support muscle growth. This is how you would calculate out how much protein you should strive to eat for each meal. First you need to consume at least 1 gram of protein per pound of bodyweight daily. So for example if you weigh 175 lbs. then you should be eating at least 175 grams of protein per day. 175 grams of protein divided up over the course of 6 meals works out to approx. 30 grams of protein per meal. The best sources of protein are lean animal proteins such as Skinless Chicken Skinless Turkey Lean cuts of Beef, Pork, Lamb, etc. All kinds of Fish Eggs & Egg whites Dairy products like milk & cottage cheese These foods are complete proteins because they contain all of the essential amino acids needed for muscle growth. Many ...