examples of anatomy and physiology

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Question:Anatomy and Physiology I Lecture Test 2 2 Characteristics of organic compounds. 4 organic molecules. Examples of carbohydrates. Carbs are always make or what three elements, and in what ration? Most common sugar and it s formula? Define polysaccharide. Name a 3, 4, 5 & 6 carbon sugar. What group is carbon double bonded to oxygen? What group is carbon double bonded to oxygen and single bonded to hydrogen? What two things do these groups supply? Prefixes for 1, 2, 3, and many sugars. Most common polysaccharide in the body. How does anabolic synthesis of various polysaccharides occur? Removing water to form a new bond. What is sugar used for? What is stored energy? Examples of a lipid. How to test for lipid content? Special property of lipids. What 3 things are lipids composed of? What 2 things also sometimes compose lipids? In composition there is always more ___ and less ___. 4 types of lipid and one lipid like molecule. Simplest lipid = ____ ____ (aka). Most common lipid in the body. Composition of a neutral fat or _______. How do the components of a neutral fat hood together? Define atherosclerosis. Define arteriosclerosis. Define saturated fats, what is their state at room temperature, and give an example. Define unsaturated fats, what is their state at room temperature, and give an example. Define a phospholipid. Phospholipids are most important in what? What are the 4 vitalipids? What is a phosphate head in a ppl? What has lipid properties, but is not a true lipid? Core molecules of steroids 2 specific examples of steroids. Where is cholesterol located naturally? 2 types of cholesterol (stipulation of both). 6 functions of lipids. Cell recognition cites, name and function. What are nucleic acids? 2 kinds of nucleic acids. Subunits of nucleic acids. What 3 things compose those subunits. What are the 4 bases of DNA? In RNA, what base replaces which DNA base? What are the big bases, and what are they also called? What are the small bases, and what are they also called? DNA complimentary base pairs. RNA complimentary base pairs. Hereditary information dictating protein structure. Mutations? Double stranded coiled molecule. Who discovered this coil, and from what? His research proved A bonds with T and G bonds with C. What did Watson and Crick win the nobel prize for? What are the protein factories? Genetic material that can travel. Define transcription. Define translation. 5-6 steps in transcription. What is mRNA sent to the ribosome with? What does tRNA bring to the copy location? 3 nucleotide sequence of mRNA is a ____? 3 nucleotide sequence of tRNA is a ____? What are the subunits of protein and how many exist? These subunits always contain? Sometimes contain? Define radical, and give its other name. 3 factors creating unique proteins. What is the smallest protein? A covalent bond in an amino acid. 2, 3, and many bonded amino acid. How do amino acids bond? 4 levels of protein structure. Differentiate between fibrous proteins and globular proteins. Primary levels referred to as ____ ____ ____. Secondary level referred to as ____ ____ ____. What provides structure in secondary level? Single AA chains ran together (accordion-like). 3 examples of fibrous proteins. 3 examples of globular proteins. Tertiary level also referred to as _____? (Structure?) Define quaternary protein level. Define enzyme. What is the reactant an enzyme works with? 2 functions of enzymes. What is the lock and key theory? Spot on an enzyme that acts as a keyhole. Turnover number? Describe relation of the concentrations of substrates and enzymes. How does temperature effect enzymatic reactions? What is the first stage of cell division? During which stage does the nuclear membrane start to bread down? Define karyokinesis. Define cytokinesis. In what stage are the chromosomes lined up across the middle of the cell? What is the cleavage furrow? What happens during anaphase? What roles do the spindle fibers play in cell division? Draw and label a double stranded chromosome. What are the differences between plant and animal cell division?

Answers:email me at jwinkl3@uiuc.edu and i can help you with most of those

Question:Thank you in advance for your help! For each statement describing hormonal effects, identify the hormone(s) involved by choosing a number from Key A, and note the hormone's site of production with a letter from key B. More than one homone may be involved in some cases. For example: 16, L basal metabolism hormone KEY A: 1. ACTH 2. ADH 3. aldosterone 4. calcitonin 5. cortisone 6. epinephrine 7. estrogens 8. FSH 9. Glucagon 10. insulin 11. LH 12. oxytocin 13. progesterone 14. prolactin 15. PTH 16. T4/T3 17. Testosterone 18. Thymosn 19. TSH KEY B a. Adrenal Cortex b. Adrenal Medulla c. Anterior piuitary d. hypothalmus e. Ovaries f. Pancreas g. Parathryoid Glands h. Pineal Gland i. Posterior pituitary j. Testes k. Thymus l. Thyroid ___, ___ 1. Programming of T Lymphocytes ___, ___ and ___, ___ 2. Regulate bood calcium levels ___, ___ and ___, ___ 3. Released in response to stressors ___, ___ and ___, ___ 4. Drive development of secondary sexual characteristics ___, ___; ___, ___; ___,___: and ___, ___ 5. regulate the function of another endocrine gland ___, ___ 6. mimics the sympathetic nervous system ___, ___ and ___, ___ 7. regulate blood glucos levels; produced by the same mixed gland ___, ___ and ___, ___ 8. directly responsible for regulation of the menstrual cycle ___, ___ and ___, ___ 9. maintenance of salt and water alance in teh extracellular fluid ___, ___ and ___, ___ 10. directly involved in milk production and ejection

Answers:1- 18,K 2- 4,L 15,G 3- 5,A 1,C (6,B can also be a choice depend on situation) 4- 17,J 7,E 5- 1,C 8,C 11,C 19,D (A lot of the hormones from key A also affect other endocrine gland. I can elaborate if you need.) 6- 6,B (weird question, tho this is one of the hormone release by sympathetic nervous system) 7- 9,F 10,F 8- 8,C 11,C 9- 2,D 3,A 10- 14,C 12,D The keys did not use: 13-Progesterone support gestation, high in luteal phase, no question. 16-T4/T3 deal with basal metabolic rate, no question. I-Posterior Pituitary is not a site of endocrine production, but a site of hormone release. H-Pineal Gland mainly deal with melatonin, which is not in key A.

Question:please help me with these 2 questions please? Explain why some chemical compounds go into solution and others go into a collidal suspension in the cytoplasm. Why should plant cells be studied in a human anatomy and physiology class?

Answers:In chemistry, a solution is a homogeneous mixture composed of two or more substances, known as solutes, dissolved in another substance, known as a solvent. A common example is a solid, such as salt or sugar, dissolved in water, a liquid. Gases may dissolve in liquids, for example, carbon dioxide or oxygen in water. Liquids may dissolve in other liquids and gases always mix with other gases . Examples of solid solutions are alloys, certain minerals and polymers containing plasticizers. The ability of one compound to dissolve in another compound is called solubility. The physical properties of compounds such as melting point and boiling point change when other compound are added. Together they are called colligative properties. There are several ways to quantify the amount of one compound dissolved in the other compounds collectively called concentration. Examples are molality and parts per million (ppm). Solutions should be distinguished from other non-homogeneous mixtures such as colloids and suspensio In general, a colloid or colloidal dispersion is a substance with components of one or two phases, a type of mixture intermediate between a homogeneous mixture (also called a solution) and a heterogeneous mixture with properties also intermediate between the two. Typical membranes restrict the passage of dispersed colloidial particles more than they restrict the passage of dissolved ions or molecules; i.e. ions or molecules may diffuse through a membrane through which dispersed colloidal particles will not. The dispersed phase particles are largely affected by the surface chemistry existent in the colloid. Many familiar substances, including butter, milk, cream, aerosols (fog, smog, smoke), asphalt, inks, paints, glues, and sea foam are colloids. This field of study was introduced in 1861 by Scottish scientist Thomas Graham. The size of dispersed phase particles in a colloid range from one nanometer to one micrometer. Dispersions where the particle size is in this range are referred to as colloidal aerosols, colloidal emulsions, colloidal foams, or colloidal suspensions or dispersions. Colloids may be colored or translucent because of the Tyndall effect, which is the scattering of light by particles in the colloid. Plant cells are studied as the basic idea of a cell with its structure and function is easy to under stand.

Question:21.Vasomotor tone a.Is maintained by the parasympathetic nervous system b.Occurs in response to the vasomotor center in the cerebellum c.Occurs when action potentials travel through sympathetic vasodilation fibers d.Keeps peripheral blood vessels in a partially constricted state 22.After blood leaves the capillaries, it enters the a.Arteries b.Arterioles c.Capillaries d.Venules e.Veins 23.Which of these regulatory mechanisms would occur in response to a sudden increase in blood pressure? a.A decrease in vasomotor tone b.Vasodilation of blood vessels c.Parasympathetic stimulation of the heart d.All of these e.None of these 24.Venous valves are responsible for a.Preventing blood flowing from arteries to veins b.Channeling blood away from the heart c.Channeling blood toward the heart d.Both a and b e.Both A and C 25.Which of the following is a function of the blood? a.transport of nutrients and wastes b.transport of body heat c.transport of gases d.defense against toxins and pathogens e.all of the above 26.Formed elements make up about what average percentage of blood? a.65% b.38% c.60% d.45% e.20% 27.The total volume of blood in the body of a 76-kg (167lbs) man is approximately __ liters. a.10.0 b.7.1 c.5.5 d.4.2 e.3.8 28.A plasma protein essential for blood coagulation is a.albumin b.fibrinogen c.immunoglobulins d.transport proteins e.lipoprotein 29.Which of the following statements concerning red blood cells is false? a.red cells are biconcave discs b.red cells lack mitochondria c.red cells are specialized for carrying oxygen d.red cells can form stacks called rouleaux e.red cells secrete cytokines (chemicals which attract white blood cells) 30.The developmental stage at which erythrocytes enter the circulation is as a.hemocytoblasts b.reticulocytes c.band forms d.myeloid cells e.proerythrocytes 31.All of the following are true of neutrophils, except that they are a.granular leukocytes b.phagocytic c.have nuclei with several lobes (aka polymorphonuclear leukocytes) d.important in coagulation e.active in fighting bacterial infections 32.White blood cells that release histamine at the site of an injury are a.neutrophils b.eosinophils c.basophils d.lymphocytes e.monocytes 33.____ involves a cascade of reactions leading to the conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin a.vascular spasm b.the platelet phase c.retraction d.coagulation e.fibrinolysis 34.Which of the following vitamins is needed for the formation of clotting factors? a.vitamin A b.vitamin B c.vitamin K d.vitamin D e.vitamin E 35.Each hemoglobin molecule contains a.four alpha chains b.one alpha and one beta chain c.four iron atoms d.one heme group e.B and C only 36.A person with Type A blood has a.antigen A on the RBCs b.anti-B agglutinins (antibodies) in the plasma c.anti-A agglutinins (antibodies) on the red blood cells d.A and B only e.B and C only 37.The disease sickle cell anemia is an example of what can happen if a.the diet is deficient in iron b.there in insufficient heme in the hemoglobin c.a gene for adult hemoglobin is abnormal d.red blood cells bind too much oxygen e.hemolysis is prevented by a bad gene 38.When a person who lives at sea level vacations in the Rocky Mountains, you would expect a.a drop in oxygen levels b.the release of erythropoietin c.a rise in hematocrit (% of formed elements in whole blood) d.both A and C e.A, B, and C 39.Bill wants to determine his blood type, so he takes a few drops of blood from a puncture wound in his finger and mixes it with various antisera. His blood cells agglutinate when mixed with the anti-A sera but not with the anti-B or anti-Rh sera. This means a.Bill could receive type A blood in a transfusion b.Bill could donate blood to an individual with type AB blood c.Bill is Rh positive d.Bill s plasma contains B agglutinins (antibodies) e.A, B, and D 40.Type O blood is called the universal donor primarily due to this feature. a.contains anti-A and anti-B agglutinins (antibodies) in the plasma b.contains A and B antigens on the RBCs c.contains no anti-A nor anti-B agglutinins (antibodies) in the plasma d.contains no A and B antigens on the RBCs e.type O blood is the universal recipient not the universal donor

Answers:22. After blood leaves the capillaries, it enters the d. Venules 24. Venous valves are responsible for c. Channeling blood toward the heart 25. Which of the following is a function of the blood? e. all of the above 29. Which of the following statements concerning red blood cells is false? e. red cells secrete cytokines (chemicals which attract white blood cells) (I think)

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Anatomy & Physiology: Bone Growth :Thanks to McGraw Hill you can watch this video about bone growth then complete the short quiz below too see if you learnt anything! Answers are at the bottom of the description. Good Luck! Animation: Bone Growth in Width (See related pages) View the animation below, then complete the quiz to test your knowledge of the concept. 1 Bone producing cells are... A) lamellae. B) osteons. C) osteoblasts. D) periosteum. E) endosteum. 2 The concentric rings of bone produced are... A) lamellae. B) osteons. C) osteoblasts. D) periosteum. E) endosteum. 3 The combination of all of the concentric rings of bone built around a single blood vessel is called a(n)... A) lamella. B) osteon. C) osteoblast. D) periosteum. E) endosteum. 4 Bone building cells beneath the endosteum lay down bone to form ridges around a blood vessel. A) True B) False 5 Once a tunnel of bone is formed around a blood vessel, the bone building cells of the periosteum lay down bone in concentric circles that fill in the tunnel. A) True B) False --------------------------------------------------------- ANSWERS: 1=C, 2=A, 3=B, 4=B, 5=B

17. Renal Physiology (cont.) :Frontiers of Biomedical Engineering (BENG 100) Professor Saltzman continues his description of nephron anatomy, and the specific role of each part of the nephron in establishing concentration gradients to help in secretion and reabsorption of water, ions, nutrients and wastes. A number of molecular transport processes that produces urine from the initial ultra-filtrate, such as passive diffusion by concentration difference, osmosis, and active transport with sodium-potassium ATPase, are listed. Next, Professor Saltzman describes a method to measure glomerular filtration rate (GFR) using tracer molecule, inulin. He then talks about regulation of sodium, an important ion for cell signaling in the body, as an example to demonstrate the different ways in which nephrons maintain homeostasis. Complete course materials are available at the Open Yale Courses website: open.yale.edu This course was recorded in Spring 2008.