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From Wikipedia

Binomial nomenclature

The formal system of naming species of living things is called binomial nomenclature (especially in botany, but also used by zoologists), binominal nomenclature (since 1953 the technically correct form in zoology), or binary nomenclature. This system of naming was invented byLinnaeus. The up-to-date version of the rules of naming for animals and plants are laid out in the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature and the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature respectively.

The essence of the binomial system of naming is this: each species name has two parts, the genus name and the species name (also known as the specific epithet), for example, Homo sapiens, which is the scientific name of the human species. Every two-part scientific name is either formed out of (modern scientific)Latin or is a Latinized version of words from other languages.

The two-part name of a species is commonly known as its Latin name. However,biologists and philologists prefer to use the term scientific name rather than "Latin name", because the words used to create these names are not always from the Latin language, even though words from other languages have usually been Latinized in order to make them suitable for this purpose. Species names are often derived from Ancient Greek words, or words from numerous other languages. Frequently species names are based on the surname of a person, such as a well-regarded scientist, or are a Latinized version of a relevant place name.

Carl von Linné (also known as Linnaeus) chose to use a two-word naming system, and did not use what over time came to be a full seven-category system (kingdom-phylum-class-order-family-genus-species.) Linnaeus chose a binomial nomenclature scheme, using only the genus name and the specific name or epithet which together form the whole name of the species. For example, humans belong to genus Homo and their specific name is sapiens. Humans as a species are thus classified as Homo sapiens. The first letter of the first name, the genus, is always capitalized, while that of the second is not, even when derived from a proper noun such as the name of a person or place. Conventionally, all names of genera and lower taxa are always italicised, while family names and higher taxa are printed in plain text. Species can be divided into a further rank, giving rise to a trinomial name for a subspecies (trinomenfor animals,ternary namefor plants).

Biologists, when using a name of a species, usually also give the authority and date of the species description. Thus zoologists will give the name of a particular sea snail species as: Patella vulgataLinnaeus, 1758. The name "Linnaeus" tells the reader who it was that described the species; 1758 is the date of the publication in which the original description can be found, in this case the bookSystema Naturae.

History

The adoption of a system of binomial nomenclature is due to Swedishbotanist and physicianCarl von Linné also known by his Latinized name Carolus Linnaeus (1707–1778). Linnaeus attempted to describe the entire known natural world, giving every species (mineral, plant, or animal) a two-part name. This was an improvement over descriptive names that involved a whole descriptive phrase comprising numerous words. However, binomial nomenclature in various forms had existed before Linnaeus, and was used by the Bauhins, who lived nearly two hundred years earlier.

Value

The value of the binomial nomenclature system derives primarily from its economy, its widespread use, and the stability of names it generally favors:

  • Clarity. It avoids the confusions that can be created when attempting to use common names to refer to a species. Common names often differ even from one part of a country to another part, and certainly vary from one country to another. In contrast, the scientific name can be used all over the world, in all languages, avoiding confusion and difficulties of translation.
  • Stability. The procedures associated with establishing binomial nomenclature tend to favor stability. Even though such stability as exists is far from absolute, it is still advantageous. For example, when species are transferred between genera (as not uncommonly happens as a result of new knowledge), if possible the species descriptor is kept the same. Similarly if what were previously thought to be distinct species are demoted from species to a lower rank, former species names may be retained as infraspecific descriptors.

Despite the rules favoring stability and uniqueness, in practice a single species may have several scientific names in circulation, depending largely on taxonomic point of view (see synonymy).

Derivation

The genus name and specific descriptor may come from any source. Often they are ordinary New Latin words, but they may also come from Ancient Greek, from a place, from a person (often a naturalist), a name from the local language etc. In fact, taxonomists come up with specific descriptors from a variety of sources, including in-jokes and puns. However, names are always treated gra

Plant anatomy

Plant anatomy or phytotomy is the general term for the study of the internal structure of plants. While originally it included plant morphology, which is the description of the physical form and external structure of plants, since the mid-20th century the investigations of plant anatomy are considered a separate, distinct field, and plant anatomy refers to just the internal plant structures. Plant anatomy is now frequently investigated at the cellular level, and often involves the sectioning of tissues and microscopy my life is amazingly hot.

Structural divisions

Plant anatomy is sometimes divided into the following categories:

Flower anatomy
Calyx
Corolla
Androecium
Gynoecium
Leaf anatomy
Leaf anatomy
Stem anatomy
Stem structure
Fruit/Seed anatomy
Ovule
Seed structure
Pericarp
Accessory fruit
Wood anatomy
Barkdodo

A Swiss physician and botanist, Gaspard Bauhin, introduced binomial nomenclature into plant taxonomy. He published Pinax theatri botanici in 1596, which was the first to use this convention for naming of species. His criteria for classification included natural relationships, or 'affinities', which in many cases were structural.

Italian doctor and microscopist, Marcello Malpighi, was one of the two founders of plant anatomy. In 1671 he published his Anatomia Plantarum, the first major advance in plant physiogamy since Aristotle.

The British doctor, Nehemiah Grew was one of the two founders of plant anatomy. He published An Idea of a Philosophical History of Plants in 1672 and The Anatomy of Plants in 1682. Grew is credited with the recognition of plant cells, although he called them 'vesicles' and 'bladders'. He correctly identified and described the sexual organs of plants (flowers) and their parts.

In the Eighteenth Century, Carolus Linnaeus established taxonomy based on structure, and his early work was with plant anatomy. While the exact structural level which is to be considered to be scientifically valid for comparison and differentiation has changed with the growth of knowledge, the basic principles were established by Linnaeus. He published his master work, Species Plantarum in 1753.

In 1802, French botanist, Charles-François Brisseau de Mirbel, published Traité d'anatomie et de physiologie végétale (Treatise on Plant Anatomy and Physiology) establishing the beginnings of the science of plant cytology.

In 1812, Johann Jacob Paul Moldenhawer published Beyträge zur Anatomie der Pflanzen, describing microscopic studies of plant tissues.

In 1813 a Swiss botanist, Augustin Pyrame de Candolle, published Théorie élémentaire de la botanique, in which he argued that plant anatomy, not physiology, ought to be the sole basis for plant classification. Using a scientific basis, he established structural criteria for defining and separating plant genera.

In 1830, Franz Meyen published Phytotomie, the first comprehensive review of plant anatomy.

In 1838 German botanist, Matthias Jakob Schleiden, published Contributions to Phytogenesis, stating, "the lower plants all consist of one cell, while the higher plants are composed of (many) individual cells" thus confirming and continuing Mirabel's work.

A German-Polish botanist, Eduard Strasburger, described the mitotic process in plant cells and further demonstrated that new cell nuclei can only arise from the division of other pre-existing nuclei. His Studien über Protoplasma was published in 1876.

Gottlieb Haberlandt, a German botanist, studied plant physiology and classified plant tissue based upon function. On this basis, in 1884 he published Physiologische Pflanzenanatomie (Physiological Plant Anatomy) in which he described twelve types of tissue systems (absorptive, mechanical, photosynthetic, etc.).

British paleobotanists Dunkinfield Henry Scott and William Crawford Williamson described the structures of fossilized plants at the end of the Nineteenth Century. Scott's Studies in Fossil Botany was published in 1900.

Following Charles Darwin's Origin of Species a Canadian botanist, Edward Charles Jeffrey, who was studying the comparative anatomy and phylogeny of different vascular plant groups, applied the theory to plants using the form and structure of plants to establish a number of evolutionary lines. He published his The Anatomy of Woody Plants in 1917.

The growth of comparative plant anatomy was spearheaded by a British botanist, Agnes Arber. She published Water Plants: A Study of Aquatic Angiosperms in 1920, Monocotyledons: A Morphological Study in 1925, and The Gramineae: A Study of Cereal, Bamboo and Grass in 1934.

Following World War II, Katherine Esau published, Plant Anat

Spermatophyte

The spermatophytes (from the Greek word "Σπε�ματόφυτα") (also known as phanerogams) comprise those plants that produce seeds. They are a subset of the embryophytes or land plants. The living spermatophytes form five groups:

In addition to the taxa listed above, the fossil record contains evidence of many extinct taxa of seed plants. The so-called "seed ferns" (Pteridospermae) were one of the earliest successful groups of land plants, and forests dominated by seed ferns were prevalent in the late Paleozoic. Glossopteriswas the most prominenttreegenus in the ancient southern supercontinent of Gondwana during the Permian period. By the Triassic period, seed ferns had declined in ecological importance, and representatives of modern gymnosperm groups were abundant and dominant through the end of the Cretaceous, when angiosperms radiated. Another Late Paleozoic group of probable spermatophytes were the gigantopterids.

Relationships and nomenclature

Seed-bearing plants were traditionally divided into angiosperms, or flowering plants, and gymnosperms, which includes the gnetophytes, cycads, ginkgo, and conifers. Older morphological studies believed in a close relationship between the gnetophytes and the angiosperms, in particular based on vessel elements. However, molecular studies (and some more recent morphological and fossil papers) have generally shown a clade of gymnosperms, with the gnetophytes in or near the conifers. For example, one common proposed set of relationships is known as the gne-pine hypothesis and looks like:

However, the relationships between these groups should not be considered settled.

Other classifications group all the seed plants in a single division, with classes for our five groups:

A more modern classification ranks these groups as separate divisions (sometimes under the Superdivision Spermatophyta):


Genus

In biology, a genus (plural: genera) is a low-level taxonomic rank (a taxon) used in the classification of living and fossilorganisms, which is an example of definition by genus and differentia. The term comes from Latin genus "descent, family, type, gender", cognate with γένος – genos, "race, stock, kin".

The composition of a genus is determined by a taxonomist. The standards for genus classification are not strictly codified, and hence different authorities often produce different classifications for genera. In the hierarchy of the binomial classification system, genus comes above species and below family.

Generic name

The scientific name of a genus may be called the generic name or generic epithet: it is always capitalized. It plays a pivotal role in binomial nomenclature, the system of biological nomenclature.

Binomial nomenclature

The rules for scientific names are laid down in the Nomenclature Codes; depending on the kind of organism and the Kingdom it belongs to, a different Code may apply, with different rules, laid down in a different terminology. The advantages of scientific over common names are that they are accepted by speakers of all languages, and that each species has only one name. This reduces the confusion that may arise from the use of a common name to designate different things in different places (example elk), or from the existence of several common names for a single species.

It is possible for a genus to be assigned to a kingdom governed by one particular Nomenclature Code by one taxonomist, while other taxonomists assign it to a kingdom governed by a different Code, but this is the exception, not the rule.

Pivotal in binomial nomenclature

The generic name often is a component of the names of taxa of lower rank. For example, Canis lupus is the scientific name of the Gray wolf, a species, with Canisthe generic name for thedog and its close relatives, and with lupus particular (specific) for the wolf (lupus is written in lower case). Similarly, Canis lupus familiaris is the scientific name for the domestic dog.

Taxonomic units in higher ranks often have a name that is based on a generic name, such as the family name Canidae, which is based on Canis. However, not all names in higher ranks are necessarily based on the name of a genus: for example, Carnivora is the name for the order to which the dog belongs.

The problem of identical names used for different genera

A genus in one kingdom is allowed to bear a scientific name that is in use as a generic name (or the name of a taxon in another rank) in a kingdom that is governed by a different Nomenclature Code. Although this is discouraged by both the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature and the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature, there are some five thousand such names that are in use in more than one kingdom. For instance, Anurais the name of theorder of frogs but also is the name of a genus of plants (although not current: it is a synonym); Aotusis the genus ofgolden peas and night monkeys; Oenantheis the genus ofwheatears and water dropworts, Prunellais the genus ofaccentors and self-heal, and Proboscideais the order ofelephants and the genus of devil's claws.

Within the same kingdom one generic name can apply to only one genus. This explains why the platypus genus is named Ornithorhynchus—George Shaw named it Platypus in 1799, but the name Platypus had already been given to a group of ambrosia beetles by Johann Friedrich Wilhelm Herbst in 1793. Names with the same form but applying to different taxa are called homonyms. Since beetles and platypuses are both members of the kingdom Animalia, the name Platypus could not be used for both. Johann Friedrich Blumenbach published the replacement name Ornithorhynchus in 1800.

Types and genera

Because of the rules of scientific naming, or "binomial nomenclature", each genus should have a designated type, although in practice there is a backlog of older names that may not yet have a type. In zoology this is the type species (see Type (zoology)); the generic name is permanently associated with the type specimen of its type species. Should this specimen turn out to be assignable to another genus, the generic name linked to it becomes a junior synonym, and the remaining taxa in the former genus need to be reas


From Encyclopedia

Carolus Linnaeus

Carolus Linnaeus , 1707-78, Swedish botanist and taxonomist, considered the founder of the binomial system of nomenclature and the originator of modern scientific classification of plants and animals. He studied botany and medicine and taught both at Uppsala. In Systema naturae (1735) he presented his classification of plants, animals, and minerals, and in Genera plantarum (1737) he explained his system for classifying plants largely on the basis of the number of stamens and pistils in the flower. Despite the artificiality of some of his premises, the Linnaean system has remained the basis of modern taxonomy. Species plantarum (2 vol., 1753) described plants in terms of genera and species, and the 10th edition (1758) of Systema naturae applied this system to animals as well, classifying 4,400 species of animals and 7,700 species of plants. These two works are therefore considered the basis of binomial nomenclature, although the early herbalists had used a binomial system before Linnaeus. Among his more than 180 works were several books on the flora of Lapland and Sweden and the Genera morborum (1763), a classification of diseases. After Linnaeus' death his priceless botanical collection was removed to England (see herbarium ). Linnaeus was also known as Karl (or Carl) Linné (of which Carolus Linnaeus is a Latinized version); when he was ennobled in 1761 he formally adopted the name Karl von Linné. Bibliography: See T. Frangsmyr et al., ed., Linnaeus (1983); J. Weinstock, Contemporary Perspectives on Linneaus (1985).


From Yahoo Answers

Question:Which of the following is correctly written in the binomial nomenclature system? A. Canis lupus B. Red wolf C. Ailurus Fulgens D. kingdom 2. Which phrase best describes the Linnaean classification system? A. Each genus contains one species. B. The taxa are interchangeable. C. There is only one kingdom. D. Each level includes the more specific levels below. 3. The evolutionary history for a group of species is called a A. clade. B. phylogeny. C. convergence. D. taxonomy. 4. The embryos of both mammals and reptiles are protected by amniotic fluid. What is this type of trait called? A. cladogram B. outgroup C. derived character D. molecular evidence 5. Which of the following would be considered the strongest evidence that two species are related to one another? A. common structures B. shared taxon C. similar genes D. same extinction pattern 6. In the Linnaean system of classification, which of the following is most commonly defined as a group of organisms that can breed and produce offspring? A. phylum B. species C. genus D. order 7. The best molecular clock for comparing distantly related species is A. mitochondrial DNA. B. ribosomal RNA. C. nuclear DNA. D. protein. 8. Woese separated the kingdom Monera into the following two kingdoms: A. Eukarya and Bacteria. B. Archaea and Prokaryote. C. Prokaryote and Eukaryote. D. Bacteria and Archaea. 9. Which description distinguishes eukaryotes from prokaryotes? A. Eukaryotes have a cell wall. B. Eukaryotes are multicellular. C. Eukaryotes are photosynthetic. D. Eukaryotes have a nucleus. 10. What characteristic of fungi makes them different from plants? A. They grow only in shade. B. They have a different cell membrane. C. They do not feed in the same way. D. They are prokaryotes, not eukaryotes. 11. The term mouse used to be commonly known to mean a small furry rodent. It has evolved to also mean a device used in operating a computer. This is an example of why A. a living language is not used in scientific naming systems. B. a dead language is not used in scientific naming systems. C. mice have become more evolutionarily advanced. D. humans should avoid using slang in everyday language. 12. Binomial nomenclature uses what two taxa to name an organism? A. phylum and genus B. genus and species C. phylum and species D. class and order 13. Which of the following lists Linnaean taxa in the correct order from general to specific? A. phylum, order, family, genus B. kingdom, order, class, phylum C. family, phylum, genus, species D. class, order, species, genus 14. Which of the following contains the most members? A. genus B. order C. family D. class 15. Organisms are named and classified based on physical characteristics in A. evolutionary trees. B. Linnaean taxonomy. C. cladograms. D. molecular clocks.

Answers:The correct answer is (A). Genus capitalized, species not. No one wants to do all your homework for you...

Question:I really need to get this done,it is past the end of the semester and I need to get it done! A.Canis lupus B.Red wolf C.Ailurus Fulgens D.kingdom Which phrase best describes the Linnaean classification system? A.Each genus contains one species. B.The taxa are interchangeable. C.There is only one kingdom. D.Each level includes the more specific levels below. 3.The evolutionary history for a group of species is called a A.clade. B.phylogeny. C.convergence. D.taxonomy. 4.The embryos of both mammals and reptiles are protected by amniotic fluid. What is this type of trait called? A.cladogram B.outgroup C.derived character D.molecular evidence 5.Which of the following would be considered the strongest evidence that two species are related to one another? A.common structures B.shared taxon C.similar genes D.same extinction pattern 6.In the Linnaean system of classification, which of the following is most commonly defined as a group of organisms that can breed and produce offspring? A.phylum B.species C.genus D.order 7.The best molecular clock for comparing distantly related species is A.mitochondrial DNA. B.ribosomal RNA. C.nuclear DNA. D.protein. 8.Woese separated the kingdom Monera into the following two kingdoms: A.Eukarya and Bacteria. B.Archaea and Prokaryote. C.Prokaryote and Eukaryote. D.Bacteria and Archaea. 9.Which description distinguishes eukaryotes from prokaryotes? A.Eukaryotes have a cell wall. B.Eukaryotes are multicellular. C.Eukaryotes are photosynthetic. D.Eukaryotes have a nucleus. 10.What characteristic of fungi makes them different from plants? A.They grow only in shade. B.They have a different cell membrane. C.They do not feed in the same way. D.They are prokaryotes, not eukaryotes. 11.The term mouse used to be commonly known to mean a small furry rodent. It has evolved to also mean a device used in operating a computer. This is an example of why A.a living language is not used in scientific naming systems. B.a dead language is not used in scientific naming systems. C.mice have become more evolutionarily advanced. D.humans should avoid using slang in everyday language. 12.Binomial nomenclature uses what two taxa to name an organism? A.phylum and genus B.genus and species C.phylum and species D.class and order 13.Which of the following lists Linnaean taxa in the correct order from general to specific? A.phylum, order, family, genus B.kingdom, order, class, phylum C.family, phylum, genus, species D.class, order, species, genus 14.Which of the following contains the most members? A.genus B.order C.family D.class 15.Organisms are named and classified based on physical characteristics in A.evolutionary trees. B.Linnaean taxonomy. C.cladograms. D.molecular clocks. 16.In the blank cladogram in Figure 17.1, what type of information would go on the lines labeled A? A.clades B.outgroupings C.common ancestors D.derived characters 17.Figure 17.2 shows one set of genetic differences between humans and other animals. By this measure, which listed species is most related to humans? A.rabbit B.mouse C.turtle D.chimpanzee 18.In the Linnaean system of classification, a species is most commonly defined as A.the commonly used name for an organism. B.a group of organisms that can breed and produce offspring. C.the most general taxon of the classification system. D.a group with similar physical characteristics. 19.Which type of molecular clock is used to measure evolutionary time between the most distantly related organisms? A.amino acid B.nuclear DNA C.ribosomal RNA D.mitochondrial DNA 20.Carl Woese divided the kingdom Monera into the kingdoms Bacteria and A.Plantae. B.Fungi. C.Protista. D.Archaea. 21.Which domain contains all organisms that have a nucleus? A.Bacteria B.Archaea C.Eukarya D.Protista 22.Plants obtain their food through photosynthesis. This makes them different from which of the following? A.fungi B.producers C.trees D.none of the above 23.Latin is the preferred language for scientific naming because it is a(n) A.easy language to learn. B.dead language. C.living language. D.versatile language. 24.The two-part naming system for naming species is called A.binomen naming. B.cladographic naming. C.binomial nomenclature. D.cladistic nomenclature. 25.The longer two species are separated after diverging from a common ancestor, A.the more likely they will be able to interbreed when reunited. B.the less likely they will have differences at the molecular level. C.the more similar the species will be at the molecular level. D.the more different the species will be at the molecular level.

Answers:1) Canis lupus 2) Each level includes the more specific levels below. 3) Phylogeny 4) Derived character 5) Similar genes 6) Species 7) Ribosomal RNA 8) Bacteria and Archaea. 9) Eukaryotes have a nucleus. 10) They do not feed in the same way. 11) a living language is not used in scientific naming systems 12) genus and species 13) phylum, order, family, genus 14) Class 15) Linnaean taxonomy. 16) I don't see a chart. 17) I still don't see a chart. 18) a group of organisms that can breed and produce offspring. 19) nuclear DNA 20) Archaea 21) Eukarya 22) Fungi 23) Versatile language 24) Binomial nomenclature. 25) the more different the species will be at the molecular level.

Question:Who carries the bottom line if it's a new discovery of a new species or who provides international standards, that the world scientist accept?

Answers:It is not an organisation as such. There is a system known as the "Systema Naturae" founded or based on the discovers of C von Linne (1758) - this is an example of an identification system. The systems are known as systematic authorities and are really just a set of rules and guide lines for taxonomy. The International Code of Botanical Nomenclature concerns itself with plants and fungi and similar codes are used for animals and bacteria. These systems use Latin binomials when naming a species.. The system was established when Latin was the language of scholarship. It is still in use in the modern world due to the fact that it is an "extinct" language so this means it is not inoffensive and is universally accepted. Hope this helps, don't hesitate to contact me for more information.

Question:Explain what type of evidence a biologist would rely on to determine if the plant species were new. Give specific examples of what the biologist would look for. What process would scientists go through to name a new species?

Answers:You have to go through the literature and herbarium specimens to determine what you have collected. If there is no match, you might have a new species. To name it, you would have to publish a description (including a description in Latin) and propose a name that fits the international rules of botanical nomenclature. The paper must be published in a duplicatable form.

From Youtube

Three Hundred Years of Linnaean Taxonomy [Part 1 of 5] :www.mnh.si.edu In Celebration of the Exhibition of the 1st Edition of Linnaeus' Systema Naturae - Tuesday, November 13, 2007. Scientists around the world are celebrating the 300th anniversary of the birth of Swedish botanist Carl Linnaeus. He is best known for instituting a two-name method for identifying plants and animals, called binomial nomenclature. Considered the "father" of modern taxonomy, Linnaeus named approximately 4400 species of animals and 7700 species of plants. Today, many museums, including this one, continue to research the relationships between species, and rely on Linnaeus' classic works.

Three Hundred Years of Linnaean Taxonomy [Part 2 of 5] :www.mnh.si.edu In Celebration of the Exhibition of the 1st Edition of Linnaeus' Systema Naturae - Tuesday, November 13, 2007 Scientists around the world are celebrating the 300th anniversary of the birth of Swedish botanist Carl Linnaeus. He is best known for instituting a two-name method for identifying plants and animals, called binomial nomenclature. Considered the "father" of modern taxonomy, Linnaeus named approximately 4400 species of animals and 7700 species of plants. Today, many museums, including this one, continue to research the relationships between species, and rely on Linnaeus' classic works.