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From Wikipedia

Organic compound

An organic compound is any member of a large class of gaseous, liquid, or solidchemical compounds whose molecules contain carbon. For historical reasons discussed below, a few types of carbon-containing compounds such as carbides, carbonates, simple oxides of carbon and cyanides, as well as the allotropes of carbon such as diamond and graphite, are considered inorganic. The distinction between "organic" and "inorganic" carbon compounds, while "useful in organizing the vast subject of chemistry... is somewhat arbitrary".

Organic chemistry is the science concerned with all aspects of organic compounds. Organic synthesis is the methodology of their preparation.

History

Vitalism

The name "organic" is historical, dating back to the 1st century. For many centuries, Western alchemists believed in vitalism. This is the theory that certain compounds could only be synthesized from their classical elements — Earth, Water, Air and Fire — by action of a "life-force" (vis vitalis) possessed only by organisms. Vitalism taught that these "organic" compounds were fundamentally different from the "inorganic" compounds that could be obtained from the elements by chemical manipulation.

Vitalism survived for a while even after the rise of modern atomic theory and the replacement of the Aristotelian elements by those we know today. It first came under question in 1824, when Friedrich Wöhler synthesized oxalic acid, a compound known to occur only in living organisms, from cyanogen. A more decisive experiment was Wöhler's 1828 synthesis of urea from the inorganic saltspotassium cyanate and ammonium sulfate. Urea had long been considered to be an "organic" compound as it was known to occur only in the urine of living organisms. Wöhler's experiments were followed by many others, where increasingly complex "organic" substances were produced from "inorganic" ones without the involvement of any living organism.

Modern classification

Even after vitalism had been disproved, the distinction between "organic" and "inorganic" compounds has been retained through the present. The modern meaning of "organic compound" is any one of them that contains a significant amount of carbon - even though many of the "organic compounds" known today have no connection whatsoever with any substance found in living organisms.

There is no "official" definition of an organic compound. Some text books define an organic compound as one containing one or more C-H bonds; others include C-C bonds in the definition. Others state that if a molecule contains carbon it is organic.

Even the broader definition of "carbon-containing molecules" requires the exclusion of carbon-containing alloys (including steel), a relatively small number of carbon-containing compounds such as metal carbonates and carbonyls, simple oxides of carbon and cyanides, as well as the allotropes of carbon and simple carbon halides and sulfides, which are usually considered to be inorganic.

The "C-H" definition excludes compounds which are historically and practically considered to be organic. Neither urea nor oxalic acid are organic by this definition, yet they were two key compounds in the vitalism debate. The IUPAC Blue Book on organic nomenclature specifically mentions urea and oxalic acid. Other compounds lacking C-H bonds that are also traditionally considered to be organic include benzenehexol, mesoxalic acid, and carbon tetrachloride. Mellitic acid, which contains no C-H bonds, is considered to be a possible organic substance in Martian soil. All do, however, contain C-C bonds.

The "C-H bond only" rule also leads to somewhat arbitrary divisions in sets of carbon-fluorine compounds, as for example Teflon is considered by this rule "inorganic" but Tefzel organic; similarly many Halons are considered inorganic while the rest are organic. For these and other reasons, most sources consider C-H compounds to be only a subset of "organic" compounds.

To summarize: Most carbon-containing compounds are organic, and most compounds with a C-H bond are organic. Not all organic compounds necessarily contain C-H bonds (e.g. urea).

Classification

SeeClassification of organic compounds

Organic compounds may be classified in a variety of ways. One major distinction is between natural and synthetic compounds. Organic compounds can also be classified or subdivided by the presence of heteroatoms, e.g. organometallic compounds which feature bonds between carbon and a metal, and From Yahoo Answers

Question:A. C6H12O6 B. NO2 C. H2O D. O2

Answers:A. A compound has to contain Carbon in order to be considered organic.

Question:Organic & Biochemical Compounds 1. Identify the following compounds as alkanes, alkenes, or alcohols based on their names: a. 2-methylpentane b. 3-methyloctane c. 1-nonene d. butanol 3. 3-heptene f. cyclohexanol 2. Explain why the compounds CBr5 does not exist. Give an acceptable chemical formula for a compound made of only carbon and bromine. 3. Determine how many hydrogen atoms a compound has if it is a hydrocarbon and its carbon atom skeleton is C=C-C=C. 4. Compare the structures and properties of carbohydrates with those of proteins. 5. Identify which compound is an alkane: CH2O, C6H14, or C3H4. Explain your reasoning. 6. Alkynes, like alkanes are alkenes, are hydrocarbons. Alkynes have carbon-carbon triple covalent bonds, or C= C bonds. Draw the structure of the alkyne that has the chemical formula C3H4. Can you guess the name of the compound? Explain why there aren t any compounds that have C=C bonds. Please try to answer as many question as possible for Best Answer.

Answers:1. Identify the following compounds as alkanes, alkenes, or alcohols based on their names: a. 2-methylpentane alkane (see how they both end in "-ane") b. 3-methyloctane alkane (see how they both end in "-ane") c. 1-nonene alkene (see how they both end in "-ene") d. butanol alcohol (see how they both end in "-ol") 3. 3-heptene alkene (see how they both end in "-ene") f. cyclohexanol alcohol (see how they both end in "-ol") 2. Explain why the compounds CBr5 does not exist. Give an acceptable chemical formula for a compound made of only carbon and bromine. *CBr5 doesn't exist because C has 4 valence electrons and each Br has 1 and there are 4 of them, so that is 4 total. With 5 Br, there would be an unequal sharing of electrons and we can't have that. CBr4 would work because, again, C has 4 valence electrons and each Br has 1 and there are 4 of them, so that is 4 total. With 4 Br, there is an euqal sharing of electrons and that is acceptable. 3. Determine how many hydrogen atoms a compound has if it is a hydrocarbon and its carbon atom skeleton is C=C-C=C. *Well, a skeleton containing at least one carbon double bond is an alkene. The simplest alkene is C2H4, but this only has one carbon double bond (simply meaning only 2 carbons) and you can tell from the skeleton that we need a compound with 4 carbons. Still using C2H4, how many do we have to multiply 2 carbon by to get 4? The answer is 2. If we times C by 2, then we also have to times H by 2 which makes 8 H total. So there are 8 H atoms in the hydrocarbon compound. 4. Compare the structures and properties of carbohydrates with those of proteins. *Carbohydrates and proteins are both inorganic compounds. Carbs have C, H, and O elements. Proteins have C, N, H, and O elements and from a lot of various structures. Carbohydrates consisting of two simple sugars is a disaccharide. Carbohydrates consisting of two to ten simple sugars are called oligosaccharides, and those with a larger number are called polysaccharides. Proteins are chains of 10 or more amino acids, but peptides consisting of more than 50 amino acids are classified as proteins. 5. Identify which compound is an alkane: CH2O, C6H14, or C3H4. Explain your reasoning. *The alkane is C6H14. You can tell because the carbons are connected by single bonds. Only alkanes have single bonds. 6. Alkynes, like alkanes are alkenes, are hydrocarbons. Alkynes have carbon-carbon triple covalent bonds, or C= C bonds. Draw the structure of the alkyne that has the chemical formula C3H4. Can you guess the name of the compound? Explain why there aren t any compounds that have C=C bonds. *The name of the compound is propyne. Here's a link for the picture of it because I can't type it on here: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/ee/Propyne-2D-flat.png

Question:What are 5 examples of Organic and 5 examples of Inorganic compounds?

Answers:Organic compounds are produced by living things (molecules contain carbon). Inorganic compounds are produced in the laboratory for example. 5 organic examples: Ethanol - C2H6O Chloroform - CHCl3 Citric acid - C6H8O7 Isopropanol C3H8O Methanol - CH4O 5 inorganic examples: Hydrogen chloride HCl Nitric acid HNO3 Ozone O3 Sodium chloride NaCl Sulfane H2S

Question:Glucose / Triglycerides / Enzymes / Lactose / Cholesterol / Collagen / Glycogen / Phospholipids / DNA / RNA 1. Contains three fatty acids and a molecule of glycerol ((Triglycerides)) 2. It has thymine as one of its nucleotides 3. This nucleic acid has a double helix structure 4. It has uracil as one of its nucleotides ((RNA)) 5. It is an example of a monosaccharide ((Glucose)) 6. These act as chemical catalysts ((enzymes)) 7. It is an example of a polysaccharide ((glycogen)) Number 2 and 3 seem to both be DNA, but I don't think both of them are? What do those go with? Are the others right?

Answers:DNA is a correct answer for both 2 and 3. Perhaps its a trick question, as long as it doesn't say "no repeats". And to the best of my knowledge, the other questions are correct.

From Youtube

Functional Groups in Organic Compounds :Check us out at www.tutorvista.com In organic chemistry, functional groups are specific groups of atoms within molecules that are responsible for the characteristic chemical reactions of those molecules. The same functional group will undergo the same or similar chemical reaction(s) regardless of the size of the molecule it is a part of. However, its relative reactivity can be modified by nearby functional groups. The word moiety is often used synonymously to "functional group," but, according to the IUPAC definition, a moiety is a part of a molecule that may include functional groups as substructures. For example, an ester is divided into an alcohol moiety and an acyl moiety, but has an ester functional group. Also, it may be divided into carboxylate and alkyl moieties. Combining the names of functional groups with the names of the parent alkanes generates a powerful systematic nomenclature for naming organic compounds. The atoms of functional groups are linked to each other and to the rest of the molecule by covalent bonds. When the group of atoms is associated with the rest of the molecule primarily by ionic forces, the group is referred to more properly as a polyatomic ion or complex ion. And all of these are called radicals, by a meaning of the term radical that predates the free radical. The first carbon atom after the carbon that attaches to the functional group is called the alpha carbon; the second, beta carbon, the third, gamma carbon, etc. If there is another ...

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