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Monera (mÉ™ËˆnÉªÉ™rÉ™| ) is a now-obsolete taxonomic group in biological classification originally understood as one of five biological kingdoms. The kingdom Monera included most organisms with a prokaryoticcell organization (that is, no nucleus). For this reason, the kingdom was sometimes called Prokaryota or Prokaryotae
Traditionally the natural world was classified as animal, vegetable, or mineral as in Systema Naturae. After the discovery of microscopy, attempts were made to fit microscopic organisms into either the plant or animal kingdoms. In 1866 Ernst Haeckel proposed a three kingdom system which added the Protista as a new kingdom that contained most microscopic organisms. One of his eight major divisions of Protista was called Moneres. Haeckel's Moneres included known bacterial groups such as Vibrio. Haeckel's Protista kingdom also included eukaryotic organisms now classified as Protist. It was later decided that Haeckel's Protista kingdom had proven to be too diverse to be seriously considered one .
Although it was generally accepted that one could distinguish prokaryotes from eukaryotes on the basis of the presence of a nucleus, mitosis versus binary fission as a way of reproducing, size, and other traits, the monophyly of the kingdom Monera (or for that matter, whether classification should be according to phylogeny) was controversial for many decades. Although distinguishing between prokaryotes from eukaryotes as a fundamental distinction is often credited to a 1937 paper by Ã‰douard Chatton (little noted until 1962), he did not emphasize this distinction more than other biologists of his era. Roger Stanier and C. B. van Niel believed that the bacteria (a term which at the time did not include blue-green algae) and the blue-green algae had a single origin, a conviction which culminated in Stanier writing in a letter in 1970, "I think it is now quite evident that the blue-green algae are not distinguishable from bacteria by any fundamental feature of their cellular organization". Other researchers, such as E. G. Pringsheim writing in 1949, suspected separate origins for bacteria and blue-green algae. In 1974, the influential Bergey's Manual published a new edition coining the term cyanobacteria to refer to what had been called blue-green algae, marking the acceptance of this group within the Monera.
In 1969, Robert Whittaker published a proposed five kingdom system for classification of living organisms. Whittaker's system placed most single celled organisms into either the prokaryotic Monera or the eukaryotic Protista. The other three kingdoms in his system were the eukaryotic Fungi, Animalia, and Plantae. Whittaker, however, did not believe that all his kingdoms were monophyletic.
In 1977, a PNAS paper by Carl Woese and George Fox demonstrated that the archaea (initially called archaebacteria) are not significantly closer in relationship to the bacteria than they are to eukaryotes. The paper received front-page coverage in The New York Timesand great controversy initially, but the conclusions have since become accepted, leading to replacement of the kingdom Monera with the two kingdomsBacteria and Archaea. However, Thomas Cavalier-Smith has never accepted the importance of the division between these two groups, and has published classifications in which the archaebacteria are part of a subkingdom of the Kingdom Bacteria.
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Answers:http://biology.clc.uc.edu/courses/bio106/protista.htm Protista are all micro organisms. Check out the above.
Answers:It's those darn systematists, They want to classify everything in an orderly system. So they come up with definitions for groups and then over time as our knowledge increases it become obvious that some things don't really fit the definitions. They you either have to change the definition or you have to create a new category at the level the creature doesn't fit. I remember being taught a two kingdom system, everything was either animal or plant. No kidding. There was a recognition that some creatures didn't seem to really fit but things like fungi were basically grouped with plants, bacteria with animals, and things like viruses and prions and such, well, it was kind of up in the air, since they weren't capable of reproduction on their own and they didn't have a lot of things that living creatures generally had, were they even really alive? The basic way thing work is that you have people who tend to lump things and people who tend to split things and it's kind of a contest to see who can write books and get them accepted as texts and who can churn out the most disciples, often called graduate students and so gradually win through a game of field position. In any case, I can sure identify with your frustration. I remember taking a class in Mycology were one system was used by the professor for lectures, the primary textbook used yet another system, and we were expected to answer on tests using a third system. I never did really understand things in that class, what started out as a system to make the study of the fungi easier, turned into a death march where the important thing became the systems themselves not the fungi. Marv
Answers:There are three phyla, or groups, of archaebacteria: The methanogens, halophiles and thermoacidophiles. Eubacteria - blue-green algae, E.coli, salmonella, Firmicutes, Porphyromonas Fungi - Chytridiomycota, Blastocladiomycota, Neocallimastigomycota, Zygomycota, Glomeromycota Protista - Euglena, Amoeba, Paramecium, Toxoplasma, Ulva
Answers:Now there are six kingdoms. Earlier Archaebacteria and Eubacteria were clubbed together as Monera. Prokaryotic Cells Without Nuclei And Membrane-Bound Organelles 1. Kingdom ARCHAEBACTERIA [10,000 species]: Heterotrophic chemotropic Bacteria Unicellular and colonial 2. Kingdom EUBACTERIA [ species]:Photosynthetic Bacteria the true bacteria, including and cyanobacteria (blue-green algae). Eukaryotic Cells With Nuclei And Membrane-Bound Organelles: 3. Kingdom PROTISTA (Protoctista) [250,000 species]: Unicellular protozoans and unicellular & multicellular (macroscopic) algae with 9 + 2 cilia and flagella (called undulipodia). 4. Kingdom FUNGI [100,000 species]: Haploid and dikaryotic (binucleate) cells, multicellular, generally heterotrophic, without cilia and eukaryotic (9 + 2) flagella (undulipodia). 5. Kingdom PLANTAE [250,000 species]: Haplo-diploid life cycles, mostly autotrophic, retaining embryo within female sex organ on parent plant. 6. Kingdom ANIMALIA [1,000,000 species]: Multicellular animals, without cell walls and without photosynthetic pigments, forming diploid blastula.