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Commonly used mineral acids are sulfuric acid, hydrochloric acid and nitric acid (They are also known as bench acids). Mineral acids range from acids of great strength (example: sulfuric acid) to very weak (boric acid). Mineral acids tend to be very soluble in water and insoluble in organic solvents.
Mineral acids are used in many sectors of the chemical industry as feedstocks for the synthesis of other chemicals, both organic and inorganic. Large quantities of these acids, especially sulfuric acid, nitric acid and hydrochloric acid are manufactured for commercial use in large plants.
Mineral acids are also used directly for their corrosive properties. For example, a dilute solution of hydrochloric acid is used for removing the deposits from the inside of boilers, with precautions taken to prevent the corrosion of the boiler by the acid. This process is known as descaling.
An organic compound is any member of a large class of gaseous, liquid, or solidchemical compounds whose molecules contain carbon. For historical reasons discussed below, a few types of carbon-containing compounds such as carbides, carbonates, simple oxides of carbon and cyanides, as well as the allotropes of carbon such as diamond and graphite, are considered inorganic. The distinction between "organic" and "inorganic" carbon compounds, while "useful in organizing the vast subject of chemistry... is somewhat arbitrary".
The name "organic" is historical, dating back to the 1st century. For many centuries, Western alchemists believed in vitalism. This is the theory that certain compounds could only be synthesized from their classical elements â€” Earth, Water, Air and Fire â€” by action of a "life-force" (vis vitalis) possessed only by organisms. Vitalism taught that these "organic" compounds were fundamentally different from the "inorganic" compounds that could be obtained from the elements by chemical manipulation.
Vitalism survived for a while even after the rise of modern atomic theory and the replacement of the Aristotelian elements by those we know today. It first came under question in 1824, when Friedrich WÃ¶hler synthesized oxalic acid, a compound known to occur only in living organisms, from cyanogen. A more decisive experiment was WÃ¶hler's 1828 synthesis of urea from the inorganic saltspotassium cyanate and ammonium sulfate. Urea had long been considered to be an "organic" compound as it was known to occur only in the urine of living organisms. WÃ¶hler's experiments were followed by many others, where increasingly complex "organic" substances were produced from "inorganic" ones without the involvement of any living organism.
Even after vitalism had been disproved, the distinction between "organic" and "inorganic" compounds has been retained through the present. The modern meaning of "organic compound" is any one of them that contains a significant amount of carbon - even though many of the "organic compounds" known today have no connection whatsoever with any substance found in living organisms.
There is no "official" definition of an organic compound. Some text books define an organic compound as one containing one or more C-H bonds; others include C-C bonds in the definition. Others state that if a molecule contains carbon it is organic.
Even the broader definition of "carbon-containing molecules" requires the exclusion of carbon-containing alloys (including steel), a relatively small number of carbon-containing compounds such as metal carbonates and carbonyls, simple oxides of carbon and cyanides, as well as the allotropes of carbon and simple carbon halides and sulfides, which are usually considered to be inorganic.
The "C-H" definition excludes compounds which are historically and practically considered to be organic. Neither urea nor oxalic acid are organic by this definition, yet they were two key compounds in the vitalism debate. The IUPAC Blue Book on organic nomenclature specifically mentions urea and oxalic acid. Other compounds lacking C-H bonds that are also traditionally considered to be organic include benzenehexol, mesoxalic acid, and carbon tetrachloride. Mellitic acid, which contains no C-H bonds, is considered to be a possible organic substance in Martian soil. All do, however, contain C-C bonds.
The "C-H bond only" rule also leads to somewhat arbitrary divisions in sets of carbon-fluorine compounds, as for example Teflon is considered by this rule "inorganic" but Tefzel organic; similarly many Halons are considered inorganic while the rest are organic. For these and other reasons, most sources consider C-H compounds to be only a subset of "organic" compounds.
To summarize: Most carbon-containing compounds are organic, and most compounds with a C-H bond are organic. Not all organic compounds necessarily contain C-H bonds (e.g. urea).
Organic compounds may be classified in a variety of ways. One major distinction is between natural and synthetic compounds. Organic compounds can also be classified or subdivided by the presence of heteroatoms, e.g. organometallic compounds which feature bonds between carbon and a metal, and compost, manure), or naturally-occurring mineral deposits (e.g. saltpeter).
Naturally-occurring organicfertilizers includemanure, slurry, worm castings, peat, seaweed, humic acid, and guano. Sewage sludge use in organic agricultural operations in the U.S. has been extremely limited and rare due to USDA prohibition of the practice (due to toxic metal accumulation, among other factors).
Processed organic fertilizers include compost, bloodmeal, bone meal, humic acid, amino acids, and seaweed extracts. Other examples are natural enzyme digested proteins, fish meal, and feather meal. Decomposing crop residue (green manure) from prior years is another source of fertility.
Discussion of the term 'organic'
There used to be a distinction between the term "organic" and the term "pesticide free". Organic simply dealt with the use of fertilizer types. Once the term "organic" became regulated, many other factors were added. "Pesticide-free" is not at all related to fertilization (plant nutrition), but has become a legal inclusion.
Likewise, in scientific terms, a fish emulsion can be a good organic fertilizer :), but in some jurisdictions fish emulsion must be certified "dolphin safe" to be considered "organic".
Animal-sourced Urea and Urea-Formaldehyde (from urine), are suitable for application organic agriculture, while pure synthetic forms are not deemed, however, pure (synthetically-produced) urea is not. The common thread that can be seen through these examples is that organic agriculture attempts to define itself through minimal processing (e.g. via chemical energy such as petroleumâ€”see Haber process), as well as being naturally-occurring or via natural biological processes such as composting.
Powdered limestone, mined rock phosphate and Chilean saltpeter, are inorganic chemicals in the technical (organic chemistry) sense of the word, but are considered suitable for organic agriculture in limited amounts..
Although the density of nutrients in organic material is comparatively modest, they have many advantages. The majority of nitrogen supplying organic fertilizers contain insoluble nitrogen and act as a slow-release fertilizer. By their nature, organic fertilizers increase physical and biological nutrient storage mechanisms in soils, mitigating risks of over-fertilization. Organic fertilizer nutrient content, solubility, and nutrient release rates are typically much lower than mineral (inorganic) fertilizers. A University of North Carolina study found that potential mineralizable nitrogen (PMN) in the soil was 182â€“285% higher in organic mulched systems, than in the synthetics control.
Organic fertilizers also re-emphasize the role of humus and other organic components of soil, which are believed to play several important roles:
- Mobilizing existing soil nutrients, so that good growth is achieved with lower nutrient densities while wasting less
- Releasing nutrients at a slower, more consistent rate, helping to avoid a boom-and-bust pattern
- Helping to retain soil moisture, reducing the stress due to temporary moisture stress
- Improving the soil structure
- Helping to prevent topsoil erosion (responsible for desertfication and the Dust bowl
Organic fertilizers also have the advantage of avoiding certain problems associated with the regular heavy use of artificial fertilizers:
- The necessity of reapplying artificial fertilizers regularly (and perhaps in increasing quantities) to maintain fertility
- Extensive runoff of soluble nitrogen and phosphorus, leading to eutrophication of bodies of water (which causes fish kills)
- Costs are lower for if fertilizer is locally available
According to the PPI institute website, it is widely thought that organic fertilizer is better than inorganic fertilizer. However, balanced responsible use of either or both can be just as good for the soil.
Organic fertilizers have the following disadvantages:
- As a dilute source of nutrients when compared to inorganic fertilizers, transporting large amount of fertilizer incurs higher costs, especially with slurry and manure.
- The composition of organic fertilizers tends to be more complex and variable than a standardized inorganic product.
- Improperly-processed organic fertilizers may contain pathogens from plant or animal matter that are harmful to humans or plants. However, proper composting should remove them.
- More labor is needed to compost organic fertilizer, increasing labor costs. Some of this cost is offset by reduced cash purchase.
Conventional farming application
In non-organic farming a compromise between the use of artificial and organic fertilizers is common, often using inorganic fertilizers supplemented with the application of organics that are readily available such as the
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Answers:Organic compounds are produced by living things (molecules contain carbon). Inorganic compounds are produced in the laboratory for example. 5 organic examples: Ethanol - C2H6O Chloroform - CHCl3 Citric acid - C6H8O7 Isopropanol C3H8O Methanol - CH4O 5 inorganic examples: Hydrogen chloride HCl Nitric acid HNO3 Ozone O3 Sodium chloride NaCl Sulfane H2S
Answers:Organic chemistry originated as the study of the substances involved in living systems, hence the root word "organ." Later in the history of chemistry, it got too confusing to stay with that definition, because there are so many compounds that are of mineral composition that are also involved in living systems. So the definition of "organic" changed, now meaning any compound that includes carbon in its composition. Thus inorganic chemistry is that which does not involve carbon. When you use ammonia to wash your windows, you're using inorganic chemistry. For that matter, when you rinse your hands in water, you're using the solvent property of H2O, an inorganic compound. (If you use soap or detergent, though, you're including organic substances.) When you mix rock salt with the ice in an old-fashioned hand-crank ice cream maker, you're using inorganic chemistry. When you add muriatic acid to your swimming pool to lower the pH, it's inorganic chemistry. Common laundry bleach, too, sodium hypochlorite, is an inorganic compound. The lead plates and sulfuric acid in a car's battery apply the electrical properties of inorganic chemistry. Any substance that doesn't have carbon in its molecular structure is considered inorganic, so there are many, many everyday life situations that use inorganic chemistry.
Answers:They all liberate hydrogen ion.
Answers:If your parents came from Poland, would you wonder why they still spoke Polish? When I began teaching, I wondered about how I would teach IUPAC nomenclature as it seemed a minor system of nomenclature. I thought CAS nomenclature was more commonly used. There are many naming systems, common, IUPAC, German, French, Italian, etc. I think there is too much emphasis on IUPAC nomenclature. I think it is more important to learn the rules of systematic nomenclature, under which all nomenclature imperfectly falls. It is not difficult to realize the root of common names is the functional group present as the suffix, chloride, amine, alcohol, ether, acid, etc. If you see that pattern, then it is also easy to see that IUPAC has a slightly different system for their root names. However, in either system, you should be able to draw methyl ethyl chickenwire provided you can draw chickenwire (and give the locants). So, there is this compound known since 1815 as cholesterine and now as cholesterol (according to wikipedia), how many chemists do you think will use this IUPAC name for it, (10R,13R)-10,13-dimethyl-17-(6-methylheptan-2-yl)- 2,3,4,7,8,9,11,12,14,15,16,17-dodecahydro-1H- cyclopenta[a]phenanthren-3-ol? I'll further bet there are a lot more chemists and students that can draw the structure for cholesterol than can from the IUPAC name, adnego?