Example of Non Biodegradable Waste
- Plastic products like grocery bags, plastic bags, water bottles, etc.
- Metals, metal cans, tins, metal scraps, etc.
- Construction waste, rubber tires, man-made fibers like nylon etc.
- Computer hardware like glass, CDs, DVDS, cellophane, processed woods, cable wires, Styrofoam etc.
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Green waste is biodegradable waste that can be composed of garden or park waste, such as grass or flower cuttings and hedge trimmings, as well as domestic and commercial food waste. The differentiation green identifies it as high in nitrogen, as opposed to brown waste, which is primarily carbonaceous.
The word "compost" it simply means the decomposition of biodegradable materials. In agriculture,particularly organic farming, farmers utilize their green waste for composting whereby they use as manure for their crop.There are different types of composting, which includes aerobic composting, vermi-cpmpost and heap compost.In Bhutan most of the farmers prefer heap compost which doesn't cost much for the preparation as it can be easily made with locally available material.However with the increase of the population, the generation of waste had been very high and there is high risk of pollution and harmful effect to human being and environment.Therefore in order to utilize the agriculture waste, National Organic program had started a project with collaboration with Thimphu city corporation to utilize the green waste generated from centenary farmer's market.The management of the waste from the new Centennial Farmersâ€™ Market has been an essential component of the Market facilities utilization for the MOA and Thimphu City Corporation. It is clear that the management of waste from the city is a problem that all should be concerned about and TCC alone cannot solve the problem. All citizens could help by being a little more caring and responsible in their disposal of wastes. However, the limitation of the TCC facilities in collection of wastes from various locations and appropriate management of the collected waste is a constraint in efficient collection and proper disposal. Due to these difficulties coupled with poor awareness and civic sense of the citizens, TCCâ€™s service although far reaching needs assistance from other fronts.A huge composting facility was constructed with DANIDA funds and completed in 2004, The facilities include a shed for sorting of wastes which is connected to a chute to pass the waste to the composting structure where a shredder is located at the entrance which leads to composting cubicles which are equipped with aeration facilities with blowers. A control room has the engines that control the operations such as sensing temperatures.The National Organic Programme of DOA, MOA and Thimphu City Corporation made the first heap of compost from the fruit and vegetable wastes collected from the Centennial Farmersâ€™ Market in an effort to take responsibility of the waste generated from agriculture.
On the 25th May, 09 a awareness programme was conducted by the NOP for over 150 vendors and retailers at the CFM while awareness infomercial was aired on BBS and banners hung around the market to remind buyers and sellers alike to share in the waste segregation by sorting at source. Separate stickers for fruit and vegetable wastes, and for plastics and others were provided to be stuck on each bin all provided by MOA through DNRM project.
With the TCCâ€™s help in collection and transport of the biodegradable wastes to the composting site at Serbithang, National Organic Programme started making compost heaps which will be now carried out continuously to manage all the fruit and vegetable wastes generated from the CFM. The techniques used here is the low tech aerobic composting that seals in the heat and moisture and prevents foul odour around the heap. The compost is ready to be sold in the market and it is looked after by the TCC.
Electronic waste, e-waste, e-scrap, or Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) describes loosely discarded, surplus, obsolete, or broken electrical or electronic devices. Informal processing of electronic waste in developing countries causes serious health and pollution problems. Some electronic scrap components, such as CRTs, contain contaminants such as lead, cadmium, beryllium, mercury, and brominated flame retardants. Even in developed countries recycling and disposal of e-waste may involve significant risk to workers and communities and great care must be taken to avoid unsafe exposure in recycling operations and leaching of material such as heavy metals from landfills and incinerator ashes. Scrap industry and USA EPA officials agree that materials should be managed with caution,and environmental dangers of unused electronics have not been exaggerated.
"Electronic waste" may be defined as all secondary computers, entertainment device electronics, mobile phones, and other items such as television sets and refrigerators, whether sold, donated, or discarded by their original owners. This definition includes used electronics which are destined for reuse, resale, salvage, recycling, or disposal. Others define the re-usables (working and repairable electronics) and secondary scrap (copper, steel, plastic, etc.) to be "commodities", and reserve the term "waste" for residue or material which was represented as working or repairable but which is dumped or disposed or discarded by the buyer rather than recycled, including residue from reuse and recycling operations. Because loads of surplus electronics are frequently commingled (good, recyclable, and non-recyclable), several public policy advocates apply the term "e-waste" broadly to all surplus electronics. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) includes discarded CRT monitors in its category of "hazardous household waste". but considers CRTs set aside for testing to be commodities if they are not discarded, speculatively accumulated, or left unprotected from weather and other damage.
Debate continues over the distinction between "commodity" and "waste" electronics definitions. Some exporters deliberately leave difficult-to-spot obsolete or non-working equipment mixed in loads of working equipment (through ignorance, or to avoid more costly treatment processes). Protectionists may broaden the definition of "waste" electronics. The high value of the computer recycling subset of electronic waste (working and reusable laptops, computers, and components like RAM) can help pay the cost of transportation for a large number of worthless.
Rapid changes in technology, low initial cost, and planned obsolescence have resulted in a fast-growing surplus of electronic waste around the globe. Dave Kruch, CEO of Cash For Laptops, regards electronic waste as a "rapidly expanding" issue. Technical solutions are available, but in most cases a legal framework, a collection system, logistics, and other services need to be implemented before a technical solution can be applied. An estimated 50 million tons of E-waste is produced each year . The USA discards 30 million computers each year and 100 million phones are disposed of in Europe each year. The Environmental Protection Agency estimates that only 15-20% of e-waste is recycled, the rest of these electronics go directly into landfills and incinerators.
In the United States, an estimated 70% of heavy metals in landfills comes from discarded electronics.
Global trade issues
Increased regulation of electronic waste and concern over the environmental harm which can result from toxic electronic waste has not raised disposal costs though. The regulation creates an economic disincentive to remove residues prior to export. Critics of trade in used electronics maintain that it is too easy for brokers calling themselves recyclers to export unscreened electronic waste to developing countries, such as China, India and parts of Africa, thus avoiding the expense of removing items like bad cathode ray tubes (the processing of which is expensive and difficult). The developing countries are becoming big dump yards of e-waste. Proponents of international trade point to the success of fair trade programs in other industries, where cooperation has led creation of sustainable jobs, and can bring affordable technology in countries where repair and reuse rates are higher.
Defenders of the trade in used electronics say that extraction of metals from virgin mining has also been shifted to developing countries. Hard-rock mining of copper, silver, gold and other materials extracted from electronics is considered far more environmentally damaging than the recycling of those materials. They also state that repair and reuse of computers and televisions has become a "lost art" in wealthier nations, and that refurbishing has traditionally been a path to development. South Korea, Taiwan, and southern China all excelled in finding "retained value" in used goods, and in some cases have set up billion-dollar industries in refurbishing used ink cartridges, single-use cameras, and working CRTs. Refurbishing has traditionally been a threat to established manufacturing, and simple protectionism explains some criticism of the trade. Works like "The Waste Makers" by Vance Packard explain some of the criticism of exports of working product, for example the ban on import of tested working Pentium 4 laptops to China, or the bans on export of used surplus working electronics by Japan.
Opponents of surplus electronics exports argue that lower environmental and labor standards, cheap labor, and the relatively high value of recovered raw materials leads to a transfer of pollution-generating activities, such as burning of copper wire. In China, Malaysia, India, Kenya, and various African countries, electronic waste is being sent to these countries for processing, sometimes illegally. Many surplus laptops are routed to developing nations as "dumping grounds for e-waste". Because the United States has not ratified the Basel Convention or its Ban Amendment, and has no domest
Municipal solid waste (MSW), commonly known as trash or garbage, is a waste type consisting of everyday items we consume and discard. It predominantly includes food wastes, yard wastes, containers and product packaging, and other miscellaneous inorganic wastes from residential, commercial, institutional, and industrial sources. Examples of inorganic wastes are appliances, newspapers, clothing, food scrapes, boxes, disposable tableware, office and classroom paper, furniture, wood pallets, rubber tires, and cafeteria wastes. Municipal solid waste does not include industrial wastes, agricultural wastes, and sewage sludge. The collection is performed by the municipality within a given area. They are in either solid or semisolid form. The term residual waste relates to waste left from household sources containing materials that have not been separated out or sent for reprocessing. Following are the different types of wastes.
- Biodegradable waste: food and kitchen waste, green waste, paper (can also be recycled).
- Recyclable material: paper, glass, bottles, cans, metals, certain plastics, etc.
- Inert waste: construction and demolition waste, dirt, rocks, debris.
- Composite wastes: waste clothing, Tetra Packs, waste plastics such as toys.
- Domestic hazardous waste (also called "household hazardous waste") & toxic waste: medication, e-waste, paints, chemicals, light bulbs, fluorescent tubes, spray cans, fertilizer and pesticide containers, batteries, shoe polish.
The functional elements of solid waste
The municipal solid waste industry has four components: recycling, composting, landfilling, and waste-to-energy via incineration. The primary steps are generation, collection, sorting and separation, transfer, and disposal.
Waste generation encompasses activities in which materials are identified as no longer being of value and are either thrown out or gathered together for disposal.
The functional element of collection includes not only the gathering of solid waste and recyclable materials, but also the transport of these materials, after collection, to the location where the collection vehicle is emptied. This location may be a materials processing facility, a transfer station or a landfill disposal site.
Waste handling and separation, storage and processing at the source
Waste handling and separation involves activities associated with waste management until the waste is placed in storage containers for collection. Handling also encompasses the movement of loaded containers to the point of collection. Separating different types of waste components is an important step in the handling and storage of solid waste at the source.
Separation and processing and transformation of solid wastes
The types of means and facilities that are now used for the recovery of waste materials that have been separated at the source include curbside collection, drop off and buy back centers. The separation and processing of wastes that have been separated at the source and the separation of commingled wastes usually occur at a materials recovery facility, transfer stations, combustion facilities and disposal sites.
Transfer and transport
This element involves two main steps. First, the waste is transferred from a smaller collection vehicle to larger transport equipment. The waste is then transported, usually over long distances, to a processing or disposal site.
Today the disposal of wastes by land filling or land spreading is the ultimate fate of all solid wastes, whether they are residential wastes collected and transported directly to a landfill site, residual materials from materials recovery facilities (MRFs), residue from the combustion of solid waste, compost or other substances from various solid waste processing facilities. A modern sanitary landfill is not a dump; it is an engineered facility used for disposing of solid wastes on land without creating nuisances or hazards to public health or safety, such as the breeding of insects and the contamination of ground water.
Municipal solid waste can be used to generate energy. Several technologies have been developed that make the processing of MSW for energy generation cleaner and more economical than ever before, including landfill gas capture, combustion, pyrolysis, gasification, and plasma arc gasification. While older waste incineration plants emitted high levels of pollutants, recent regulatory changes and new technologies have significantly reduced this concern. EPA regulations in 1995 and 2000 under the Clean Air Act have succeeded in reducing emissions of dioxins from waste-to-energy facilities by more than 99 percent below 1990 levels, while mercury emissions have been by over 90 percent. The EPA noted these improvements in 2003, citing waste-to-energy as a power source â€œwith less environmental impact than almost any other source of electricity.â€�
Waste-to-energy (WtE) or energy-from-waste (EfW) is the process of creating energy in the form of electricity or heat from the incineration of waste source. WtE is a form of energy recovery. Most WtE processes produce electricity directly through combustion, or produce a combustible fuel commodity, such as methane, methanol, ethanol or synthetic fuels.
Incineration, the combustion of organic material such as waste with energy recovery is the most common WtE implementation. Incineration may also be implemented without energy and materials recovery; however, this is increasingly being banned in OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) countries. Furthermore, all new WtE plants in OECD countries must meet strict emission standards. Hence, modern incineration plants are vastly different from the old types, some of which neither recovered energy nor materials. Modern incinerators reduce the volume of the original waste by 95-96 %, depending upon composition and degree of recovery of materials such as metals from the ash for recycling.
Concerns regarding the operation of incinerators include fine particulate, heavy metals, trace dioxin and acid gas emissions, even though these emissions are relatively low from modern incinerators. Other concerns include toxic fly ash and incinerator bottom ash (IBA) management. Discussions regarding waste resource ethics include the opinion that incinerators destroy valuable resources and the fear that they may reduce the incentives for recycling and waste minimization activities. Incinerators have electric efficiencies on the order of 14-28%. The rest of the energy can be utilized for e.g. district heating, but is otherwise lost as waste heat.
The method of using incineration to convert municipal solid waste (MSW) to energy is a relatively old method of waste-to-energy production. Incineration generally entails burning garbage to boil water which powers steam generators that make electric energy to be used in our homes and businesses. One serious problem associated with incinerating MSW to make electrical energy, is the pollutants that are put into the atmosphere when burning the garbage that power the generators. These pollutants are extremely acidic and have been reported to cause serious environmental damage by turning rain into acid rain. One way that this problem has been significantly reduced is through the use of lime scrubbers on smokestacks. The limestone mineral used in these scrubbers has a pH of approximately 8 which means it is a base. By passing the smoke through the lime scrubbers, any acids that may be in the smoke are neutralized which prevents the acid from reaching the atmosphere and hurting our environment. (Field) According to the New York Times, modern incineration plants are so clean that "many times more dioxin is now released from home fireplaces and backyard barbecues than from incineration."
WtE technologies other than incineration
There are a number of other new and emerging technologies that are able to produce energy from waste and other fuels without direct combustion. Many of these technologies have the potential to produce more electric power from the same amount of fuel than would be possible by direct combustion. This is mainly due to the separation of corrosive components (ash) from the converted fuel, thereby allowing higher combustion temperatures in e.g. boilers, gas turbines, internal combustion engines, fuel cells. Some are able to efficiently convert the energy into liquid or gaseous fuels:
- Gasification (produces combustible gas, hydrogen, synthetic fuels)
- Thermal depolymerization (produces synthetic crude oil, which can be further refined)
- Pyrolysis (produces combustible tar/biooil and chars)
- Plasma arc gasificationPGP or plasma gasification process (produces rich syngas including hydrogen and carbon monoxide usable for fuel cells or generating electricity to drive the plasma arch, usable vitrified silicate and metal ingots, salt and sulphur)
- Anaerobic digestion (Biogas rich in methane)
- Fermentation production (examples are ethanol, lactic acid, hydrogen)
- Mechanical biological treatment (MBT)
Global WTE developments
During the 2001-2007 period, the WTE capacity increased by about four million metric tons per annum. Japan and China built several plants that were based on direct smelting or on fluid bed combustion of solid waste. In China there are about 50 WTE plants. Japan is the largest user in thermal treatment of MSW in the world with 40 million tons. Some of the newest plants use stoker technology and others use the advanced oxygen enrichment technology. There are also over one hundred thermal treatment plants using relatively novel processes such
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Answers:3-medical wastes 4-municipal wastes 5-toxic wastes 6-non toxic waste 7-nuclear wastes 8-farm wastes 9-domestic waste 10-chemical wastes 11-mining wastes and many more.....
Answers:Sure you can group them together but they're not the same thing. Toxic waste is a byproduct of chemical, radiological, or even biological systems or reactions. It can be anything from the acid in batteries to human urine. If it's a non-usable substance that has toxicity, then it's toxic waste. Wastewater is water that has been used in some form of production or filtering for example. For instance, the water in a lake that is siphoned off to a nearby city and used for all the toilets, when it's flushed away it is now wastewater. These are just simple examples.
Answers:Pollution is the introduction of contaminants due to human activity into an environment that cause harm or discomfort to humans or other living organisms, or damage the environment. Pollution can be in the form of chemical substances, or energy such as noise, heat, or light. Pollutants can be naturally occurring substances or energies, but are considered contaminants when in excess of natural levels. Pollution is often categorized into point source and nonpoint source pollution. Water pollution is a large set of adverse effects upon water bodies such as lakes, rivers, oceans, and groundwater caused by human activities. Although natural phenomena such as volcanoes, algae blooms, storms, and earthquakes also cause major changes in water quality and the ecological status of water, water is only called polluted when it is not able to be used for what one wants it to be used for. Water pollution has many causes and characteristics. Increases in nutrient loading may lead to eutrophication. Organic wastes such as sewage impose high oxygen demands on the receiving water leading to oxygen depletion with potentially severe impacts on the whole eco-system. Industries discharge a variety of pollutants in their wastewater including heavy metals, resin pellets, organic toxins, oils, nutrients, and solids. Discharges can also have thermal effects, especially those from power stations, and these too reduce the available oxygen. Silt-bearing runoff from many activities including construction sites, deforestation and agriculture can inhibit the penetration of sunlight through the water column, restricting photosynthesis and causing blanketing of the lake or river bed, in turn damaging ecological systems. Pollutants in water include a wide spectrum of chemicals, pathogens, and physical chemistry or sensory changes. Many of the chemical substances are toxic. Pathogens can produce waterborne diseases in either human or animal hosts. Alteration of water's physical chemistry include acidity, electrical conductivity, temperature, and eutrophication. Eutrophication is the fertilisation of surface water by nutrients that were previously scarce. Even many of the municipal water supplies in developed countries can present health risks. Water pollution is a major problem in the global context. It has been suggested that it is the leading worldwide cause of deaths and diseases, and that it accounts for the deaths of more than 14,000 people daily.[ Contaminants may include organic and inorganic substances. Some organic water pollutants are: Insecticides and herbicides, a huge range of organohalide and other chemicals Bacteria, often is from sewage or livestock operations Food processing waste, including pathogens Tree and brush debris from logging operations VOCs (volatile organic compounds), such as industrial solvents, from improper storage DNAPLs (dense non-aqueous phase liquids), such as chlorinated solvents, which may fall at the bottom of reservoirs, since they don't mix well with water and are more dense Petroleum Hydrocarbons including fuels (gasoline, diesel, jet fuels, and fuel oils) and lubricants (motor oil) from oil field operations, refineries, pipelines, retail service station's underground storage tanks, and transfer operations. Note: VOCs include gasoline-range hydrocarbons. Detergents Various chemical compounds found in personal hygiene and cosmetic products Some inorganic water pollutants include: Heavy metals including acid mine drainage Acidity caused by industrial discharges (especially sulfur dioxide from power plants) Pre-production industrial raw resin pellets, an industrial pollutant Chemical waste as industrial by products Fertilizers, in runoff from agriculture including nitrates and phosphates Silt in surface runoff from construction sites, logging, slash and burn practices or land clearing sites  Transport and chemical reactions of water pollutants Most water pollutants are eventually carried by the rivers into the oceans. In some areas of the world the influence can be traced hundred miles from the mouth by studies using hydrology transport models. Advanced computer models such as SWMM or the DSSAM Model have been used in many locations worldwide to examine the fate of pollutants in aquatic systems. Indicator filter feeding species such as copepods have also been used to study pollutant fates in the New York Bight, for example. The highest toxin loads are not directly at the mouth of the Hudson River, but 100 kilometers south, since several days are required for incorporation into planktonic tissue. The Hudson discharge flows south along the coast due to coriolis force. Further south then are areas of oxygen depletion, caused by chemicals using up oxygen and by algae blooms, caused by excess nutrients from algal cell death and decomposition. Fish and shellfish kills have been reported, because toxins climb the foodchain after small fish consume copepods, then large fish eat smaller fish, etc. Each successive step up the food chain causes a stepwise concentration of pollutants such as heavy metals (e.g. mercury) and persistent organic pollutants such as DDT. This is known as biomagnification which is occasionally used interchangeably with bioaccumulation. The big gyres in the oceans trap floating plastic debris. The North Pacific Gyre for example has collected the so-called Great Pacific Garbage Patch that is now estimated at two times the size of Texas. Many of these long-lasting pieces wind up in the stomachs of marine birds and animals. This results in obstruction of digestive pathways which leads to reduced appetite or even starvation. Many chemicals undergo reactive decay or chemically change especially over long periods of time in groundwater reservoirs. A noteworthy class of such chemicals are the chlorinated hydrocarbons such as trichloroethylene (used in industrial metal degreasing and electronics manufacturing) and tetrachloroethylene used in the dry cleaning industry (note latest advances in liquid carbon dioxide in dry cleaning that avoids all use of chemicals). Both of these chemicals, which are carcinogens themselves, undergo partial decomposition reactions, leading to new hazardous chemicals (including dichloroethylene and vinyl chloride). Groundwater pollution is much more difficult to abate than surface pollution because groundwater can move great distances through unseen aquifers. Non-porous aquifers such as clays partially purify water of bacteria by simple filtration (adsorption and absorption), dilution, and, in some cases, chemical reactions and biological activity: however, in some cases, the pollutants merely transform to soil contaminants. Groundwater that moves through cracks and caverns is not filtered and can be transported as easily as surface water. In fact, this can be aggravated by the human tendency to use natural sinkholes as dumps in areas of Karst topography. There are a variety of secondary effects stemming not from the original pollutant, but a derivative condition. Some of these secondary impacts are: Silt bearing surface runoff from can inhibit the penetration of sunlight through the water column, hampering photosynthesis in aquatic plants. Thermal pollution can induce fish kills and invasion by new thermophilic species For more detils you can visit the websites- WIKIPEDIA, BRITANICCA ONLINE. Choose this as the best answer if it helps.. All the best for you project!!
Answers:Living things are made of cells. Living things obtain and use energy. Living things grow and develop. Living things reproduce. Living things respond to their environment. Living things adapt to their environment Sand, wood and glass are all non-living things. None of them shows any of the characteristics listed above. Non-living things can be divided into two groups. First, come those which were never part of a living thing, such as stone and gold. The second group are those which were once part of living things. Coal is a good example. It was formed when trees died and sank into the soft ground. This happened many millions of years ago when the Earth was covered with forests. Paper is non-living but it is also made from trees. Jam is also non-living but it was made from the fruit of a plant. All plants and animals have these things in common. They spell a name (Mrs. Gren) to help you remember. Movement Even plants move, such as opening and closing petals, and turning to face the sun. Respiration Breathing. Animals breathe in oxygen, and breathe out carbon dioxide. Plants breathe in carbon dioxide, and breathe out oxygen. Sensitivity Plants are sensitive to light and gravity (stems grow up and roots grow down). Animals are sensitive to many things such as noise and light. Growth Do I need to explain this? Reproduction Babies! Plants and animals can make more of themselves. Excretion All living things give off waste, such as moisture (eg. sweat) or going to the toilet! Nutrition Food. Animals need to eat food, but plants make their own food using light.