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Written reports are documents which present focused, salient content to a specific audience. Reports are often used to display the result of an experiment, investigation, or inquiry. The audience may be public or private, an individual or the public in general. Reports are used in government, business, education, science, and other fields.

Reports often use persuasive elements, such as graphics, images, voice, or specialized vocabulary in order to persuade that specific audience to undertake an action. One of the most common formats for presenting reports is IMRAD: Introduction, Methods, Results and Discussion. This structure is standard for the genre because it mirrors the traditional publication of scientific research and summons the ethos and credibility of that discipline. Reports are not required to follow this pattern, and may use alternative patterns like the problem-solution format.

Additional elements often used to persuade readers include: headings to indicate topics, to more complex formats including charts, tables, figures, pictures, tables of contents, abstracts, summaries, appendices, footnotes, hyperlinks, and references.

Some examples of reports are: scientific reports, recommendation reports, white papers, annual reports, auditor's reports, workplace reports, census reports, trip reports, progress reports, investigative reports, budget reports, policy reports, demographic reports, credit reports, appraisal reports, inspection reports, military reports, bound reports, etc.

Enterprise/Client reporting

With the dramatic expansion of information technology, and the desire for increased competitiveness in corporations, there has been an increase in the use of computing power to produce unified reports which join different views of the enterprise in one place. Termed Enterprise Reporting, this process involves querying data sources with different logical models to produce a human readable report—for example, a computer user has to query the Human Resources databases and the Capital Improvements databases to show how efficiently space is being used across an entire corporation.

Enterprise Reporting is a fundamental part of the larger movement towards improved business intelligence and knowledge management. Often implementation involves extract, transform, and load (ETL) procedures in coordination with a data warehouse and then using one or more reporting tools. While reports can be distributed in print form or via email, they are typically accessed via a corporate intranet.

Informal learning

Informal learning is semi-structured and occurs in a variety of places, such as learning at home, work, and through daily interactions and shared relationships among members of society. For many learners this includes language acquisition, cultural norms and manners. Informal learning for young people is an ongoing process that also occurs in a variety of places, such as out of school time, as well as in youth programs and at community centers.

In the context of corporate training and education, the term informal learning is widely used to describe the many forms of learning that takes place independently from instructor-led programs: books, self-study programs, performance support materials and systems, coaching, communities of practice, and expert directories.


Informal learning can be characterized as follows:

  • It often takes place outside educational establishments standing out from normal life and professional practice;
  • It does not necessarily follow a specified curriculum and is not often professionally organized but rather originates accidentally, sporadically, in association with certain occasions, from changing practical requirements;
  • It is not necessarily planned pedagogically conscious, systematically according to subjects, test and qualification-oriented, but rather unconsciously incidental, holistically problem-related, and related to situationmanagement and fitness for life;
  • It is experienced directly in its "natural" function of everyday life.


In international discussions, the concept of informal learning, already used by John Dewey at an early stage and later on by Malcolm Knowles, experienced a renaissance, especially in the context of development policy. At first, informal learning was only delimited from formal school learning and nonformal learning in courses (Coombs/Achmed 1974). Marsick and Watkins take up this approach and go one step further in their definition. They, too, begin with the organizational form of learning and call those learning processes informal which are non-formal or not formally organized and are not financed by institutions (Watkins/Marsick, p. 12 et sec.). An example for a wider approach is Livingstone's definition which is oriented towards autodidactic and self-directed learning and places special emphasis on the self-definition of the learning process by the learner (Livingstone 1999, p. 68 et seq.).

Another perspective

Merriam and others (2007) state: "Informal learning, Schugurensky (2000) suggests, has its own internal forms that are important to distinguish in studying the phenomenon. He proposes three forms: self-directed learning, incidental learning, and socialization, or tacit learning. These differ among themselves in terms of intentionality and awareness at the time of the learning experience. Self-directed learning, for example, is intentional and conscious; incidental learning, which Marsick and Watkins (1990) describe as an accidental by-product of doing something else, is unintentional but after the experience she or he becomes aware that some learning has taken place; and finally, socialization or tacit learning is neither intentional nor conscious (although we can become aware of this learning later through 'retrospective recognition') (Marsick & Watkins, 1990, p. 6)" (p. 36).

Formal and nonformal education

To fully understand informal learning it is useful to define the terms "formal" and "non-formal" education. Merriam, Caffarella, and Baumgartner (2007), state: "Formal education is highly institutionalized, bureaucratic, curriculum driven, and formally recognized with grades, diplomas, or certificates" (p. 29). Merriam and others (2007), also state: "The term non-formal has been used most often to describe organized learning outside of the formal education system. These offerings tend to be short-term, voluntary, and have few if any prerequisites. However they typically have a curriculum and often a facilitator" (p. 30).Non-formal learning can also include learning in the formal arena when concepts are adapted to the unique needs of individual students (Burlin, 2009).

Research and data

Merriam and others (2007) state: "studies of informal learning, especially those asking about adults' self-directed learning projects, reveal that upwards of 90 percent of adults are engaged in hundreds of hours of informal learning. It has also been estimated that the great majority (upwards of 70 percent) of learning in the workplace is informal (Kim, Collins, Hagedorn, Williamson, & Chapman, 2004), although billions of dollars each year are spent by business and industry on formal training programs" (p. 35–36). vb

Informal learning experiences

Informal knowledge is information that has not been externalized or captured and exists only inside someone's head. To get at the knowledge, you must locate and talk to that person. Examples of such informal knowledge transfer include instant messaging, a spontaneous meeting on the Internet, a phone call to someone who has information you need, a live one-time-only sales meeting introducing a new product, a chat-room in real time, a chance meeting by the water cooler, a scheduled Web-based meeting with a real-time agenda, a tech walking you through a repair process, or a meeting with your assigned mentor or manager.

Experience indicates that almost all real learning for performance is informal (The Institute for Research on Learning, 2000, Menlo Park), and the people from whom we learn informally are usually present in real time. We all need that kind of access to an expert who can answer our questions and with whom we can play with the learning, practice, make mistakes, and practice some more. It

Information system

thumb|CS, SE, IS, IT, & Customer [[Venn Diagram]] where functionality spans left and design spans right stemming from discovery.

An information system (IS) - or application landscape - is any combination of information technology and people's activities using that technology to support operations, management, and decision-making. In a very broad sense, the term information system is frequently used to refer to the interaction between people, algorithmic processes, data and technology. In this sense, the term is used to refer not only to the information and communication technology (ICT) an organization uses, but also to the way in which people interact with this technology in support of business processes.

Some make a clear distinction between information systems,and computer systems ICT, and business processes. Information systems are distinct from information technology in that an information system is typically seen as having an ICT component. Information systems are also different from business processes. Information systems help to control the performance of business processes.

Alter argues for an information system as a special type of work system. A work system is a system in which humans and/or machines perform work using resources (including ICT) to produce specific products and/or services for customers. An information system is a work system whose activities are devoted to processing (capturing, transmitting, storing, retrieving, manipulating and displaying) information.

Part of the difficulty in defining the term information system is due to vagueness in the definition of related terms such as system and information. Beynon-Davies argues for a clearer terminology based in systemics and semiotics. He defines an information system as an example of a system concerned with the manipulation of signs. An information system is a type of socio-technical system. An information system is a mediating construct between actions and technology.

As such, information systems inter-relate with data systems on the one hand and activity systems on the other. An information system is a form of communication system in which data represent and are processed as a form of social memory. An information system can also be considered a semi-formal language which supports human decision making and action.

Information systems are the primary focus of study for the information systems discipline and for organisational informatics.


It consists of computers, instructions, stored facts, people and procedures.

Informal sector

The informal sector or informal economy is the part of an economy that is not taxed, monitored by any form of government or included in any gross national product (GNP), unlike the formal economy. Examples are barter and gift economy. KAYLIE TOOK A BOOM BOOM :)

Although the informal economy is often associated with developing countries, where up to 60% of the labour force (with as much 40% of GDP) works, all economic systems contain an informal economy in some proportion. The term informal sector was used in many earlier studies, and has been mostly replaced in more recent studies which use the newer term.

The English idioms under the table and off the books typically refer to this type of economy. The term black marketrefers to a specific subset of the informal economy in whichcontraband is traded; where contraband may be strictly or informally defined.


Informal economic activity is a dynamic process which includes many aspects of economic and social theory including exchange, regulation, and enforcement. By its nature, it is necessarily difficult to observe, study, define, and measure. No single source readily or authoritatively defines informal economy as a unit of study, although the work of economic anthropologist Keith Hart was integral in defining the term.

To further confound attempts to define this process, informal economic activity is temporal in nature. Regulations (and degrees of enforcement) change frequently, sometimes daily, and any instance of economic activity can shift between categories of formal and informal with even minor changes in policy.

Given the complexity of the phenomenon, the simplest definition of informal economic activity might be: any exchange of goods or services involving economic value in which the act escapes regulation of similar satchel acts.


Governments have tried to regulate (formalize) aspects of their economies for as long as surplus wealth has existed which is at least as early as Sumer. Yet no such regulation has ever been wholly enforceable. Archaeological and anthropological evidence strongly suggests that people of all societies regularly adjust their activity within economic systems in attempt to evade regulations. Therefore, if informal economic activity is that which goes unregulated in an otherwise regulated system then informal economies are as old as their formal counterparts. The term itself, however, is much more recent. The optimism of the modernization theory school of development had led most people in the 1950s and 1960s to believe that traditional forms of work and production would disappear as a result of economic progress in developing countries. As this optimism proved to be unfounded, scholars turned to study more closely what was then called the traditional sector. They found that the sector had not only persisted, but in fact expanded to encompass new developments. In accepting that these forms of productions were there to stay, scholars started using the term informal sector, which is credited to the British anthropologist Keith Hart in a study on Ghana in 1973 but also alluded to by the International Labour Organization in a widely read study on Kenya in 1972 MANAN ROHAN.

Since then the informal sector has become an increasingly popular subject of investigation, not just in economics, but also in sociology and anthropology. With the turn towards so called post-fordist modes of production in the advanced developing countries, many workers were forced out of their formal sector work and into informal employment. In a seminal collection of articles, The Informal Economy. Studies in Advanced and Less Developed Countries, Alejandro Portes and collaborators emphasized the existence of an informal economy in all countries by including case studies ranging from New York City and Madrid to Uruguay and Colombia.

Arguably the most influential book on informal economy is Hernando de Soto's El otro sendero (1986), which was published in English in 1989 as The Other Path with a preface by Peruvian writer Mario Vargas Llosa. De Soto and his team argue that excessive regulation in the Peruvian (and other Latin American) economies force a large part of the economy into informality and thus prevent economic development. While accusing the ruling class of 20th century mercantilism, de Soto admires the entrepreneurial spirit of the informal economy. In a widely cited experiment, his team tried to legally register a small garment factory in Lima. This took more than 100 administrative steps and almost a year of full-time work. Whereas de Soto's work is popular with policymakers and champions of free market policies like The Economist, many scholars of the informal economy have criticized it both for methodological flaws and normative bias.

In the second half of the 1990s many scholars have started to consciously use the term "informal economy" instead of "informal sector" to refer to a broader concept that includes enterprises as well as employment in developing, transition, and advanced industrialized economies.

Some facts

The informal economy under any governing system is diverse and includes small-scaled, occasional members (often street vendors and garbage recyclers) as well as larger, regular enterprises (including transit systems such as that of Lima, Peru). Informal economies include garment workers working from their homes, as well as informally employed personnel of formal enterprises. Employees working in the informal sector can be classified as wage workers, non-wage workers, or a combination of both.

The above definition rejects the inclusion of certain activities including crime and domestic labor. <

From Yahoo Answers

Question:So for my homework I have to write a short report on five diseases that covers the diseases' basic qualities and is quite informative... I've written reports before, except I'm not sure how to cram a lot of information in such a small piece of writing. So if anyone could just show me an example of a short report so I can get a basic idea of what is required, I'd appreciate it greatly. Thank you! Any tips to writing short reports would be much appreciated too. Thanks again to anyone who answers! I'm only in 8th grade also, so they're probably not after a perfect report, but I would like to do well. :P

Answers:Hi Ban... A good way to do a short report that is very informative is to use a table. Here is one way that you could present quite a bit of info in an easily-read format: "Throughout the world and over the years mankind has had to contend with many serious diseases. Here are five that were very serious: And then build a table with six rows, and four columns. Row 1 will have the table headings, such as (which shows what your four columns will be) Disease --- What causes it? ----- What are the symptoms? ---- How is it cured? Then you have five more rows. Each row is for one of the diseases that you wish to discuss. And then you simply fill in the info under each heading (inside the cells) for each disease. To make it "quite informative," you can put as much info in each cell of the table as you wish Wrap the whole thing up with one or two concluding sentences and your done. The "report" will need a title, something like "Serious Diseases over the Years". If you aren't comfortable with doing a table, or would rather not, use lists instead, such as below. Again, you can put two or three sentences in each row to make it "more informative," if you wish 1) Malaria Malaria is caused by ..... Its symptoms are .... Doctors cure Malaria by ... 2) Yellow Fever Yellow Fever is caused by ... and so forth.

Question:My nephew (age 11) has a project that I am helping him with. He has to write an ABC picture book about India. He has to have one thing pertaining to India for each letter of the alphabet. He has to write about it and give two facts abut each. So far, he is doing great, but we are having trouble coming up with a word or topic for L, O, Q, U, W, X, and Z. It can be anything, such as a city, religious symbol, river, mountain, cultural reference, person from India, etc. (some of the things we already have are Ashoka, Buddha, Calcutta, Ganges River, Himalayas, Monsoon, Taj Mahal, Yoga just to give you examples of what we need). He can do the research. We just need some suggested words for those last 7 letters. Any suggestions would be very helpful, especially if you have something for Q, X, or Z. Thanks

Answers:L = Lassi, my favorite is the mango lassi which is a refreshing fruit yogurt drink O = Ounce. 1 oz = 28.35 gms = 1 fl. oz = 29.57 ml = 1/8 cup = 6 tsp. = 2 tbsp. 1 tbsp = 3 tsp. India uses metric system for measurements. Q = Queen Elizabeth I - granted the Honourable East India Company (HEIC), an English Royal Charter on December 31, 1600, with the intention of favouring trade privileges in India. The Royal Charter effectively gave the newly created HEIC a 21 year monopoly on all trade in the East Indies. The Company transformed from a commercial trading venture to one that virtually ruled India as it acquired auxiliary governmental and military functions, until its dissolution in 1858. U = Uttar Pradesh. Situated in the northern part of India, it is the most populated state of India. In terms of area, it is the fourth largest among all the states. W = West Bengal. Anoter state of India known as the gateway to the exotic east. West Bengal covers the bottleneck of India in the east, stretching from the Himalayas in the north to the Bay of Bengal in the south. Countries that share international boundaries with West Bengal include Bhutan, Bangladesh and Nepal while Sikkim, Assam, Orissa and Bihar frame its domestic borders. The alluvial plain in the south is watered by the legendary River Hooghly and its tributaries. The Himalayan north, comprising the districts of Darjeeling, Jalpaiguri and Cooch Bihar are watered by the swift flowing rivers Tista, Torsa, Jaldhaka and Ranjit. X = "Xcuse Me" a 2003 Indian movie comedy. Plot summary: Chantu and Bantu are unemployed, and are able to get any employment due to lack of experience. They come across an advertisement for hotel management trainees in Goa, and make their way there. Once there, they hoodwink the trainer by posing as the nephew of the owner of the hotel, and thus enroll themselves in the training course. They set about making enemies by exposing several employees and guests, and earning their wrath, and in the process end up wooing the daughters of the two owners of the hotel. Things turn sore for the two, when the guests and former employees get together to avenge their humiliation. Z = Zoroastrian, an Indian religion. The Parsis account for less than 0.007% of the Indian population, but as Mahatma Gandhi said, they are "in number beneath contempt, but in contribution, beyond compare." The same could be said of their festivals. Unfortunately, like the Parsis themselves, these are private and celebrated primarily within the community.

Question:So I'm doing a big extra credit report (It won't count against me if I fail it, but I need the extra points in case I flunk out on a big test or something). It's on Human Heredity (could be anything within that category, but i'm focusing on genes). I'm wondering what websites have good information, because when I google Human Heredity all that comes up are medical journals and articles on genes that I don't understand. I can't use Wikipedia, because the information could get changed too easily. thanks! ok, the colorblindness sounds like a good topic, but where can i find more information? I have to handwrite a 2 page (Front and back counts as 1) paper.

Answers:You could talk about a congenital (get it from your parents by means of hereditary) defect such as green-red color blindness. This color blindness is carried by the X chromosome that everyone gets from there mother at conception. This disease is more prevelent in boys because boys have one X chromosome from mom and a Y chromosome from dad, meaning all cells in a male will exhibit the trait from mom's X chromosome. However; girls have two X chromosomes and are much less likely to exhibit this hereditary disease because although one of their X chromosomes may carry the colorblindness gene, their other X chromosome has the "good" color vision gene and the body will use that instead. So in order for a girl to be colorblind they have to have inherited TWO X chromosomes, whereas a boy only has to have one :(.

Question:i have a science report due tomorrow what is one type of air pollution and what are its causes list some facts how can we improve the problem why should we be worried about (the type of air pollution you chose) Best Answer gets 10 points

Answers:Smog is an easy example to do a report on. I'll give you some sentences and links, and I expect you to do the work as it will benefit you. Smog is the combination of smoke and fog. This is a major problem in industrialized cities because of heavy emissions from vehicles, power plants, factories, etc. This can be improved by reducing the amount of harmful emissions. Methods of accomplishing that include, but are not limited to: using more public transportation, using more fuel efficient vehicles, and using vehicles that give off few or no harmful emissions. We should be worried about smog because it can result in serious lung problems if a person has a prolonged exposure to it. Please go to my sources for an abundance of helpful information. Paraphrase the information and cite your sources to avoid plagiarism. Good luck!

From Youtube

Education Example: Oral Book Report :Using the printable dot paper function in the Livescribe desktop application, an educator at the Runanga School in New Zealand was able to print the dot paper pattern on to blank labels to create audio labels, which can be attached to virtually anything. Here is an example of an oral book review students attach an audio label in books they have read with a review of the book, what they thought about it, what they liked/disliked about the book.

explanation of book report assignment :book report example