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From Wikipedia

Master of Ceremonies

A Master of Ceremonies (shortened MC or emcee) is the host of a staged event or similar performance. An MC usually presents performers, speaks to the audience, and generally keeps the event moving. An MC may also tell jokes or anecdotes. The MC sometimes also acts as the protocol officer during an official state function. In hip hop, rock music and electronic dance music, an MC is a music artist and/or performer who usually creates and performs vocals for his own original material (not to be confused with a DJ who plays party music and creates music mixes). Shock G of Digital Underground, in the book How to Rap, notes that the term 'M.C.' in hip hop "comes from the phrase Master of Ceremonies", which explains "the M.C. prefix to so many rappers' names" (for example,MC Hammer). MCs are not limited to rapping, singing is often used in hardstyle and metal music.

Origins

The term originates from the Catholic Church. The Master of Ceremonies is an official of the Papal Court responsible for the proper and smooth conduct of the elegant and elaborate rituals involving the Pope and the Sacred Liturgy. He may also be an official involved in the proper conduct of protocols and ceremonials involving the Roman Pontiff, the Papal Court, and other dignitaries and potentates. Examples of official liturgical books prescribing the rules and regulations of liturgical celebrations are Cæremoniale Romanum and Cæremoniale Episcoporum.

The office of the Master of Ceremonies itself is very old. According to the Catholic Encyclopedia, the most ancient ceremonials and rituals of the Catholic Church are the so-called Ordines Romani. Names of Masters of Ceremonies are known since the late Middle Ages (15th century) and theRenaissance (16th century). However, copies of books prescribing the forms of rituals, rites and customs of pontifical ceremonies are known to have been given to Charles Martel in the 8th century. The rules and rituals themselves are known to have been compiled or written by the pontifical masters of ceremonies whose contents date back to the time of Pope Gelasius I (492-496) with modifications and additions made by Pope Gregory the Great (590-604). It is reasonable to assume that the ceremonials themselves pre-date Gelasius I and the origins of the Master of Ceremonies may have developed from the time Emperor Constantine the Great gave the Lateran Palace to the popes (324) or from the time Christianity became the official religion of the Roman Empire (380), and was influenced no doubt by imperial practices, customs and norms. However, documentary evidence from the late Roman period are scarce or lost. The ceremonies and practices of the Byzantine emperors are also known to have influenced the papal court. The accumulation of elaboration and complication since the Renaissance and Baroque eras were carried well into the 20th century until some of the ceremonies (i.e. the court, the rituals and norms) were simplified or completely eliminated by Pope Paul VI in the 1970s after Vatican II; much of the Renaissance pomp and ceremony has been completely abandoned by the popes of the modern era.

At a large Catholic church or cathedral, the Master of Ceremonies organises and rehearses the proceedings and ritual of each Mass. He may also have responsibility for the physical security of the place of worship during the liturgy. At major festivities such as Christmas and Easter, when the liturgies are long and complex, the Master of Ceremonies plays a vital role in ensuring that everything runs smoothly.

The current papal Master of Ceremonies is Monsignor Guido Marini who succeeded Archbishop Piero Marini to whom he is not related.

Masters of Ceremonies at weddings and private affairs have also been in charge of the coordination of events. Wedding MCs will often work directly with catering staff to ensure the event runs smoothly.

Monarchies

Historically certain European royal courts maintained senior offices known as Masters of Ceremonies (or some variants thereof), responsible for conducting stately ceremonies such as coronations and receptions of foreign ambassadors. Examples included:

Indirect speech

In grammar, indirect or reported speech (also indirect discourse; Latin ) is a way of reporting a statement or question. A reported question is called an indirect question. Unlike direct speech, indirect speech does not phrase the statement or question the way the original speaker did; instead, certain grammatical categories are changed. In addition, indirect speech is not enclosed in quotation marks.

Person is changed when the person speaking and the person quoting the speech are different.

In English, tense is changed. In other languages, mood is altered. Latin switches from indicative to the infinitive (statement) or the subjunctive (question).

Reference point

Grammatical forms may change when the reference point (origo) is changed. There are two reference points: the point in time and the person currently speaking. A change of time causes a change in tense, and a change in speaker may cause a change in person.

In the first sentence, the reference point changes from present to past: the original speaker sees the rain pouring down, but the narrator is referring to a past event.

In the second and third sentence, the reference point changes from one person to another. In the third example, the reference point moves from the person who intends to come to the party to the one throwing the party.

This explanation, however, cannot be generalised. It does not account for the change of mood in Latin and German. In Japanese, among other languages, the speaker is free to change the pronoun or leave it as is.

Examples

Latin

Latin grammar can express indirect statements and indirect questions. An indirect statement or question can serve in the place of the direct object of a verb related to thought or communication.

An indirect statement is expressed by changing the case of the subject noun phrase from nominative to accusative and by replacing the main verb with an infinitive (without changing its voice or tense).

  • Ego amo libertatem.
  • :Dicit me amare libertatem.
  • Rex dedit omnibus leges.
  • :Credo regem dedisse omnibus leges.
  • Videbimus permulta cras.
  • :Speras nos videturus esse permulta cras.
  • Tertium non datur.
  • :Docuit philosophus tertium non dari.
  • In Senatu imperator interfectus est.
  • :Audivi imperatorem in Senatu interfectum esse.

In the case of predication via a copula (typically esse),the case of the predicate adjective or noun changes from nominative to accusative.

  • Ego sum felix.
  • :Dicit me esse felicem.

An indirect question is expressed by changing the mood of the main verb from indicative to subjunctive. It is normally appropriate to retain the word that introduces the question.

Comparison between direct, indirect and free indirect speech


Part of speech

In grammar, a part of speech (also a word class, a lexical class, or a lexical category) is a linguistic category of words (or more precisely lexical items), which is generally defined by the syntactic or morphological behaviour of the lexical item in question. Common linguistic categories include noun and verb, among others. There are open word classes, which constantly acquire new members, and closed word classes, which acquire new members infrequently if at all.

Different languages may have different lexical categories, or they might associate different properties to the same one. For example, Japanese has as many as three classes of adjectives where English has one; Chinese, Korean and Japanese have classifiers while European languages do not grammaticalize these units of measurement (a pair of pants, a grain of rice); many languages don't have a distinction between adjectives and adverbs, adjectives and verbs (see stative verbs) or adjectives and nouns, etc. Some argue that the formal distinctions between parts of speech must be made within the framework of a specific language or language family, and should not be carried over to other languages or language families.

History

The classification of words into lexical categories is found from the earliest moments in the history of linguistics. In the Nirukta, written in the 5th or 6th century BC, theSanskrit grammarianY�ska defined four main categories of words:

  1. n�ma – nouns or substantives
  2. �khy�ta – verbs
  3. upasarga – pre-verbs or prefixes
  4. nip�ta – particles, invariant words (perhaps prepositions)

These four were grouped into two large classes: inflected (nouns and verbs) and uninflected (pre-verbs and particles).

The Tamil grammarianTolkappian in his work Tolkappiyam dated variously between 1st CE and 10th CE, classifies words in Tamil as

  1. peyar (noun),
  2. vinai (verb),
  3. idai (part of speech which modifies the relationships between verbs and nouns) and
  4. uri (word that further qualifies a noun or verb)

A century or two later, the Greek scholar Plato wrote in the Cratylus dialog that "... sentences are, I conceive, a combination of verbs [rhēma] and nouns [ónoma]". Another class, "conjunctions" (covering conjunctions, pronouns, and the article), was later added by Aristotle.

By the end of the 2nd century BC, the classification scheme had been expanded into eight categories, seen in the Art of Grammar(Τέχνη Γ�αμματική) :

  1. Noun: a part of speech inflected for case, signifying a concrete or abstract entity
  2. Verb: a part of speech without case inflection, but inflected for tense, person and number, signifying an activity or process performed or undergone
  3. Participle: a part of speech sharing the features of the verb and the noun
  4. Interjection: a part of speech expressing emotion alone
  5. Pronoun: a part of speech substitutable for a noun and marked for person
  6. Preposition: a part of speech placed before other words in composition and in syntax
  7. Adverb: a part of speech without inflection, in modification of or in addition to a verb
  8. Conjunction: a part of speech binding together the discourse and filling gaps in its interpretation

The Latin grammarian Priscian (fl.500 CE) modified the above eightfold system, substituting "interjection" for "article". It wasn't until 1767 that the adjective was taken as a separate class.

Traditional English grammar is patterned after the European tradition above, and is still taught in schools and used in dictionaries. It names eight parts of speech: noun, verb, adjective, adverb, pronoun, preposition, conjunction, and From Yahoo Answers

Question:It has to be about why we need a good education. If you could help by maybe giving me some possible guide lines and a funny but inspirational quote would help too.

Answers:just talk about how a good eduction leads to a good career and you could start off by saying like " what is education and why is it so important? then answer it and then you could be like and i know yes at sixth grade you would rather be thinking about others thing like (name some things) but thinking about your education is very important. talk about things that kids want, alot of money, a really nice house, a big tv and say that in order to get these things you can either win the lottery or try hard in school which will lead to getting a good job with a good income. quote: Although being called a nerd can hurt, think of it this way, nerd is a four letter word but a six figure income.

Question:True or false ____ 4. Speakers making dedication speeches reinforce collective needs and values of listeners. ____ 5. Speeches of presentation often include words such as most, best, or first. ____ 6. For a group to exist, there must be interaction and interdependence among individuals, a common goal, and shared rules of conduct. ____ 7. A group can never be too cohesive. _____ 8. The speech introduction often includes descriptions of a speaker s personal qualities. _____ 9. In a toast given to honor a foreign dignitary or head of state, a toast should not identify areas of disagreement. ____ 10. It is egotistical and inappropriate for Academy Award nominees to have acceptance speeches prepared in case they win Best Actor or Best Actress awards. ____ 11. Speeches of tribute focus on achievements and virtues. ____ 12. Farewell speeches are presented on the occasion of a change in status or position. ____ 13. Farewell speeches are often emotional and moving. ____ 14. According to the author, commencement speakers try to be eloquent and intellectual will most likely be effective. ____ 15. When the use of humor stimulates audience feedback in an after-dinner speech, a speaker should continue talking through audience laughter. ____ 16. According to the author, an effective toast should be serious. ____ 17. A lengthy nominating speech can be damaging to the nominee. ____ 18. Entertaining speeches do not involve research on the part of the speaker. ____ 19. It is appropriate for speeches of tribute to include details which are not specifically relevant to the biography of the individual being honored. ____ 20. According to the text, a commencement speaker who is self-absorbed will not be taken seriously by the audience. ____ 21. After-dinner speeches are similar to comic routines containing unconnected stories or jokes. ____ 22. Effective speeches tribute connect past achievements to the present by encouraging listeners to continue similar struggles. ____ 23. A conclusion to a eulogy should place emphasis on the loss of a loved one. ____ 24. In presentation speeches, dropping framed certificates or handing out plaques upside down add humor, spontaneity, and informality of an occasion. ____ 25. A speech presented at a retirement or going away ceremony is called a eulogy. Multiple Choice Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question on your test.. ____ 26. At the group s fourth meeting, all of the members are on time and seat themselves in what has become their places around the table. Carl, who always tells a funny story, tells a joke. Mavis shoves him in a friendly way. Steve says, Let s get to work, and organizes the materials to be passed out. Lisa smiles and reminds everyone where they left off at the last meeting. These behaviors are examples of which of the following? a.synergy b.rules c.norms d.social climbing e.conformity to pressure ____ 27. Which of the following is the ideal order of the phases of group development (beginning with the first stage groups must pass through). a.forming, norming, storming, performing b.forming, storming, norming, performing c.storming, forming, performing, norming d.storming, norming, forming, performing e.performing, norming, storming, forming ____ 28. The first stage of problem-solving process is: a.generate solutionsd.develop criteria for solution b.define the issue or probleme.decide on a plan of action c.evaluate solutions ____ 29. The forming phase of group development is characterized by all of the following except: a.certainty about the purpose, motives, and needs of group members b.questions about whether we want to be a member c.questions about our own role in the group d.questions about norms of group members e.uncertainty about the purpose, motives, and needs of group members ____ 30. Generally, group work can be more productive than individual efforts because groups: a.have less information and knowledge available than an individual. b.stimulate creativity. c.have the potential for agreement with an individual. d.can stimulate groupthink. e.take more time. ____ 31. According to lecture, which type of roles should be avoided because they do not serve the group in a positive way? a.task rolesd.conflict roles b.group maintenance rolese.self-centered roles c.relationship roles ____ 32. Joey, Jenny, Eboni, Anil, and Izzy were working on a group project for class. As a group they are very cohesive. Jenny suggests a topic for their project. Everyone immediately agrees that the topic is a great idea and they stop brainstorming and get to work on the project. The group s failure to critically evaluate the topic could lead to: a.synergyd.norming b.creativitye.performing c.groupthink ____ 33. The conclusion of a presentation speech should contain a.a challenge to the audience b.an appeal for specific action c.the bestowal of an upward or plaque d.all of the above e.a compliment to the person being presented ____ 34. After-dinner speeches differ from other types of presentations due to a.organization b.the lack of thesis c.the use of humor d.the use of metaphors e.all of the above

Answers:True or false ____ 4. Speakers making dedication speeches reinforce collective needs and values of listeners.---- TRUE ____ 6. For a group to exist, there must be interaction and interdependence among individuals, a common goal, and shared rules of conduct.---- TRUE ____ 7. A group can never be too cohesive.-FALSE-sometimes too much cohesiveness can create an atmosphere of complancey and nobody will question the group decisions and no leader will take charge. _____ 8. The speech introduction often includes descriptions of a speaker s personal qualities.---- FALSE- A speech introduction should stay on topic and discuss only the subject at ahnd. ____ 10. It is egotistical and inappropriate for Academy Award nominees to have acceptance speeches prepared in case they win Best Actor or Best Actress awards.--- FALSE. That is an old-school rule and nowadays people don't mind if you have a list of names so you don't forget people. ____ 11. Speeches of tribute focus on achievements and virtues.--- TRUE ____ 12. Farewell speeches are presented on the occasion of a change in status or position.---- TRUE ____ 13. Farewell speeches are often emotional and moving.---- TRUE ____ 14. According to the author, commencement speakers try to be eloquent and intellectual will most likely be effective.-- Can't answer cause i don't know what book you read ____ 15. When the use of humor stimulates audience feedback in an after-dinner speech, a speaker should continue talking through audience laughter.--- No, it is poliet to wait for laughter to die down before continuing. ____ 16. According to the author, an effective toast should be serious.--- FALSE. no always the case ____ 18. Entertaining speeches do not involve research on the part of the speaker.--- FALSE. the best speeches are ones that are informed and can be entertaining as well. ____ 27. Which of the following is the ideal order of the phases of group development (beginning with the first stage groups must pass through). a. forming, norming, storming, performing b. forming, storming, norming, performing c. storming, forming, performing, norming d. storming, norming, forming, performing e. performing, norming, storming, forming B----first a group forms, then brainstorms than norms develope and finally the perform ____ 28. The first stage of problem-solving process is: a. generate solutions d. develop criteria for solution b. define the issue or problem e. decide on a plan of action c. evaluate solutions B. define the issue or problem ____ 31. According to lecture, which type of roles should be avoided because they do not serve the group in a positive way? a. task roles d. conflict roles b. group maintenance roles e. self-centered roles c. relationship roles E ____ 32. Joey, Jenny, Eboni, Anil, and Izzy were working on a group project for class. As a group they are very cohesive. Jenny suggests a topic for their project. Everyone immediately agrees that the topic is a great idea and they stop brainstorming and get to work on the project. The group s failure to critically evaluate the topic could lead to: a. synergy d. norming b. creativity e. performing c. groupthink C-groupthink--when a group becomes so agreeable that they overlook critical aspects of the problem and fail to act as indviduals. ____ 34. After-dinner speeches differ from other types of presentations due to a. organization b. the lack of thesis c. the use of humor d. the use of metaphors e. all of the above E- all of the above.

Question:

Answers:busy as a bee fat as a pig fast as a racehorse its raining cats and dogs eat like a bird dumb as a doorknob busy as a beaver dumb as a box of rocks swims like a fish sinks like a rock happy as a clam

Question:

Answers:This could help: http://grammar.about.com/od/rhetoricstyle/a/20figures.htm

From Youtube

How to Give a Welcome Speech : Example of a Welcome Speech :Watch an example of a welcome speech. Get an actual sample of a welcome speech from a communications expert in this free public speaking video. Expert: Tracy Goodwin Bio: Tracy Goodwin has a masters in corporate communication and 10 years experience in professional speaking. Filmmaker: MAKE | MEDIA

Introduction Speeches : Introduction Speech Sample :An introduction speech can be explained through a good example. Learn about introduction speeches with a demonstration from a communications specialist in this free video on public speaking. Expert: Tracy Goodwin Bio: Tracy Goodwin has a masters in corporate communication and 10 years experience in professional speaking. Filmmaker: MAKE | MEDIA