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Example of Biotic Component of the Environment
Biotic component of the environment consists of al living organisms that interact with each other. The biotic component of an ecosystem consists of producers, consumers and decomposers.
Examples of biotic components of the environment are as follows:
Producers are the most important components in an ecosystem. The producers directly depend upon the abiotic components for the survival and production of nutrients. All green plants are examples of producers in an ecosystem. Green plants are chief producers of energy in nature which is utilized by other living organisms. Green plants, by the process of photosynthesis produce energy in the form of high energy compound ATP and also starch. The green plants have the green pigment chlorophyll which helps them trap energy from the sun and convert it into chemical energy and store them in their body tissues. Other than green plants being producers, photosynthetic bacteria and chemosynthetic bacteria are two autotrophic organisms in the ecosystem that are producers. Producer form the first level in the food web and food chains in the ecosystem.
Example of producers: Green plants, photosynthetic bacteria (Chromatium and Cyanobacteria) and chemosynthetic bacteria (Sulphur bacteria and Iron bacteria). Phytoplanktons are producers in aquatic ecosystem.
The components of the ecosystem which depend on the producers or autotrophs for their food are known as consumers. Consumers are also known as heterotrophs. Heterotrophs are animals that do not produce their own food but depend on other organisms for their food. Examples of consumers are all animals and some plants.
There are different types of consumers:
Primary consumers: Example - Herbivorous animals like cow, rodents, deer, elephants, goats, etc.
Primary consumers in aquatic ecosystem are crustaceans, molluscs and certain kinds of fish which feed on phytoplankton.
Secondary consumers: carnivorous animals and omnivorous animals belong to this category of consumers. These animals feed on herbivorous animals. Example - Crow, fox, sparrow, wolves, dogs, cats, snakes, etc.
Tertiary consumers: These organisms are strictly carnivorous animals. Example - Lions, tigers, vultures, cheetah, etc.
Decomposers: These organisms transform organic substances into inorganic or simple substances. Example - Saprophytic fungi (Rhizopus (bread mould), mucor (pin mould, agaricus (mushroom) and yeast; and bacteria.
Parasites: These organisms infect and survive on the host ecosystem. Example - Wide range of parasites are found; like various types of bacteria, fungi, a few flowering plants, most of the protozoans, insects and nematodes are parasitic.