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From Wikipedia

Aerial photography

Aerial photography is the taking of photographs of the ground from an elevated position. The term usually refers to images in which the camera is not supported by a ground-based structure. Cameras may be hand held or mounted, and photographs may be taken by a photographer, triggered remotely or triggered automatically. Platforms for aerial photography include fixed-wing aircraft, helicopters, balloons, blimps and dirigibles, rockets, kites, poles, parachutes,vehicle mounted poles . Aerial photography should not be confused with Air-to-Air Photography, when aircraft serve both as a photo platform and subject.


Aerial photography was first practiced by the French photographer and balloonistGaspard-Félix Tournachon, known as "Nadar", in 1858 over Paris, France.

The first use of a motion picture camera mounted to a heavier-than-air aircraft took place on April 24, 1909 over Rome in the 3:28 silent film short, Wilbur Wright und seine Flugmaschine.

The first special semiautomatic aerial camera was designed in 1911 by Russian military engineer â€” Colonel Potte V. F. This aerial camera was used during World War I.

The use of aerial photography for military purposes was expanded during World War I by many others aviators such as Fred Zinn. One of the first notable battles was that of Neuve Chapelle.

Aerial mapping came into use on the battlefronts during World War I. In January 1918, General Allenby used five Australian pilots from No. 1 Squadron AFC to photograph a 624 square miles area in Palestine as an aid to correcting and improving maps of the Turkish front. Lieutenants Leonard Taplin, Allan Runciman Brown, H. L. Fraser, Edward Patrick Kenny, and L. W. Rogers photographed a block of land stretching from the Turkish front lines 32 miles deep into their rear areas. Beginning 5 January, they flew with a fighter escort to ward off enemy fighters. Using Royal Aircraft Factory BE.12 and Martinsyde airplanes, they not only overcame enemy air attacks, but also bucked 65 mile per hour winds, antiaircraft fire, and malfunctioning equipment to complete their task circa 19 January 1918.

With the advent of inexpensive digital cameras, many people now take candid photographs from commercial aircraft and increasingly from general aviation aircraft on private pleasure flights.

Uses of imagery

Aerial photography is used in cartography (particularly in photogrammetricsurveys, which are often the basis for topographic maps), land-use planning, archaeology, movie production, environmental studies, surveillance, commercial advertising, conveyancing, and artistic projects. In the United States, aerial photographs are used in many Phase I Environmental Site Assessments for property analysis. Aerial photos are often processed using GIS software.

Aerial photography platforms

Radio-controlled aircraft

Advances in radio controlled models have made it possible for model aircraft to conduct low-altitude aerial photography. This has benefited real-estate advertising, where commercial and residential properties are the photographic subject. Full-size, manned aircraft are prohibited from low flights above populated locations. Small scale model aircraft offer increased photographic access to these previously restricted areas. Miniature vehicles do not replace full size aircraft, as full size aircraft are capable of longer flight times, higher altitudes, and greater equipment payloads. They are, however, useful in any situation in which a full-scale aircraft would be dangerous to operate. Examples would include the inspection of transformers atop power transmission lines and slow, low-level flight over agricultural fields, both of which can be accomplished by a large-scale radio controlled helicopter. Professional-grade, gyroscopically stabilized camera platforms are available for use under such a model; a large model helicopter with a 26cc gasoline engine can hoist a payload of approximately seven kilograms (15 lbs).

Recent (2006) FAA regulations grounding all commercial RC model flights have been upgraded to require formal FAA certification before permission to fly at any altitude in USA.

Because anything capable of being viewed from a public space is considered outside the realm of privacy in the United States, aerial photography may legally document features and occurrences on private property.

Types of aerial

From Yahoo Answers

Question:Is it related with the birds' nests?

Answers:It usually refers to the living of "arboreal" animals, or those that live in the trees. It is a misnomer, because NO animal, not even birds, "live" in the air, because when they stop flying they HAVE to land, and they can't sleep while flying of course. Nests have nothing to do with it.

Question:please answer my question

Answers:My dear boy, take heed of Davght, he is a font of knowledge. Perhaps I too may be of service? The aerial plant with which I am most familiar is the Philips Factory in Holland. They produce a wide variety of antennae to suit most televisual requirements.


Answers:Aerial roots are adventitious roots formed on above-ground structures such as stems. Aerial roots serve different functions in different species. EXAMPLES ORCHIDS TROPICAL COASTAL SWAMP TREES MANGROVES BANYANS WARM-TEMPAERATE RAINFOREST r t (Metrosideros robusta) and p hutukawa (M. excelsa) trees of New Zealand VINES like Common Ivy (Hedera helix) and irritating poison ivy (Toxicodendron radicans). IVY BALL MOSS PHILODENDRON

Question:I thought Mammals were those animals that gave birth to their off springs rather than laying eggs. For example Whales are mammals. and how about vertibrate and non-vertibrate animals? Terrestrial was the answer I was looking for...thanks for all the replies...by the way to the last person who answered...it is not taught in 3rd grade, and your answer was wrong as it was in reference with their habitat. Also, if you are so clever you should have understood the premise of the question as all of the other classifications were based on their habitat.

Answers:There are many, many more classifications of animals than just those: Just within the (living) vertebrates (animals with backbones), there are the following classes: Cephalaspidomorphi (jawless fish like lampreys and hagfish) Chondrichthyes (rays, sharks and chimerae) Actinopterygii (ray-finned bony fish) Sarcopterygii (lobe-finned bony fish) Amphibians Reptiles (a waste-basket group including turtles, snakes, lizards, crocodiles, and the extinct dinosaurs, pterosaurs, plesiosaurs and icthyosaurs) Aves (birds) Mammals (vertebrates with a single bony mandible, three inner ear ossicles and nourish their young with milk - characteristically also have hair instead of scales) But if you include the invertebrates, there are also the following Phyla: Echinodermata (starfish, sea urchins, sea cucumber) Rotifera (microscopic multi-cellular 'wheel animals') Annelida (segmented worms such as earthworms, leeches) Mollusca (snails, clams, sea slugs, octopus, squid) Platyhelminthes (flatworms) Arthropoda (insects, crustaceans, chelicerates) Tardigrada (microscopic multi-cellular 'water bears') Onychophora (velvet worms) Nematoda (roundworms) Cnidaria (jellyfish, sea anemone, hydra) Porifera (sponges) and that doesn't even include the weird ones like Bryozoa (moss animals), Phoronida, Nemertea, Rhombozoa, Hemichordata, Orthonectida and many others, or the extinct forms. So there's way more than four classifications.

From Youtube

Habitat and Adaptation :Check us out at www.tutorvista.com A habitat is an ecological or environmental area that is inhabited by a particular species of animal, plant or other type of organism. It is the natural environment in which an organism lives, or the physical environment that surrounds (influences and is utilized by) a species population. The term "population" is preferred to "organism" because, while it is possible to describe the habitat of a single black bear, we may not find any particular or individual bear but the grouping of bears that constitute a breeding population and occupy a certain biogeographical area. Further, this habitat could be somewhat different from the habitat of another group or population of black bears living elsewhere. Thus it is neither the species nor the individual for which the term habitat is typically used. Adaptation is the evolutionary process whereby a population becomes better suited to its habitat. This process takes place over many generations, and is one of the basic phenomena of biology. The term adaptation may also refer to a feature which is especially important for an organism's survival. For example, the adaptation of horses' teeth to the grinding of grass, or their ability to run fast and escape predators. Such adaptations are produced in a variable population by the better suited forms reproducing more successfully, that is, by natural selection.