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Example Iupac Nomenclature of Organic Chemistry

The chemical compounds which are mainly composed of carbon atoms are called as organic compounds. They play an important role in the living organisms and also in our atmosphere. There are more than thousand organic compounds which are named in different manners. Initially chemical compounds are named according to their origin or their nature.  Later trivial system provided a new direction in the naming of chemical compounds. Let’s have a look on the example of IUPAC nomenclature of organic compounds with the help of simplest organic compound called as alkyl halide or haloalkane.

They have long parent chain of carbon atom with halogen group as functional group directly bonded on the carbon atom.  In trivial system, the monohalogen derivatives of haloalkanes are called as Alkyl halides. For example; methyl chloride According to the IUPAC nomenclature rules, the term haloalkane is used for an alkyl halide. In the IUPAC the root name is based on the longest carbon chain containing the halogen. This root gives the alkane part of the name. The type of halogen defines the halo prefix such as chloro-, fluoro-, bromo- etc.

The chain is numbered in such a way that the halogen will get the lowest possible number. For example in tert-butyl bromide, the longest carbon chain has 3 carbon atoms therefore the root word will be propane. It has one methyl group as side chain and one bromo- group as prefix at second carbon atom.

Hence the name will be 2-bromo-2-methylpropane. We know that dihalogen derivatives can be three types on the basis of position of halogen atoms in compound:
  1. Alkylidene dihalide
  2. Alkyliene dihalide
  3. Polymethylene dihalide


The alkylidene dihalide are germinal dihalides in which both the halogen atoms are bonded to the same carbon atom.  For example in ‘Isopropylidene dichloride’ there is 3 carbon atoms so suffix will be propane. Both the Chloro groups are bonded to the same carbon atom. Hence IUPAC name will be 2,2-dichloropropane. Alkyliene dihalides are vicinal dihalides in which the two halogen atoms of same type are bonded on the adjacent carbon atoms such as Propylene dichloride. According to IUPAC nomenclature rules, the position of halo groups is prefixed to the name of dihaloalkane. Here 2 Cl-groups are bonded on carbon 1 and carbon 2.

Therefore the IUPAC name of the compound is 1,2-dichloropropane.  Dihalogen derivative of alkane, in which same halogen attached on terminal carbon atoms of the carbon chain are known as polymethylene dihalide such as tetramethylene dichloride. Haloalkanes with more than two halo groups are known as polyhaloalkanes. In IUPAC system, the location of halo groups is prefixed to the name of Haloalkanes. Aryl halides are known as haloarenes in IUPAC as well as in trivial system. In dihalogen derivatives of haloarene , the prefixes ortho, meta and para are used for 1,2 ; 1,3; and 1,4 positions respectively.

Hydrocarbons without any functional groups are named with the help of root words and primary suffix. Here root word indicates the number of carbon atoms in parent chain and primary suffix indicates the saturation and unsaturation in the molecule. For example primary suffix for alkane is –ane, for alkene it is –ene and –yne for alkyne.

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From Wikipedia

IUPAC nomenclature of organic chemistry - Wikipedia, the free ...

For example, the simplest alkane is CH4 methane, and the nine-carbon alkane...


From Yahoo Answers

Question:Hi, I have two questions on IUPAC's nomenclature for organic chemistry: 1. I am not sure if I'm allowed to use "common" names like isopropane, isopropyl, isobutane, tert-butyl, etc in a IUPAC name. I sometimes hear yes, but my teacher says no. Can someone tell me exactly what names am I allowed to use in a IUPAC name? 2. In the same test, I wrote "isobutanol", and apparently it's wrong because I mixed IUPAC and common names together". Isobutanol is the name of wikipedia's page on the compound, so I'm wondering if it's that wrong. I know the better way to name would be isobutyl alcohol, but can't I use isobutanol because it's mixing the two nomenclatures? thank you

Answers:That's weird, I could have sworn I answered this question already... 1) If your professor wants formality then you should do it. Know that in the real lab work, when you communicate with your coworkers, you won't be too caught up on IUPAC, but if you write a professional publication then you will. What's nice now though is you can use software to name things correctly for you. 2) Wikipedia is not always a solid source of information. You should trust your text over Wikipedia, and your professor over your text in most cases. Cheers

Question:I need to know the order of importance... I know that carboxylic acids are the most important group and alkanes are the least important but I need to know the whole list.

Answers:No, carboxylic acid's not the highest priority in IUPAC nomenclature: 01 -> Cation (as R-NH3+ for example) 02 -> Carboxylic acid (R-COOH) 03 -> Sulfonic acid (R-SO3H) 04 -> Acid anhydrid (R-CO-O-CO-R') 05 -> Carboxylic acid ester (R-CO-O-R') 06 -> Acyl halide (R-CO-X) 07 -> Amide (R-CO-NH2) 08 -> Nitrile (R-CN) 09 -> Aldehyde (R-CO-H) 09 -> Ketone (R-CO-R') 10 -> Alcohol & phenol (R-OH & Ar-OH) 11 -> Thiol & thiophenol (R-SH & Ar-SH) 12 -> Mineral acid ether (R-O-NO2 for exemple) 13 -> Amine (R-NH2) Then, for groups as Nitro (R-NO2), Halogeno (R-X), Ether (R-O-R'): they're substituants and not functions And alkanes, alkenes and alkynes are just present in the molecule name in order to build the molecule structure

Question:Could anyone please help me in naming alkanes? I'm trying to figure out where do I put the lowest count to. Do I give the lowest locant to the R(alkyl group), the OH group or the halogen. Could you please put in order for me like which one goes first, second, and third. Thank you! I need to know in what order...I mean..not just the nearest branch. I need a more detailed answer please.

Answers:For an exact answer, the structure would help. However, since you have indicated that it contains an OH group. That is the highest priority group and you would name with by including the OH in the longest chain possible. The OH will have the lowest locant. If you need to, number all of the atoms at that point. Use the locants for the halogen and the R group. Name the compound starting alphabetically with the prefix groups, (alkyl, alkoxy, chloro, bromo, fluoro, phenyl, pyridyl, etc.) and complete the name with the alkan-n-ol.

From Youtube

IUPAC alkane nomenclature (4) :Organic chemistry: IUPAC alkane nomenclature. Bond-line notation. How to draw all the structural isomers of a compound. Common names for branched substituents: isopropyl, isobutyl, sec-butyl, tert-butyl. Naming cyclic alkanes. This is a recording of a tutoring session, posted with the students' permission. These videos are offered on a "pay-what-you-like" basis. You can pay for the use of the videos at my website: www.freelance-teacher.com For a list of all the available video series, arranged in suggested viewing order, go to my website. For a playlist containing all the videos in this series, click here: www.youtube.com (1) Alkane nomenclature. Bond-line notation (2) An example of how to draw all the structural isomers of a compound (3) Another example of drawing all structural isomers (4) More nomenclature examples. Substituents (5) More nomenclature examples (6) Another example of drawing all structural isomers (7) More nomenclature examples (8) Common names for branched substituents: isopropyl, isobutyl (9) Continued: sec-butyl, tert-butyl, n-butyl (10) Writing the structure of a compound when you're given the name (11) Nomenclature for cyclic alkanes (12) Continued (13) When to use alphabetization (14) More nomenclature examples for substituted cycloalkanes

IUPAC alkane nomenclature (6) :Organic chemistry: Alkane nomenclature. Bond-line notation. How to draw all the structural isomers of a compound. Common names for branched substituents: isopropyl, isobutyl, sec-butyl, tert-butyl. Naming cyclic alkanes. This is a recording of a tutoring session, posted with the students' permission. These videos are offered on a "pay-what-you-like" basis. You can pay for the use of the videos at my website: www.freelance-teacher.com For a list of all the available video series, arranged in suggested viewing order, go to my website. For a playlist containing all the videos in this series, click here: www.youtube.com (1) Alkane nomenclature. Bond-line notation (2) An example of how to draw all the structural isomers of a compound (3) Another example of drawing all structural isomers (4) More nomenclature examples. Substituents (5) More nomenclature examples (6) Another example of drawing all structural isomers (7) More nomenclature examples (8) Common names for branched substituents: isopropyl, isobutyl (9) Continued: sec-butyl, tert-butyl, n-butyl (10) Writing the structure of a compound when you're given the name (11) Nomenclature for cyclic alkanes (12) Continued (13) When to use alphabetization (14) More nomenclature examples for substituted cycloalkanes