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In electrical engineering and computer science, image processing is any form of signal processing for which the input is an image, such as a photograph or video frame; the output of image processing may be either an image or, a set of characteristics or parameters related to the image. Most image-processing techniques involve treating the image as a two-dimensionalsignal and applying standard signal-processing techniques to it.
Image processing usually refers to digital image processing, but optical and analog image processing also are possible. This article is about general techniques that apply to all of them. The acquisition of images (producing the input image in the first place) is referred to as imaging.
- Euclidean geometry transformations such as enlargement, reduction, and rotation
- Color corrections such as brightness and contrast adjustments, color mapping, color balancing, quantization, or color translation to a different color space
- Digital compositing or optical compositing (combination of two or more images), which is used in film-making to make a "matte"
- Interpolation, demosaicing, and recovery of a full image from a raw image format using a Bayer filter pattern
- Image registration, the alignment of two or more images
- Image differencing and morphing
- Image recognition, for example, may extract the text from the image using optical character recognition or checkbox and bubble values using optical mark recognition
- Image segmentation
- High dynamic range imaging by combining multiple images
- Geometric hashing for 2-D object recognition with affine invariance
- Computer vision
- Optical sorting
- Augmented Reality
- Face detection
- Feature detection
- Lane departure warning system
- Non-photorealistic rendering
- Medical image processing
- Microscope image processing
- Morphological image processing
- Remote sensing
The adage "A picture is worth a thousand words" refers to the idea that a complex idea can be conveyed with just a single still image. It also aptly characterizes one of the main goals of visualization, namely making it possible to absorb large amounts of data quickly.
It is believed that the modern use of the phrase stems from an article by Fred R. Barnyard in the advertising trade journalPrinters' Ink, promoting the use of images in advertisements that appeared on the sides of streetcars. The December 8, 1921 issue carries an ad entitled, "One Look is Worth A Thousand Words."
Another ad by Barnard appears in the March 10, 1927 issue with the phrase "One Picture is Worth Ten Thousand Words," where it is labeled a Chinese proverb (ä¸€ç•«å‹�å�ƒè¨€). The Home Book of Proverbs, Maxims, and Familiar Phrases quotes Barnard as saying he called it "a Chinese proverb, so that people would take it seriously." Soon after, the proverb would become popularly attributed to Confucius.
Despite this modern origin of the popular phrase, the sentiment has been expressed by earlier writers. For example the Russian writer Ivan Turgenev wrote (in Fathers and Sons in 1862), "A picture shows me at a glance what it takes dozens of pages of a book to expound."
The quote is sometimes attributed to emperor Napoleon Bonaparte, who said "Un bon croquis vaut mieux qu'un long discours," or "A good sketch is better than a long speech". While this is sometimes translated today as "A picture is worth a thousand words," this translation may not predate the phrase's common use in English.
Computer programmer and author Fred Brooks makes a similar statement regarding programming in The Mythical Man-Month: "Show me your flowcharts and conceal your tables, and I shall continue to be mystified. Show me your tables, and I wonâ€™t usually need your flowcharts; theyâ€™ll be obvious." The phrase has also been spoofed by John McCarthy, the famous computer scientist, to make the opposite point: "As the Chinese say, 1001 words is worth more than a picture."
The passive voice is a grammatical construction (a "voice") in which the subject of a sentence or clause denotes the recipient of the action rather than the performer. In the English language, the English passive voice is formed with an auxiliary verb (usually be or get) plus a participle (usually the past participle) of a transitive verb. For example, "Caesar was stabbed by Brutus" uses the passive voice. The subject denotes the individual (Caesar) affected by the action of the verb. The counterpart to this in active voice is, "Brutus stabbed Caesar," in which the subject denotes the doer, or agent, Brutus.
A sentence featuring the passive voice is sometimes called a passive sentence, and a verb phrase in passive voice is sometimes called a passive verb. English differs from languages in which voice is indicated through a simple inflection, since the English passive is periphrastic, composed of an auxiliary verb plus the past participle of the transitive verb.
Use of the English passive varies with writing style and field. Some style sheets discourage use of passive voice, while others encourage it. Although some purveyors of usage advice, including George Orwell (see Politics and the English Language, 1946) andWilliam Strunk, Jr. and E.B. White (see The Elements of Style, 1919) discourage the English passive, its usefulness is recognized in cases where the theme (receiver of the action) is more important than the agent.
Identifying the English passive
In the following excerpt from the 18th-century United States Declaration of Independence (1776), the bold text identifies passive verbs; italicized text identifies the one active verb (hold ) and the copulative verbare:
We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.
In this case, the agent ("the Creator") of the passive construction can be identified with a by phrase. When such a phrase is missing, the construction is an agentless passive. For example, "Caesar was stabbed" is a perfectly grammatical full sentence, in a way that "stabbed Caesar" and "Brutus stabbed" are not. Agentless passives are common in scientific writing, where the agent may be irrelevant (e.g. "The mixture was heated to 300Â°C").
It is not the case, however, that any sentence in which the agent is unmentioned or marginalised is an example of the passive voice. Sentences like "There was a stabbing" or "A stabbing occurred" are not passive. See "Misapplication of the term," below for more discussion of this misconception.
Usage and style
Against the passive voice
Many language critics and language-usage manuals discourage use of the passive voice. This advice is not usually found in older guides, emerging only in the first half of the twentieth century. In 1916, the British writer Arthur Quiller-Couch, criticized this grammatical voice:
Generally, use transitive verbs, that strike their object; and use them in the active voice, eschewing the stationary passive, with its little auxiliary itsâ€™s and wasâ€™s, and its participles getting into the light of your adjectives, which should be few. For, as a rough law, by his use of the straight verb and by his economy of adjectives you can tell a manâ€™s style, if it be masculine or neuter, writing or â€˜compositionâ€™.
The active voice is usually more direct and vigorous than the passive . . . This rule does not, of course, mean that the writer should entirely discard the passive voice, which is frequently convenient and sometimes necessary . . . The need to make a particular word the subject of the sentence will often . . . determine which voice is to be used. The habitual use of the active voice, however, makes for forcible writing. This is true not only in narrative concerned principally with action, but in writing of any kind. Many a tame sentence of description or exposition can be made lively and emphatic by substituting a transitive in the active voice for some such perfunctory expression as there is or could be heard.
In 1926, in the authoritative A Dictionary of Modern English Usage(1926),Henry W. Fowler recommended against transforming active voice forms into passive voice forms, because doing so â€œsometimes leads to bad grammar, false idiom, or clumsinessâ€�.
In 1946, in the essay "Politics and the English Language" (1946), George Orwell recommended the active voice as an elementary principle of composition: "Never use the passive where you can use the active."
The Columbia Guide to Standard American English (1993) stated that:
Active voice makes subjects do something (to something); passive voice permits subjects to have something done to them (by someone or something). Some argue that active voice is more muscular, direct, and succinct, passive voice flabbier, more indirect, and wordier. If you want your words to seem impersonal, indirect, and noncommittal, passive is the choice, but otherwise, active voice is almost invariably likely to prove more effective.
Krista Ratcliffe notes the use of passives as an example of the role of grammar a
Creative writing is considered to be any writing, fiction, poetry, or non-fiction, that goes outside the bounds of normal professional, journalistic, academic, and technical forms of literature. Works which fall into this category include novels, epics, short stories, and poems. Writing for the screen and stage, screenwriting and playwriting respectively, typically have their own programs of study, but fit under the creative writing category as well.
Somewhere in the educational scheme there must be encouragement for the dreams and imaginings of youth. The student must be permitted emotional expression in order that he may be taught to discipline his emotions. His shy fancies must be drawn out of him for the good of his soul.
Creative writing can technically be considered any writing of originalcomposition. In this sense creative writing is a more contemporary and process-oriented name for what has been traditionally called literature, including the variety of its genres. The practice of "professional writing" is not excluded from creative writing â€” one can be doing both in the same action. In her work, Foundations of Creativity,Mary Lee Marksberry references Paul Witty and Lou LaBrantâ€™s Teaching the People's Languageto define creative writing. Marksberry notes:
Creative writing in academia
Unlike its academic counterpart of writing classes that teach students to compose work based on the rules of the language, creative writing is believed to focus on studentsâ€™ self-expression. While creative writing as an educational subject is often available at some stages, if not throughout, Kâ€“12 education, perhaps the most refined form of creative writing as an educational focus is in universities. Following a reworking of university education in the post-war era, creative writing has progressively gained prominence in the university setting. With the beginning of formal creative writing program:
Programs of study
Creative Writing programs are typically available to writers from the high school level all the way through graduate school. Traditionally these programs are associated with the English departments in the respective schools, but this notion has been challenged in recent time as more creative writing programs have spun off into their own department. Most Creative Writing degrees for undergraduates in college are Bachelor of Fine Arts degrees (BFA). Some continue to pursue a Master of Fine Arts in Creative Writing, the terminal degree in the field. At one time rare, PhD. programs are becoming more prevalent in the field, as more writers attempt to bridge the gap between academic study and artistic pursuit.
Creative writers typically decide an emphasis in either fiction or poetry, and they usually start with short stories or simple poems. They then make a schedule based on this emphasis including literature classes, education classes and workshop classes to strengthen their skills and techniques. Though they have their own programs of study in the fields of film and theatre, screenwriting and playwriting have become more popular in creative writing programs, as creative writing programs attempt to work more closely with film and theatre programs as well as English programs. Creative writing students are encouraged to get involved in extracurricular writing-based activities, such as publishing clubs, school-based literary magazines or newspapers, writing contests, writing colonies or conventions, and extended education classes.
Creative writing also takes places outside of formal university or school institutions. For example, writer Dave Eggers set up the innovative 826 Valencia in San Francisco, where young people write with professional writers. In the UK, the Arvon Foundation runs week long residential creative writing courses in four historic houses.
In the classroom
Creative writing is usually taught in a workshop format rather than seminar style. In workshops students usually submit original work for peer critique. Students also format a writing method through the process of writing and re-writing. Some courses teach the means to exploit or access latent creativity or more technical issues such as editing, structuraltechniques, genres, random idea generating or writer's block unblocking. Some noted authors, such as Michael Chabon, Kazuo Ishiguro, Kevin Brockmeier, Jacob Appel, From Yahoo Answers
Answers:I find it is almost impossible to study for English, I am also in AP English language this year and im taking the AP in May. Honestly I would do many critical reading and writing sections on practice SAT's with answers. The questions are some what similiar.
Answers:Any activity which gets the kds involved has promise. For example, model well written paragraphs and talk about topic sentence, details, or supporting arguments, summary sentence, transition words etc. We use highlighters to locate and identify the various types of sentences. Then get three or four different, but well written paragraphs. Write one sentence per line. Mix them up. Have the students cut them apart, sort by topic, then organize into well sequenced paragraphs, glue them onto different pieces of paper or 5 x 8 cards. This is a good discussion stimulator as well, as not everyone will agree on the order of ther sentences. Use as a jump off point for writing own paragraphs. If the kids need more shoving to get going, have them look at an unusual piece of fruit or vegetable, or select a pciture. Use these as a starting point. Clementines, pomegranates and jicama were new to my students, but you may have different choices in your area. Certainly at this age, they should be able to develop a well written paragraph or two or three ( depends on the writing level of your students), do research to find information, word process and use tools to edit, adjust font, make it double spaced, add title and picture, center title etc. This early in the school year I used the task to model what I expect for future writing tasks. Another fun activity is to have the kids stand around a spread out newspaper on the floor. Have the students pore over the paper, looking for opportunities to do a community service project. Have them select an article or group of articles and write a proposal to help. Whether or not to follow through on a proposal would be up to you. Seventh grade kids love to argue. Have them stand up and move as you make a variety of opinion statements.( I love chocolate ice cream. The Raiders are the best football team etc.) One side of the room is strongly agree. The opposite side of the wall is strongly disagree. The kids move towards one side or the other of the room depending on how strongly they feel about the statement. Select a person from both sides of the room, and someone from the middle to orally present their reasons for their choice. Then have them chose a topic or side of a controversial subject , state their stand, and write factual arguments to support their stand. Again, they may need to do some research, do a survey etc. Also, google or search for language arts lesson plans and you will come up with a variety of helpful sites. Hope this primes the idea pump.
Answers:"Composite score" is the average of your 4 sections scores (English, Math, Reading, and Science) rounded to the nearest whole number, up to 36; if a student takes ACT With Writing, the ENGLISH score, not the ENGLISH + WRITING score, gets factored into the composite score. For example, if a student got a 26 E, 26 M, 27 R, and 27 S, he or she would have a 26.5, which rounds to a 27. I'm giving my opinions of what's "good" and what's "not so good," but you should definitely look up score ranges for colleges you are interested in rather than rely on my definitions. IMO... Bad score=25 or below Average score=26-29 Good score=30-33 Excellent score=34-35 AMAZING score=36
Answers:The gumball machine idea is good and taking the time to do it will increase your self discipline. Molecular representations are usually spherical. You might also consider bearings in a race(containment method). How about light bulbs. They are mostly spherical..mostly.