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From Wikipedia
Chemical decomposition, analysis or breakdown is the separation of a chemical compound into elements or simpler compounds. It is sometimes defined as the exact opposite of a chemical synthesis. Chemical decomposition is often an undesired chemical reaction. The stability that a chemical compound ordinarily has is eventually limited when exposed to extreme environmental conditions like heat, radiation, humidity or the acidity of a solvent. The details of decomposition processes are generally not well defined, as a molecule may break up into a host of smaller fragments. Chemical decomposition is exploited in several analytical techniques, notably mass spectrometry, traditional gravimetric analysis, and thermogravimetric analysis.
A broader definition of the term decomposition also includes the breakdown of one phase into two or more phases.
There are broadly three types of decomposition reactions: thermal, electrolytic and catalytic.
Reaction formula
The generalized reaction for chemical decomposition is:
 AB → A + B
with a specific example being the electrolysis of water to gaseous hydrogen and oxygen:
 2H_{2}O(I) → 2H_{2} + O_{2}
Additional examples
An example of spontaneous decomposition is that of hydrogen peroxide, which will slowly decompose into water and oxygen:
 2H_{2}O_{2}→ 2H_{2}O + O_{2}
Carbonates will decompose when heated, a notable exception being that of carbonic acid, H_{2}CO_{3}. Carbonic acid, the "fizz" in sodas, pop cans and other carbonated beverages, will decompose over time (spontaneously) into carbon dioxide and water
 H_{2}CO_{3}→ H_{2}O + CO_{2}
Other carbonates will decompose when heated producing the corresponding metaloxide and carbon dioxide. In the following equation M represents a metal:
 MCO_{3}→ MO + CO_{2}
A specific example of this involving calcium carbonate:
 CaCO_{3}→ CaO + CO_{2}
Metal chlorates also decompose when heated. A metal chloride and oxygen gas are the products.
 2MClO_{3}→ 2MCl + 3O_{2}
A common decomposition of a chlorate to evolve oxygen utilizes potassium chlorate as follows:
 2KClO_{3}→ 2KCl + 3O_{2}
Many metal carbonates decompose to form metal oxides and carbon dioxide when heated.
Chemical decomposition, analysis or breakdown is the separation of a chemical compound into elements or simpler compounds. It is sometimes defined as the exact opposite of a chemical synthesis. Chemical decomposition is often an undesired chemical reaction. The stability that a chemical
In the mathematical discipline of linear algebra, a matrix decomposition is a factorization of a matrix into some canonical form. There are many different matrix decompositions; each finds use among a particular class of problems.
Example
In numerical analysis, different decompositions are used to implement efficient matrix algorithms.
For instance, when solving a system of linear equations Ax=b, the matrix A can be decomposed via the LU decomposition. The LU decomposition factorizes a matrix into a lower triangular matrixL and an upper triangular matrixU. The systems L(Ux)=b and Ux=L^{1}b require fewer additions and multiplications to solve, though one might require significantly more digits in inexact arithmetic such as floating point. Similarly the QR decomposition expresses A as QR with Q a unitary matrix and R an upper triangular matrix. The system Q(Rx) = b is solved by Rx = Q^{T}b = c, and the system Rx = c is solved by "back substitution". The number of additions and multiplications required is about twice that of using the LU solver, but no more digits are required in inexact arithmetic because the QR decomposition is numerically stable.
Decompositions related to solving systems of linear equations
 Applicable to: square matrixA
 Decomposition: A=LU, where L is lower triangular and U is upper triangular
 Related: the LDU decomposition is A=LDU, where L is lower triangular with ones on the diagonal, U is upper triangular with ones on the diagonal, and D is a diagonal matrix.
 Related: the LUP decomposition is A=LUP, where L is lower triangular, U is upper triangular, and P is a permutation matrix.
 Existence: An LUP decomposition exists for any square matrix A. When P is an identity matrix, the LUP decomposition reduces to the LU decomposition. If the LU decomposition exists, the LDU decomposition does too.
 Comments: The LUP and LU decompositions are useful in solving an nbyn system of linear equations Ax=b. These decompositions summarize the process of Gaussian elimination in matrix form. Matrix P represents any row interchanges carried out in the process of Gaussian elimination. If Gaussian elimination produces the row echelon form without requiring any row interchanges, then P=I, so an LU decomposition exists.
LU Reduction
Block LU decomposition
Rank factorization
 Applicable to: square, symmetric, positive definite matrix A
 Decomposition: A=U^TU, where U is upper triangular with positive diagonal entries
 Comment: the Cholesky decomposition is a special case of the symmetric LU decomposition, with L=U^T.
 Comment: the Cholesky decomposition is unique
 Comment: the Cholesky decomposition is also applicable for complex hermitian positive definite matrices
 Comment: An alternative is the LDL decomposition which can avoid extracting square roots.
 Applicable to: mbyn matrix A
 Decomposition: A=QR where Q is an orthogonal matrix of size mbym, and R is an upper triangular matrix of size mbyn
 Comment: The QR decomposition provides an alternative way of solving the system of equations Ax=b without inverting the matrix A. The fact that Q is orthogonal means that Q^TQ=I, so that Ax=b is equivalent to Rx=Q^Tb, which is easier to solve since R is triangular.
Singular value decomposition
 Applicable to: mbyn matrix A.
 Decomposition: A=UDV^H, where D is a nonnegative diagonal matrix, and U and V are unitary matrices, and V^H denotes the conjugate transpose of V (or simply the transpose, if V contains real numbers
In a chemical change, bonds are broken and new bonds are formed between different atoms. This breaking and forming of bonds takes place when particles of the original materials collide with one another. Some exothermic reactions may be hot enough to cause certain chemicals to also undergo a change in state; for example in the case of aqueous solutions, bubbles may not necessarily be newly produced gas but instead water vapor.
Whenever chemical reactions occur, the atoms are rearranged and the reaction is accompanied by an energy change as new products are generated. An example of a chemical change is the reaction between sodium hydroxide and hydrogen chloride to produce sodium chloride, or table salt. This reaction is so exothermic, meaning it releases heat in the form of energy, that even flames are generated. This is an example of a chemical change because the end product is molecularly different from the starting molecules.
Chemical changes are happening all the time. There are several different types of chemical change, including: synthesis, decomposition, single displacement, double displacement, neutralization, precipitation, combustion and redox.
Examples of chemical changes
A primary example of chemical change is the combustion of methane to produce carbon dioxide and water.
Other examples of chemical changes are:
 Decomposition
 Neutralization (Mixing an acid with a base, resulting in water and a salt).
 Photosynthesis  a process in which carbon dioxide and water are changed into sugars by plants.
 Cracking heavy hydrocarbons to create lighter hydrocarbons (part of the process of refiningoil).
 Cooking examples: cake, pancakes, and eggs/bacon
 Oxidation examples: rust or tarnishing
 Ripening examples: bananas, tomatoes or potatoes
Evidence of a chemical change:
The following can indicate that a chemical change took place, although this evidence is not conclusive:
 Change of odor
 Change of color (for example, silver to reddishbrown when iron rusts).
 Change in temperature or energy, such as the production (exothermic) or loss (endothermic) of heat.
 Change of form (for example, burning paper).
 Light, heat, or sound is given off.
 Formation of gases, often appearing as bubbles.
 Formation of precipitate (insoluble particles).
 The decomposition of organic matter (for example, rotting food).
A chemical change can have a huge impact on a physical change.
Laws of chemical changes
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Answers:Lancenigo di Villorba (TV), Italy LET ME RECOVER THE EXPERIMENTAL FACTs, HENCE I SHOW MY REASONINGs. EXPERIMENTAL FACTs Phosphine undergoes decomposition in Its Chemical Elements if it flows upon a TUNGSTENBASED powder which is able to acts as a CATALYST : meanwhile TUNGSTEN maintain its chemical nature, it enhances the Decomposition's Rate which runs VERY FASTER THAN when Catalyst there wasn't. If the Partial Pressure of Phosphine results GREATER THAN a THRESHOLD VALUE, Kinetic Data show a Decomposition's Rate iniflunced by Partial Pressure. DISCUSSION The mechanism related to this Decomposition experiment involves FIVE MAIN STEPs, as the following ones : ) Phosphine must diffuse from Gas Bulk toward the TUNGSTEN's surface ; ) Phosphine interact with Tungsten's surface, e.g. Tungsten ADSORBs Phosphine ; ) Adsorbed Phosphine forms Secundary Chemical Bonds with Tungsten, so the Decomposition take place giving Phosphorus Atoms and Hydrogen Ones in the BOUND FORM TO TUNGSTEN ; ) Phosphorus and Hydrogen's BOUND FORMs break its Chemical Bonds ; ) Phosphorus and Hydrogen diffuse outward. RATE DETERMINING STEP's approach assumes that the Decomposition's Rate results EQUAL THAN the Lowest's One among Its Five Elementar Step's Rates. In particular way, ii) STEP is related to ISOTHERMAL BEHAVIOUR of ADSORPTION, e.g. it states that it exists a THRESHOLD VALUE of Gas Molarity leading the Adsorption Equilibria to Its Maximum's Values. I hope this helps you.
Answers:1. 2 H2(g) + O2(g)>2 H2O,(l) synthesis 2 .2 H2O(l)> O2)g)+2 H2 (g) , decomposition 3. 2NaCl(aq)+ F2(g)>2 NaF(aq)+ Cl2(g), single displacement 4. AgNO3(aq)+ NaCl(aq)> AgCl(s) + NaNO3(aq), double displacement
Answers:Read Again:  Edited: I forgot to mention that if you are dealing with 32 bit integers, the maximum number of factors with power of 1 happens is 32. It is when in theory the prime factors are the smallest possible value: 2^32 (2 x 2 x 2 ... x 2). Although it is written as 2 ^ 32, it guarantees that no factorized expression would have more than 32 different prime factors. Therefore, you could simple defines two integer arrays of maximum 32 elements like: int prime_factor [32]; int frequency [32]; The first array indicates the found prime factors. The second array indicates the number of times each prim factors is appeared. You could also use a count variable to denote the actual number of the distinct prime numbers found. for example, for the expression: 2^3 * 5^2 * 7^4, the arrays would be: prime_factor : {2, 5, 7} frequency : {3, 2, 4} count: 3 You could modify the code given in the article to fill these arrays rather then simply append each factor to the std::string object. The function getPrimeFactor always return the samllest prime factor of the number, so you could only need to check if it is repeated factor or a new factor by comparing it with the most recent found prime factor.  Do have a look at the following article: C++: Factorizing an Integer http://911programming.wordpress.com/2010/05/23/cfactorizinganinteger/ You would need a very simple modification to do it as specified in your assignment.
Answers:This is such a complex issue that organisations such as the FBI conduct research using real human bodies buried in all sorts of different conditions in order to investigate what happens. Extreme acidity or alkalinity will often slow the rate of decomposition by restricting the growth rate of microorganisms but many other factors also have an impact, for example:  temperature  humidity  exposure to the air  condition of the corpse (damaged by injury, body mass, health when alive, etc)  seasonal variations in weather  nearby flora and fungi
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