esterification of phenols
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Answers:fatty acids and alcohol esters are easy, they just need: 1. Heat 2. Acid catalyst (often PTSA or sulfuric acid) 2. Vacuum 3. Nitrogen sparge the alcohol group will react with the hydrogen on the fatty acid producing water, if the water is not remove, the bond will be hydrolyzed, which is why the vacuum is required to strip out the formed water.
Answers:You just esterified the phenol part of the vanillin. see: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vanillin R-OH + CH3COOOCCH3 --> R-O(O=C)CH3 + CH3COOH where R is the rest of the vanillin molecule.
Answers:the OH in alcohol has the electrons density on the oxygen atom high thus it has a delta negative and can attack the delta positive on the carbon of the acid while the oxygen atom in phenol OH has less electron density and thus weaker delta negative due to the resonance phenomenon caused by the aromatic structure and therefore it needs help by alkylating agent that facilitates entry of carbon by increasing negative on the oxygen atom
Answers:The reaction of a carboxylic acid halogenide (which is also called acyl halide) with an alcohol/phenol. This reaction is usually very rapid due to the high reactivity of the acyl halide (it is often performed at low temperatures), but for the same reason it tends to be difficult to control, often resulting in a mixture of low purity products and a high percentage of by-products. H3C-COCl + HO-CH2-CH3 H3C-COO-CH2-CH3 + H-Cl