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Environment and Its Components


According to a holistic Ecological approach everything which surrounds us is considered to be a part of our environment. 
It could be either a non-living  or a living thing based.  
We know that there are nine Planets, several meteorites, and satellites in our Solar system. 
Out of all the Planets, only the environment of the earth supports the life which is due to surrounding of the earth. 
These surroundings or environment is composed of both living and non-living components. 

The living components show interactions with other living components and also with non-living components as well.  
The physical components of our environment are Solar energy, soil, water and air which provide favourable conditions to living organisms and help in their existence and growth. 
On the other hand the Biological components of the environment are living system. 
Both of these components can interact with each other and form a stable self sustaining system.  

The living or biological components are also called as biotic components while non-living things are known as the abiotic components. 
Overall the interaction between living and non-living parts, their effects on each other and surrounding is known as environment. 

The entire living organisms have to interact with non living part of environment such as animals require green plants for food and oxygen while plants also need some pollination help for the dispersal of seeds and fruits which are basically done by the animals. 
So we should protect our environment by maintaining the biodiversity, and all gaseous or material cycles. 

We should maintain the interdependence of living organisms on each other and their interaction with the abiotic environments. We need to maintain the ecological order and natural balance as well. 

The balance of ecology depends upon the food chain relationship or food web which shows an interaction between various parts of environment with each other. 
The biological component indicates the various flora parts which are plants, fauna that is animals and microbes or micro organisms which are present in our surroundings. 
Overall environment can classify as physical, biological and cultural components. 
According to the British literature; there are only two components; biotic and abiotic part. 

The biotic components can again classify as Producers, Consumers and Decomposers. 
Similarly abiotic components are classified in two types; Climatic such as water, air and edaphic factors like land. 
According to the American literature; there are five components of our Environment; Hydrosphere, Atmosphere, Lithosphere, Biosphere and Anthrosphere. 
Hydrosphere denotes water bodies while Atmosphere represents the air and Lithosphere represents land. 

Let’s discuss about ecology and ecosystem. 
The branch of science which deals with the study of the inter-relationships between the organisms with environment is called as Ecosystem. 
We know that there are so many living and non-living things on earth surface which can show a large number of interactions with each other. 
The study of interactions organisms with environment and their effect on environment includes in ecology. 

It involves the collection of information related to organisms and their environment. 
We can consider the environmental science as ecology, which involves the study of a certain set of factors in a defined area known as ecosystem. This system can consider as the functional unit of dynamic system of organisms in which biotic and abiotic part interact with each other. 
Food chains and food webs are best examples of interactions of one component with other one. 

For example; green plants always act as producers which can produce sugar molecules or food materials in the presence of solar energy. 
These green plants can be consumed by herbivorous animals such as deer, cattle etc. 
Therefore, herbivorous animals act as consumers in the food chain. 
These herbivorous animals can be eaten by carnivorous animals such as lion which are secondary consumers of food chain.