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Effects of Oxidation in Everyday Life





To understand the effects of oxidation state and its effect on everyday life we need to understand oxidation and more so the related reaction reduction as well.
The reduction and oxidation reaction or redox reaction is a chemical reaction during which the oxidation state of two or more of the reactants change. Oxidation reaction is not only about just combining with oxygen. 
Most redox reactions do not even involve oxygen at all. 

The oxidation state of an atom or icon can be thought of as its electrical charge and in simple terms a neutral atom is in oxidation state zero. An ion with a positive charge has a positive oxidation state overall loses an electron and it has been oxidized to oxidation state 1+ and becomes a positive ion.
Oxidation in the context of a redox reaction refers to the oxidation state of an atom being increased. 

Conversely reduction refers to oxidation state of an atom being reduced. 
Many chemical reactions do not involve any change in oxidation state. 
For example when we react aqueous solutions of copper (II) sulphate and sodium hydroxide to form copper (II) hydroxide which precipitates and a solution of sodium sulphate forms and there are no changes in oxidation state.

Oxidation is the process of addition of oxygen or any electronegative radical or removal of hydrogen or electropositive radical. It’s a process in which an atom or a group of atoms taking part in a chemical reaction loses one or more electrons. 
The species which undergo the loss of electron during the reaction is called as reducing agent or reductant. 
An oxidation reaction is always couple with reduction reaction which refers as addition of electron to the reaction species (Oxidant or oxidising agent).
 
These coupled reactions are known as redox reaction.
When a substance exposes to oxygen, it gets oxidised. 
We can observe many oxidation reactions in our daily life like corrosion of metal, rancidity and combustion. 
Let’s discuss some of the common examples of oxidation reaction;

Combustion: it is the most common example of oxidation reaction. 
Combustion or burning of any material involves oxidation reaction coupled with reduction. 
The complete combustion of substance generally released carbon dioxide and water. 
For example the burning of wood released a large amount of energy with carbon dioxide and water vapour. 
That energy uses for heating home, drive automobile, operate industrial processes and much other purpose.
   
Corrosion: You must have seen the rusting of your car and the burning of magnesium metal in oxygen to form magnesium oxide in your daily life are also an oxidation reaction. 
Similarly rusted iron sheets or green surface of copper utensils and tableware or tarnish surface of aluminium surfaces are also due to oxidation of metal surface.
Most of metal surfaces oxidised due to atmospheric oxygen and forms metal oxides on the surface of metal. 
For example; corrosion of iron forms iron oxide which is also called as rust.

4Fe +3O2 ==> 2Fe2O3

Similarly copper utensil gets a greenish glaze due to formation of copper oxide which grants it strength. 
The oxidation of metal surfaces may be preventing by means of painting and or by galvanization with zinc. 
Anodization, plating, painting of anti-corrosive substances or coating of corrosion inhibitors used to prevent corrosion on metal surface. Some time sacrificial corrosion also helps to prevent corrosion, in which more reactive metal coupled with corrode metal to stop the corrosion. 
Like magnesium wire bonded on iron pipe decrease the corrosion on pipe as it starts with more reactive magnesium metal.

Battery: We are very much familiar a highly useful application of electrochemistry in our daily life in the form of batteries which use oxidation-reduction reactions to produce an electric current. 
For example lead storage battery mainly use in automobile contains lead as reducing agent and lead (IV) oxide (PbO2) as oxidizing agent.  Other examples are dry cell batteries, nickel-cadmium battery etc.

Coinage Metals: Copper and silver are termed as coinage metals due to their resistance to corrosion. 
As both metals become tarnish due to formation of copper oxide and silver sulphide.

Rancidity: Oxidation reactions are also responsible for the spoiling of food. 
To prevent spoilage, manufacturers of food items often add preservatives, which act as reducing agents or antioxidants like vitamin C and vitamin E. 
Metabolisms of food, cellular respiration, regulation of enzyme in human body, photosynthesis are also examples of oxidation reaction.

We literally cannot live without the common or everyday life oxidation reactions and here are a few examples of those:

(a)    Water purification uses redox reactions to oxidize coloured and bad tasting or otherwise not pure or very good in taste to forms that are safe and acceptable.

(b)    Bleaches used in laundry, papermaking and other processes are all basically depend upon redox reactions to oxidize all colored stains and impurities to colorless compounds.

(c)    Metals that are all mined are basically in form of oxides. The process that help these oxides of metals to reduce these in a positive oxidation into neutral metallic forms.

(d)    The photographic film works by a redox reaction initiated by light reaction and when photons strike the tiny grains of silver bromide cause the silver ions to reduce to microscopic specks of metallic silver. The picture is visible after clearing away the un-reduced silver.

(e)    Corresions and rusting are another set of examples which involve reduction and oxidation and anything made up of iron are prone to atmospheric oxygen in the presence of moisture and forms the rust or iron oxides.

(f)    The aluminium items we use in kitchen also undergo oxidation in presence of atmospheric oxygen. The silvery color of aluminium when these are brand new turns darkish after few days due to the formation of the protective cover of aluminium oxide.

(g)    The silver items form a protective cover over the metal and turn little dark by forming silver oxide by reacting with atmospheric oxygen.

Everything and almost anything undergoes oxidation and some of these show stark visible changes to make them noticeable.

 

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From Wikipedia

Life skills

Life skills are a set of human skills acquired via teaching or direct experience that are used to handle problems and questions commonly encountered in daily human life.

Definition

The World Health Organization defines life skills as "abilities for adaptive and positive behaviour that enable individuals to deal effectively with the demands and challenges of everyday life." In primary and secondary education, life skills may refer to a skill set that accommodates more specific needs of modern industrialized life; examples include money management, food preparation, hygiene, basic literacy and numeracy, and organizational skills. Life skills are sometimes, but not always, distinguished from occupational skills.

Subsets

The United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) and the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) divide life skills into subsets of categories:

Learning to know: Cognitive abilities

Decision making / problem solving skills

  • Information gathering skills
  • Evaluating future consequences of present actions for self and others
  • Determining alternative solutions to problems
  • Analysis skills regarding the influence of values and attitudes of self and others on motivation

Critical thinking skills

  • Analyzing peer and media influences
  • Analyzing attitudes, values, social norms and beliefs and factors affecting these
  • Identifying relevant information and information sources

Learning to be: Personal abilities

Skills for increasing internal locus of control

Skills for managing feelings

Skills for managing stress

Learning to live together: Interpersonal abilities

Interpersonal communication skills

Negotiation and refusal skills

Empathy

  • Ability to listen to and understand another's needs and circumstances and express that understanding

Cooperation and teamwork

  • Expressing respect for others' contributions and different styles
  • Assessing one's own abilities and contributing to the group

Advocacy skills


Varistor

A varistor is an electronic component with a "diode-like" nonlinearcurrent–voltage characteristic. The name is a portmanteau of variable resistor. Varistors are often used to protectcircuits against excessive transient voltages by incorporating them into the circuit in such a way that, when triggered, they will shunt the current created by the high voltage away from the sensitive components. A varistor is also known as Voltage Dependent Resistor or VDR. A varistor’s function is to conduct significantly increased current when voltage is excessive.

Note: only non-ohmic variable resistors are usually called varistors. Other, ohmic types of variable resistor include thepotentiometer and the rheostat.

Metal oxide varistor

The most common type of varistor is the Metal Oxide Varistor (MOV). This contains a ceramic mass of zinc oxide grains, in a matrix of other metal oxides (such as small amounts of bismuth, cobalt, manganese) sandwiched between two metal plates (the electrodes). The boundary between each grain and its neighbour forms a diode junction, which allows current to flow in only one direction. The mass of randomly oriented grains is electrically equivalent to a network of back-to-back diode pairs, each pair in parallel with many other pairs. When a small or moderate voltage is applied across the electrodes, only a tiny current flows, caused by reverse leakage through the diode junctions. When a large voltage is applied, the diode junction breaks down due to a combination of thermionic emission and electron tunneling, and a large current flows. The result of this behavior is a highly nonlinear current-voltage characteristic, in which the MOV has a high resistance at low voltages and a low resistance at high voltages.

Follow-through current as a result of a lightning strike may generate excessive current that permanently damages a varistor. In general, the primary case of varistor breakdown is localized heating caused as an effect of thermal runaway. This is due to a lack of conformality in individual grain-boundary junctions, which leads to the failure of dominant current paths under thermal stress.

Varistors can absorb part of a surge. How much effect this has on risk to connected equipment depends on the equipment and details of the selected varistor. Varistors do not absorb a significant percentage of a lightning strike, as energy that must be conducted elsewhere is many orders of magnitude greater than what is absorbed by the small device.

A varistor remains non-conductive as a shunt mode device during normal operation when voltage remains well below its "clamping voltage". If a transient pulse (often measured in joules) is too high, the device may melt, burn, vaporize, or otherwise be damaged or destroyed. This (catastrophic) failure occurs when "Absolute Maximum Ratings" in manufacturer's datasheet are significantly exceeded. Varistor degradation is defined by manufacturer's life expectancy charts using curves that relate current, time, and number of transient pulses. A varistor fully degrades typically when its "clamping voltage" has changed by 10%. A fully degraded varistor remains functional (no catastrophic failure) and is not visibly damaged.

Ballpark number for varistor life expectancy is its energy rating. As MOV joules increase, the number of transient pulses increases and the "clamping voltage" during each transient decreases. The purpose of this shunt mode device is to divert a transient so that pulse energy will be dissipated elsewhere. Some energy is also absorbed by the varistor because a varistor is not a perfect conductor. Less energy is absorbed by a varistor, the varistor is more conductive, and its life expectancy increases exponentially as varistor energy rating is increased. Catastrophic failure can be avoided by significantly increasing varistor energy ratings either by using a varistor of higher joules or by connecting more of these shunt mode devices in parallel.

Important parameters are the varistor's energy rating in joules, operating voltage, response time, maximum current, and breakdown (clamping) voltage. Energy rating is often defined using standardized transients such as 8/20 microseconds or 10/1000 microseconds, where 8 microseconds is the transient's front time and 20 microseconds is the time to half value.

To protect communications lines (such as telephone lines) transient suppression devices such as 3 mil carbon blocks (IEEE C62.32), ultra-low capacitance varistors or avalanche diodes are used. For higher frequencies such as radio communication equipment, a gas discharge tube (GDT) may be utilized.

A typical surge protectorpower strip is built using MOVs. A cheapest kind may use just one varistor, from hot (live, active) to neutral. A better protector would contain at least three varistors; one across each of the three pairs of conductors (hot-neutral, hot-ground, neutral-ground). A power strip protector in the United States should have a UL1449 3rd edition approval so that catastrophic MOV failure would not create a fire hazard.

Hazards

While a MOV is designed to conduct significant power for very short durations (≈ 8/20 microseconds), such as caused by lightning strikes, it typically does not have the capacity to conduct sustained energy. Under normal utility voltage conditions, this is not a problem. However, certain types of faults on the utility power grid can result in sustained over-voltage conditions. Examples include a loss of a neutral conductor or shorted lines on the high voltage system. Application of sustained over-voltage to a MOV can cause high dissipation, potentially resulting in the MOV device catching fire. The National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) has documented many cases of catastrophic fires that have been caused by MOV devices in surge suppressors, and has issued bulletins on the issue.

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From Yahoo Answers

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Answers:Does it mater? The secret is no mater what height you are you never look up or down at anyone

Question:for example , when we suffer acidity we take milk of magnisia. i want 9 more examples

Answers:Tums and Rolaids contain NaHCO3, baking soda for relief of acid stomach. There are other products on the market. Use of baking soda to neutralize an acid spill in industry Use of baking soda in cooking may be for the leavening effect(release of CO2) but it needs a neutralizing reaction to release the CO2 Old fashioned soda acid fire extinguisher worked by an acid causing the release of the CO2 from the NaHCO3 Many experiments that take place in an acid environment must be neutralized Your own body does a neutralization as food finishes in the stomach and goes into the small intestine where an alkaline environment is needed for the next enzyme reaction There aremany industrial reactions that require an acid environment tha need to be neutralized after the reaction.

Question:i take a multivitamin everyday with 120mg of magnesium oxide how much of that actually gets absorbed into my system cause iv read that magnesium oxide has poor absorbtion.

Answers:MgO has 24 mg of Mg + 16 mg of O for every 40 mg. That's 24/40 or 60% Mg by weight. Other products, e.g. citrate, have a heavier component than O accompanying the Mg, so are lower in %Mg. When any of these products hit your gut, they dissolve, and totally separate, so your gut can't tell whether the Mg came from MgO or Mg citrate. If someone tells you their product gets absorbed more, it's because they want to sell you a more expensive molecule. Our bodies will only accept the amount of Mg they need. That's a good thing, because excess would cause an electrolyte imbalance and have ill effects. That's why they inject potassium for lethal injection capital punishment. .

Question:Fuels such as coals and petrolium often contains impurities such as Sulfur. When burned this fuels produce Sulfur Dioxide and Nitrogen Oxide. When release into air, this oxides combine with to water to form acids. These acid may fall to earth as acid rain.

Answers:Hi I'll get back to you with the answer when my daughter returns with her books from school . Hi I'm back as promised - Acid rain can cause serious damage. It kills trees and destroys many wildlife habitats. Areas of forest in eastern North America, central Europe and parts of Asia are dying because rain. When acid rain falls into lakes and rivers, it harms the fish, plants and other freshwater life. Wetland species of birds such as the Japaneses crane and the whooping crane are thretened by acid rain as it destroys their habitat.This couldmake them extinct. In cities, acid rain can even attack the stonework of buildings, an example of this is the Taj Mahal in India which is made of marble - It's starting to turn yellow because of the acid rain.

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