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Waste management is the collection, transport, processing, recycling or disposal, and monitoring of waste materials. The term usually relates to materials produced by human activity, and is generally undertaken to reduce their effect on health, the environment or aesthetics. Waste management is also carried out to recover resources from it. Waste management can involve solid, liquid, gaseous or radioactive substances, with different methods and fields of expertise for each.
Waste management practices differ for developed and developing nations, for urban and rural areas, and for residential and industrial producers. Management for non-hazardous waste residential and institutional waste in metropolitan areas is usually the responsibility of local government authorities, while management for non-hazardous commercial and industrial waste is usually the responsibility of the generator.
Methods of disposal
Integrated waste management
Integrated waste management using LCA (life cycle analysis) attempts to offer the most benign options for waste management. For mixed MSW (Municipal Solid Waste) a number of broad studies have indicated that waste administration, then source separation and collection followed by reuse and recycling of the non-organic fraction and energy and compost/fertilizer production of the organic waste fraction via anaerobic digestion to be the favoured path. Non-metallic waste resources are not destroyed as with incineration, and can be reused/ recycled in a future resource depleted society.
Disposing of waste in a landfill involves burying the waste, and this remains a common practice in most countries. Landfills were often established in abandoned or unused quarries, mining voids or borrow pits. A properly designed and well-managed landfill can be a hygienic and relatively inexpensive method of disposing of waste materials. Older, poorly designed or poorly managed landfills can create a number of adverse environmental impacts such as wind-blown litter, attraction of vermin, and generation of liquid leachate. Another common byproduct of landfills is gas (mostly composed of methane and carbon dioxide), which is produced as organic waste breaks down anaerobically. This gas can create odour problems, kill surface vegetation, and is a greenhouse gas.
Design characteristics of a modern landfill include methods to contain leachate such as clay or plastic lining material. Deposited waste is normally compacted to increase its density and stability, and covered to prevent attracting vermin (such as mice or rats). Many landfills also have landfill gas extraction systems installed to extract the landfill gas. Gas is pumped out of the landfill using perforated pipes and flared off or burnt in a gas engine to generate electricity.
Incineration is a disposal method in which solid organic wastes are subjected to combustion so as to convert them into residue and gaseous products. This method is useful for disposal of residue of both solid waste management and solid residue from waste water management.This process reduces the volumes of solid waste to 20 to 30 percent of the original volume. Incineration and other high temperature waste treatment systems are sometimes described as "thermal treatment". Incinerators convert waste materials into heat, gas, steam and ash.
Incineration is carried out both on a small scale by individuals and on a large scale by industry. It is used to dispose of solid, liquid and gaseous waste. It is recognized as a practical method of disposing of certain hazardous waste materials (such as biological medical waste). Incineration is a controversial method of waste disposal, due to issues such as emission of gaseous pollutants.
Incineration is common in countries such as Japan where land is more scarce, as these facilities generally do not require as much area as landfills. Waste-to-energy (WtE) or energy-from-waste (EfW) are broad terms for facilities that burn waste in a furnace or boiler to generate heat, steam or electricity. Combustion in an incinerator is not always perfect and there have been concerns about pollutants in gaseous emissions from incinerator stacks. Particular concern has focused on some very persistent organics such as dioxins, furans, PAHs which may be created which may have serious environmental consequences.
'Recycling refers to the collection and reuse of
Toxic waste is waste material that can cause death or injury to living creatures. It spreads quite easily and can contaminate lakes and rivers. The term is often used interchangeably with â€œhazardous wasteâ€�, or discarded material that can pose a long-term risk to health or environment.
As with most pollution problems, toxic waste began to be a significant issue during the industrial revolution. It usually is the product of industry or commerce, but also comes from residential use (e.g. cleaning products, cosmetics, lawn care products), agriculture (e.g. chemical fertilizers, pesticides), the military (nuclear weapons testing, chemical warfare), medical facilities (e.g. pharmaceuticals), radioactive sources, and light industry, such as dry cleaning establishments. Toxic waste comes in many forms, such as liquid, solid, or sludge, and it contains chemicals, heavy metals, radioisotopes, dangerous pathogens, or other toxins .
In the United States, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the state departments oversee the rules that regulate hazardous waste. The EPA requires that toxic waste be handled with special precautions and be disposed of in designated facilities around the country. Also, many cities in the United States have collection days where household toxic waste is gathered. Some materials that are unaccepted at regular landfills are ammunition, commercially generated waste, explosives/shock sensitive items, hypodermic needles/syringes, medical waste, radioactive materials, smoke detectors, trash/recyclables, and unknown materials..
Toxic waste facilities store waste underground in sealed containers. If toxic waste is unlikely to migrate and it is not that dangerous (for example, lead in soil) it is placed under the ground and then hard clay is placed on top of it. These sites eventually become golf courses or parks, or they are used for commercial or industrial sites (called â€œbrownfieldsâ€�). Waste transporters and waste facilities charge fees and many people dump toxic waste in town dumps to avoid paying these fees. A violation of this sort results in expensive fines in most cases.
Toxic wastes often contain carcinogens, and exposure to these by some route, such as leakage or evaporation from the storage, causes cancer to appear at increased frequency in exposed individuals. For example, a cluster of the rare blood cancer polycythemia vera was found around a toxic waste dump site in northeast Pennsylvania in 2008.
People encounter these toxins buried in the ground, in stream runoff, in groundwater that supplies drinking water, or in floodwaters, as happened after Hurricane Katrina. Some toxins, such as mercury, persist in the environment and accumulate. Humans or animals often absorb them when they eat fish.
Toxic wastes containing organic carcinogens can be destroyed by incineration at high temperatures, which is expensive. However, if the waste contains heavy metals or radioactive isotopes, these must be separated and stored, as they cannot be destroyed.
Toxic waste regulations
The U.S. EPA first regulated toxic waste in August, 1978, when the Toxic Substance Control Act (TSCA) became effective. Many people believe that TSCA regulates the safe production, use, and disposal of toxic and hazardous waste and that these regulations are strictly enforced. Much of the public also believes that most of the toxic substances and waste that endanger communities today come from leftover chemicals and waste produced before TSCA was enacted. But this assumption is wrong. Take PCBs, for example, which are specifically addressed in EPA TSCA regulations. In 1978, the production of PCBs was banned in the USA, but the use and disposal of them was not. So, companies cannot create new PCBs here in America, but they can purchase PCBs from companies in other countries where the production is legal. American companies can also purchase recycled PCBs,and they can dump their PCB waste in EPA-approved,toxic waste landfills. They can use PCBs in products that Americans consume and dispose of in solid waste landfills. Reference, Ferruccio, Deborah, ncpcbarchives.com, 2011
Some waste sites are the result of old and recent legal and illegal dumping. The EPA has put into effect many laws and acts to regulate illegal toxic waste dumping. One of these acts is the Federal Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, which regulates how hazardous waste must be handled and stored. It lists some of the wastes that the EPA considers toxic, and substances that are not on this list are still hazardous and are not allowed to be dumped. Another act put in effect by the EPA is the Superfund Act. It contains rules about cleaning up toxic waste that was dumped illegally.
There has been a long ongoing battle between communities and environmentalists versus governments and corporations about how strict and how fairly the regulations and laws are written and enforced. That battle began in North Carolina in the late summer of 1978, as EPA's TSCA regulations were literally being implemented. In North Carolina, 31,000 gallons of PCB-contaminated oil were deliberately dripped in a 3-foot swath along some 240 miles of rural Piedmont highways, creating the largest PCB spills in American history and a public health crisis that would have repercussions for generations to come. The PCBs were eventually picked up and forcibly buried in a landfill in Warren County, but citizens' opposition, which culminated in the largest civil rights demonstrations since King marched through Alabama, exposed the dangers of toxic waste, the fallibility of landfills, and the fact that EPA regulations are written with built-in waivers allowing landfills to be built on marginal sites that are politically possible to get.
Warren County citizens argued that the fundamental assumption upon which toxic waste landfill regulations were being predicated was that the conceptual engineering design of EPA's dry-tomb landfill would contain the toxic waste. This assumption was purely hypothetical but became the rationale for EPA's regulations informing the siting of toxic waste landfills and for waiving them. On the basis of a purely theoretical concept, wai
The waste hierarchy refers to the 3Rs of reduce, reuse and recycle, which classify waste management strategies according to their desirability. The 3Rs are meant to be a hierarchy, in order of importance. However in Europe the waste hierarchy has 5 steps: reduce, reuse, recycle, recovery and disposal.
The waste hierarchy has taken many forms over the past decade, but the basic concept has remained the cornerstone of most waste minimisation strategies. The aim of the waste hierarchy is to extract the maximum practical benefits from products and to generate the minimum amount of waste.
Some waste management experts have recently incorporated a 'fourth R': "Re-think", with the implied meaning that the present system may have fundamental flaws, and that a thoroughly effective system of waste management may need an entirely new way of looking at waste. Source reduction involves efforts to reduce hazardous waste and other materials by modifying industrial production. Source reduction methods involve changes in manufacturing technology, raw material inputs, and product formulation. At times, the term "pollution prevention" may refer to source reduction.
Another method of source reduction is to increase incentives for recycling. Many communities in the United States are implementing variable rate pricing for waste disposal (also known as Pay As You Throw - PAYT) which has been effective in reducing the size of the municipal waste stream.
Source reduction is typically measured by efficiencies and cutbacks in waste. Toxics use reductionis a more controversial approach to source reduction that targets and measures reductions in the upstream use of toxic materials. Toxics use reduction emphasizes the more preventive aspects of source reduction but, due to its emphasis on toxic chemical inputs, has been opposed more vigorously by chemical manufacturers. Toxics use reduction programs have been set up by legislation in some states, e.g., Massachusetts, New Jersey and Oregon.
The 3Rs are categories at the top of our disposal options. They include a variety of initiatives for disposing of discards. Generally, options lowest on the list are least desirable.
Reduce - to buy less and use less. Incorporates common sense ideas like turning off the lights, rain barrels, and taking shorter showers, but also plays a part in Composting/Grasscycling (transportation energy is reduced), low-flow toilets, and programmable thermostats. Includes the terms Re-think, Precycle, Carpool, Efficient, and Environmental Footprint.
Reuse - elements of the discarded item are used again. Initiatives include Hand-Me-Downs, Garage Sales, Quilting, Travel Mugs, and Composting (nutrients). Includes the terms Laundry, Repair, Regift, and Upcycle.
Recycle - discards are separated into materials that may be incorporated into new products. This is different from Reuse in that energy is used to change the physical properties of the material. Initiatives include Composting, Beverage Container Deposits and buying products with a high content of post-consumer material.
Generate - capturing useful material for waste to energy programs. Includes Methane Collection, Gasification and Digestion, and the term Recover.
Incinerate - high temperature destruction of material. Differs from Gasification in that oxygen is used; differs from burning in that high temperatures consume material efficiently and emissions are controlled.
Devastate - to discard into the natural environment, or to "trash" the planet. Includes Litter, Burn Barrels, Unnecessary Vehicle Idling, and Dumping discards onto land or into water.
Incentives for 3R
The 3Râ€™s of reduce, reuse and recycle have been considered to be a cornerstone of ecological awareness and a way or promoting environmental balance through conscious behaviour and choices. It is generally accepted that these patterns of behaviour and consumer choices will lead to savings in materials and energy which will benefit the environment. In this context it may be enquired whether certain economic instruments may be considered to further strengthen these behaviours and choices.
In this context it may be enquired whether certain economic instruments may be considered to further strengthen these behaviours and choices. An example may be to reduce the sales tax or value added tax on goods that are made by recycling used materials, such as paper, plastics, glass, metals. Another example may be to reduce sales tax or value added tax on second-hand goods, which may include books, clothes, house-hold gadgets, bicycles, cars and automobiles, office equipment, medical and scientific equipment, telecommunication equipment, agricultural equipment, industrial and manufacturing equipment, boats, ships, trains and trams, aeroplanes, oil rigs, and so forth.
An additional approach may be to reduce the interest rates on the financial loans, which companies avail of, for their commercial activities in the recycling of used material and equipments.
It is plausible that this may have a significant impact on consumer behaviour, and may strengthen those sections of the economy and trade that are associated with such goods and services. Additionally, this would be consistent with supporting consumer behaviour and choices that are beneficial for the environment and for the economy.
Green waste is biodegradable waste that can be composed of garden or park waste, such as grass or flower cuttings and hedge trimmings, as well as domestic and commercial food waste. The differentiation green identifies it as high in nitrogen, as opposed to brown waste, which is primarily carbonaceous.
The word "compost" it simply means the decomposition of biodegradable materials. In agriculture,particularly organic farming, farmers utilize their green waste for composting whereby they use as manure for their crop.There are different types of composting, which includes aerobic composting, vermi-cpmpost and heap compost.In Bhutan most of the farmers prefer heap compost which doesn't cost much for the preparation as it can be easily made with locally available material.However with the increase of the population, the generation of waste had been very high and there is high risk of pollution and harmful effect to human being and environment.Therefore in order to utilize the agriculture waste, National Organic program had started a project with collaboration with Thimphu city corporation to utilize the green waste generated from centenary farmer's market.The management of the waste from the new Centennial Farmersâ€™ Market has been an essential component of the Market facilities utilization for the MOA and Thimphu City Corporation. It is clear that the management of waste from the city is a problem that all should be concerned about and TCC alone cannot solve the problem. All citizens could help by being a little more caring and responsible in their disposal of wastes. However, the limitation of the TCC facilities in collection of wastes from various locations and appropriate management of the collected waste is a constraint in efficient collection and proper disposal. Due to these difficulties coupled with poor awareness and civic sense of the citizens, TCCâ€™s service although far reaching needs assistance from other fronts.A huge composting facility was constructed with DANIDA funds and completed in 2004, The facilities include a shed for sorting of wastes which is connected to a chute to pass the waste to the composting structure where a shredder is located at the entrance which leads to composting cubicles which are equipped with aeration facilities with blowers. A control room has the engines that control the operations such as sensing temperatures.The National Organic Programme of DOA, MOA and Thimphu City Corporation made the first heap of compost from the fruit and vegetable wastes collected from the Centennial Farmersâ€™ Market in an effort to take responsibility of the waste generated from agriculture.
On the 25th May, 09 a awareness programme was conducted by the NOP for over 150 vendors and retailers at the CFM while awareness infomercial was aired on BBS and banners hung around the market to remind buyers and sellers alike to share in the waste segregation by sorting at source. Separate stickers for fruit and vegetable wastes, and for plastics and others were provided to be stuck on each bin all provided by MOA through DNRM project.
With the TCCâ€™s help in collection and transport of the biodegradable wastes to the composting site at Serbithang, National Organic Programme started making compost heaps which will be now carried out continuously to manage all the fruit and vegetable wastes generated from the CFM. The techniques used here is the low tech aerobic composting that seals in the heat and moisture and prevents foul odour around the heap. The compost is ready to be sold in the market and it is looked after by the TCC.
From Yahoo Answers
Answers:Environmental damage and health problems. Search on Minimoto bay - there was a horrible problem with mercury poisoning in Japan there in the 60's I think it was
Answers:Disposal is the final stage in a product's life cycle, and the beginning of the waste management process. Despite the fact that plastics are used in everything from medical products to beverage containers, plastics constitute a mere 9.4% by weight of all waste generated in the United States. There are only two options when a consumer disposes of a plastic product: 1) proper plastic disposal that results in it being placed in a landfill or 2) improper disposal, otherwise known as littering.
Answers:it can be thermally destroyed (huge furnaces burn it). It can be neutralized with other chemicals. It can be sent a to a land fill that is designed to hold the material for millenium while it decomposes.
Answers:How odd, you have asked the same question 4 times in the past 6 months. It must be some school project. Some sources of hazardous waste that people don't think about are: semi-conductor manufacturers, pharmaceutical manufacturers, research labs, aerospace, weapons makers, dry cleaners, car mechanics, etc. In addition to any place that uses batteries, light bulbs or paint. The effect of improper disposal can mean contamination of food sources. Like dumping waste in the ocean or rivers will poison fish, which are then eaten by animals and humans. Ingestion of mercury happens that way. Other chemicals are flammable, explosive, poisonous gas, spontaneously combustible, dangerous when wet, poisonous, infectious biohazard, corrosive, radioactive and miscellaneous junk like PCB's, asbestos, lead and chromium. You can figure out what will happen if you don't dispose of them properly. The EPA and state of California routinely tour and grade the company I work for to see if we are doing everything by the book. The book being the Hazardous Materials, Substances & Wastes Compliance Guide. To control improper disposal companies are fined big money if they don't store or dispose of their chemicals properly. They are also routinely toured by the EPA and whatever local enforcement agency there is. Companies that produce haz waste contract a company like the one I work for to dispose of their waste. Everything we pick up has to be manifested or else we won't allow it in our gate. Try the website below, it sums it up in somewhat easier terms.