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Answers:The rotating earth imparts a force, via friction, to the atmosphere. This causes the atmosphere to move with the earth. There is no friction between the atmposphere and the vacuum of outer space. So there's really only one force imparting a net movement to the atmosphere, so the force doesn't have to be that strong and there won't be any shear forces along the thickness of the atmosphere. Sure there's inertia, but there's millions of years for the atmosphere to accelerate until it matches the speed of rotation of the earth. Since F=MA the atmosphere will acelerate until F=0 when the earth and the atmosphere will be moving at the same speed. Astronomers actually found a planet (moon) in the solar system where they predicted that there would be very little wind because there was very little heating of the atmosphere. Turns out that the wind was something like 2,000 miles per hour because the lack of heat meant that there was very little turbulence to slow down the net movement of the atmosphere. A tiny wind got started and then it just grew and grew and grew because there was very little turbulence to slow it down. The super fast winds had polished the surface smooth over the past few millions of years. So I suppose the cyclical cooling and heating of the earth creates turbulence in the atmosphere that helps prevent the setting up of any net movement of the atmosphere relative to the earth?? The turbulence helps the atmosphere "stick" to the earth!?! Maybe you're right up to a point? Maybe it's the extra turbulence that causes the earth's atmosphere to move, in general, in step with the rotation of the earth? If the experts can get their predictions wrong then maybe it is quite complicated after all!
Answers:1. The direction of the earth's axis is *relatively* constant throughout the year. But it does (very slowly) rotate, taking about 27000 years to make a complete rotation. This motion is called "precession of the equinoxes. 2. The equator is tilted from the plane of the ecliptic by about 23.4 , which is called the "obliquity" of the axis. The obliquity also changes slowly with time, and is currently decreasing a bit. 2000 years ago, it was about 23.7 . 3. The orbit of earth around the Sun is an ellipse, but it is not a perfect ellipse, due to small perterbations of the Moon and other planets. 4. The ellipticity of Earth's orbit also changes, and at the current time it is fairly low -- meaning that the orbit is almost (but not quite) circular. For that reason, the ellipticity of the orbit plays only a minor role in the seasons: making winter shorter in the northern hemisphere, and longer in the southern hemisphere. 5. The distance between Earth and the Sun is nearly the same from one equinox to the next, but not quite. The position of perihelion (closest point to the sun) also slowly changes over time. Currently perihelion occurs in the first week in January. But 2000 years ago, it was in late autumn. 6. I'll take a pass on that one :-)
Answers:respecting the laws of newton it would. taking into account that air has very little mass though... the change i think will me minimal the earth however is at a stable speed. so either way it doesnt realy matter.