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Answers:Good question. Here is the process. Temperature differences create pressure differences. These pressure gradients cause winds. Winds cause the movement of air masses and help to create low pressure centers. Winds in the low pressure centers cause rising air which condenses the humidity in the air into water vapor (clouds) which releases heat of condensation which cause more temperature differences. All these processes work together in a very complicated (called non-linear) manner.
Answers:As you increase the temperature the rate of reaction increases. As a rough approximation, for many reactions happening at around room temperature, the rate of reaction doubles for every 10 C rise in temperature. The more finely divided the solid is, the faster the reaction happens. A powdered solid will normally produce a faster reaction than if the same mass is present as a single lump. The powdered solid has a greater surface area than the single lump.
Answers:The sea affects the temperature on land nearby :). How it affects it is called Continentality, and generally coastal areas will be cooler and wetter than inland areas, because of the different temperatures of the sand and sea making clouds condense and stuff :). This is the reason a lot of people in hot countries like Spain go on holidasy to the coast - to get a cooler holiday :).
Answers:The old professor says: Heat energy will always flow from the higher level to the lower. Air does not have the heat capacity of water so it will be quicker to gain or lose it. Thus, the air/water will tend to equalize temperatures as the heat flows from the warm water to the air or warm air to the water. The air's influence over the water temp will be slower than the water's influence over the air.