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From Wikipedia


The bronchioles or bronchioli are the first airway branches that no longer contain cartilage. They are branches of the bronchi. The bronchioles terminate by entering the circular sacs called alveoli.


A pulmonary lobule is the portion of the lung ventilated by one bronchiole. Bronchioles are approximately 1mm or less in diameter and their walls consist of ciliated cuboidal epithelium and a layer of smooth muscle.

Bronchioles divide into even smaller terminal bronchioles that are 0.5mm or less in diameter. Terminal bronchioles in turn divide into respiratory bronchioles which divide into alveolar ducts. Terminal bronchioles mark the end of the conducting division of air flow in the respiratory system while respiratory bronchioles are the beginning of the respiratory division where actual gas exchange takes place.

The diameter of the bronchioles plays an important role in air flow. The bronchioles change diameter to either increase or reduce air flow. An increase in diameter is called bronchodilation and is stimulated by either epinephrine or sympathetic nerves to increase air flow. A decrease in diameter is called bronchoconstriction and is stimulated by Histamine, parasympathetic nerves, cold air, chemical irritants and other factors to decrease air flow.


Bronchospasm, a life-threatening situation, occurs when the smooth muscular tissue of the bronchioles constricts, severely narrowing their diameter, the most common cause of this is asthma. Bronchospasm is commonly treated by oxygen therapy and bronchodilators.

The medical condition of inflammation of the bronchioles is termed bronchiolitis. Diseases of the bronchioles include asthma, bronchiolitis obliterans, respiratory syncytial virus infections, and influenza.

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School Days (song)

"School Days" (also known as "School Day (Ring! Ring! Goes the Bell)") is a song written and recorded by rock and roll icon Chuck Berry, released by the Chess record label as a single in March 1957, and released on the LPAfter School Sessiontwo months later (see1957 in music). It is one of his best known songs and is often considered a rock and roll anthem. It was first released as a single and later appeared as the lead track on Berry's first album, After School Session.

The last verse of the song contains the lyrics "Hail, hail rock and roll / Deliver me from the days of old." Hail! Hail! Rock and Rollbecame the title of a1987documentary and concert film about Berry. Also the musical arrangement would be oversampled by Chuck Berry in 1964 on No Particular Place To Go. The same arrangement was also used on the very rare Big Ben Blues.

The song also appears at the end of the Neil Young concert film Rust Never Sleeps during the credits.


The song was recorded on January 21, 1957 in Chicago, Illionis. The session(s) were [[Record producer|produced by the Chess brothers - Leonard and Phil - and backing Berry on the recording were guitaristHubert Sumlin (who is known for his work with Howlin' Wolf), bassistWillie Dixon, and drummerFred Below.


It peaked at No. 3 on the Billboard Hot 100 chart, his third highest-ranked pop hit and hit number one on the R&B Best Sellers chart. The song was also Chuck Berry's first appearance on the UK Singles Chart reaching #24.

Cover versions

Don Lang & his Frantic Five

Don Lang's contemporary 1957 British cover version made number 26 in the UK.


Australian hard rock band AC/DC recorded a version of "School Days" for their second album, T.N.T.. The song was originally released only in Australia. However, in1997 it was released internationally on Volts, a compilation ofBon Scott-sung songs, part of the Bonfirebox set.

Gary Glitter

The song was remade by the British rocker Gary Glitter, who recorded it under the title "School Day (Ring! Ring! Goes The Bell)" on his album Glitterin1972.

Iron City Houserockers

The song was covered by the Iron City Houserockers for their first album, Love's So Toughunder the title "School Days (Ring! Ring! Goes the Bell)" but was cut from the final release. The track was made available on their compilation album Pumping Iron & Sweating Steel: The Best of the Iron City Houserockers.

Jan & Dean

The song was covered by Jan & Dean on their 1964 album "Dead Man's Curve - The New Girl In School" under the title "School Days". The song was later released on a single in 1966 by Liberty Records.

The Beach Boys

"School Days" was also covered by The Beach Boys on their 1980 album Keepin' the Summer AlivewithAl Jardine on lead vocals. Like Gary Glitter's recording, their version was released with the alternate title "School Day (Ring! Ring! Goes The Bell)".

Ann Rabson

"School Days" was also covered by blues pianist and vocalist Ann Rabson.

Lil Rob

On Lil Rob's album, The Album, he covered the song, added a skit, and remade the song. In his version, called "Street Dayz", he replaces all the school related lyrics with lyrics that have to do with gang life, drugs, and sex.

The Simpsons

A version of "School Days" was included on The SimpsonsalbumThe Simpsons Sing the Blueswith vocals frommathematics, in particular abstract algebra, a graded algebra is an algebra over a field (or commutative ring) with an extra piece of structure, known as a gradation (or grading).

Graded rings

A graded ringA is a ring that has a direct sum decomposition into (abelian) additive groups

A = \bigoplus_{n\in \mathbb N}A_n = A_0 \oplus A_1 \oplus A_2 \oplus \cdots

such that the ring multiplication satisfies

x \in A_s, y \in A_r \implies xy \in A_{s+r}

and so

A_s A_r \subseteq A_{s + r}.

Elements of A_n are known as homogeneous elements of degree n. An ideal or other subset \mathfrak{a} ⊂ A is homogeneous if for every element a∈ \mathfrak{a}, the homogeneous parts of a are also contained in \mathfrak{a}.

If I is a homogeneous ideal in A, then A/I is also a graded ring, and has decomposition

A/I = \bigoplus_{n\in \mathbb N}(A_n + I)/I.

Any (non-graded) ring A can be given a gradation by letting A0 = A, and Ai = 0 for i> 0. This is called the trivial gradation on A.

Graded modules

The corresponding idea in module theory is that of a graded module, namely a moduleM over a graded ring A such that also

M = \bigoplus_{i\in \mathbb N}M_i ,


A_iM_j \subseteq M_{i+j}.

This idea is much used in commutative algebra, and elsewhere, to define under mild hypotheses a Hilbert function, namely thelength of Mn as a function of n. Again under mild hypotheses of finiteness, this function is a polynomial, the Hilbert polynomial, for all large enough values of n (see also Hilbert-Samuel polynomial).

Graded algebras

An algebra A over a ring R is a graded algebra if it is graded as a ring. In the case where the ring R is also a graded ring, then one requires that

  1. AiRj⊂ Ai+j, and
  2. RiAj⊂ Ai+j.

Note that the definition of the graded ring over a ring with no grading is the special case of the latter definition where "R" is given the trivial grading (every element of "R" is of grade 0).

Examples of graded algebras are common in mathematics:

Graded algebras are much used in commutative algebra and algebraic geometry, homological algebra and algebraic topology. One example is the close relationship between homogeneous polynomials and projective varieties.

G-graded rings and algebras

We can generalize the definition of a graded ring using any monoidG as an index set. A G-graded ringA is a ring with a direct sum decomposition

A = \bigoplus_{i\in G}A_i

such that

A_i A_j \subseteq A_{i \cdot j}.


  • A graded algebra is then the same thing as a N-graded algebra, where N is the monoid of non-negative integers.
  • If we do not require that the ring have an identity element, semigroups may replace monoids.
  • G-graded modules and algebras are defined in the same fashion as above.


  • A group naturally grades the corresponding group ring; similarly, monoid rings are graded by the corresponding monoid.
  • A superalgebra is another term for a Z2-graded algebra. Examples include Clifford algebras. Here the homogeneous elements are either of degree 0 (even) or 1 (odd).

In category theory, a G-graded algebra A is an object in the category of G-graded vector spaces, together with a morphism \nabla:A\otimes A\rightarrow Aof the degree of the identity of G.


Some graded rings (or algebras) are endowed with an anticommutative structure.

Respiratory tract

In humans the respiratory tract is the part of the anatomy that has to do with the process of respiration. The respiratory tract is divided into 3 segments: Upper respiratory tract: nose and nasal passages, paranasal sinuses, and throat or pharynx Respiratory airways: voice box or larynx, trachea, bronchi, and bronchioles Lungs: respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts, alveolar sacs, and alveoli The respiratory tract is a common site for infections. Upper respiratory tract infections are probably the most common infections in the world. Most of the respiratory tract exists merely as a piping system for air to travel in the lungs, and alveoli are the only part of the lung that exchanges oxygen and carbon dioxide with the blood. Moving down the respiratory tract starting at the trachea, the tubes get smaller and divide more and more. There are estimated to be about 20 to 23 divisions, ending up at an alveolus. Even though the cross-sectional area of each bronchus or bronchiole is smaller, because there are so many, the total surface area is larger. This means there is less resistance at the terminal bronchioles. (Most resistance is around the 3-4 division from the trachea due to turbulence.) General histology The respiratory tract is covered in an epithelium, the type of which varies down the tract. There are glands and mucus produced by goblet cells in parts, as well as smooth muscle, elastin or cartilage. Most of the epithelium (from the nose to the bronchi) is covered in pseudostratified columnar ciliated epithelial cells, commonly called respiratory epithelium. The cilia beat in one direction, moving mucus towards the throat where it is swallowed. Moving down the bronchioles, the cells get more cuboidal in shape but are still ciliated. Cartilage is present until the small bronchi. In the trachea they are C-shaped rings, whereas in the bronchi they are interspersed plates. Glands are abundant in the upper respiratory tract, but there are fewer lower down and they are absent from the bronchioles onwards. The same goes for goblet cells, although there are scattered ones in the first bronchioles. Smooth muscle starts in the trachea, where it joins the C-shaped rings of cartilage. It continues down the bronchi and bronchioles which it completely encircles. Instead of hard cartilage, the bronchi and bronchioles have a lot of elastic tissue. Summary: Upper respiratory tract - nose, pharynx & asscociates structures Lower respiratory tract - larynx, trachea, bronchi & lungs

From Encyclopedia

The Respiratory System The Respiratory System

Breathing, controlled by the respiratory system, is a continuous process of which a person is normally unaware. If breathing stops, however, a person becomes acutely aware of the fact. An individual can go days without food and water and hours without sleep, but only five or six minutes without air. Anything beyond that would be fatal. The trillions of cells in the body need a constant and generous amount of oxygen to carry out their vital functions. As they use that oxygen, they give off carbon dioxide as a waste product. It is the role of the respiration system, working in conjunction with the cardiovascular system, to supply the oxygen and dispose of the carbon dioxide. Breathing describes the process of inhaling and exhaling air. The exchange of gases (oxygen and carbon dioxide) between living cells and the environment is a process known as respiration. The respiratory system, which controls breathing and respiration, consists of the respiratory tract and the lungs. The respiratory tract cleans, warms, and moistens air on its way to the lungs. The tract can be divided into an upper and a lower part. The upper part consists of the nose, nasal cavity, pharynx (throat), larynx, and upper part of the trachea (windpipe). The lower part consists of the lower part of the trachea, bronchi, and lungs (which contain bronchioles and alveoli). The nose is the only external part of the respiratory system. It is made of bone and cartilage (tough connective tissue) and is covered with skin. The two openings to the outside, called nostrils, allow air to enter or leave the body during breathing. The nostrils are lined with coarse hairs that prevent large particles such as dust, insects, and sand from entering. The nostrils open into a large cavity, the nasal cavity. This cavity is divided into right and left cavities by a thin plate of bone and cartilage called the nasal septum. The hard portion of the palate forms the floor of the entire nasal cavity, separating it from the mouth or oral cavity below. Three flat, spongy folds or plates project toward the nasal septum from the sides of the nasal cavity. These plates, called nasal conchae, help to slow down the passage of air, causing it to swirl in the nasal cavity. thick, gooey liquid. As the nasal conchae cause air to swirl in the nasal cavity, the mucus moistens the air and traps any bacteria or particles of air pollution. The cilia wave back and forth in rhythmic movement, and pieces of mucus with their trapped particles are swept along to the throat. The mucus is then either spat out or (more often) swallowed. Any bacteria present in the swallowed mucus is destroyed by the hydrochloric acid in the gastric juice of the stomach. Air is not only moistened in the nasal cavity but warmed, as well. A rich network of thin-walled capillaries permeates the mucus membrane (especially the uppermost concha), and the incoming air is warmed as it passes over the vessels. When air finally reaches the lungs, it is similar to the warm, damp air found in the tropics. The bones that surround the nasal cavity contain hollow spaces known as paranasal sinuses. The sinuses are also lined with mucous membrane containing cilia. The mucus produced in the sinuses drains into the nasal cavity. The main functions of the sinuses are to lighten the skull and to provide resonance (sound quality) for the voice. The pharynx or throat is a short, muscular tube extending about 5 inches (12.7 centimeters) from the nasal cavity and mouth to the esophagus and trachea. It serves two separate systems: the digestive system (by allowing the passage of solid food and liquids) and the respiratory system (by allowing the passage of air). The larynx, commonly called the voice box, forms the upper part of the trachea. The larynx is made of nine pieces of cartilage connected by ligaments. The largest of these cartilages is the shield-shaped thyroid cartilage, which may protrude at the front of the neck, forming the so-called Adam's apple. The upper cartilage is the epiglottis, a flaplike piece of tissue. During swallowing, the larynx rises up and the epiglottis folds down to cover the glottis, or the larynx's opening. This prevents food or liquids from passing into the lower respiratory tract. Mucous membrane lines the larynx. A pair of elastic folds in that lining form the vocal cords. During silent breathing, the vocal cords lie against the walls of the larynx. During speech, the cords are stretched across the opening of the larynx and air that passes through causes them to vibrate, generating sound waves. Various muscles produce tension on the cords, making them tighter (shorter) or looser (longer). The tighter the tension, the higher the pitch of the sound produced. Since men's larynges tend to be larger than women's, their vocal cords tend to be thicker and longer. The male voice thus tends to be lower in pitch. The trachea is a tough, flexible tube about 1 inch (2.5 centimeters) in diameter and 4.5 inches (11.4 centimeters) in length. Located in front of the esophagus, it is the principal tube that carries air to and from the lungs. The walls of the trachea are supported by 16 to 20 C-shaped cartilage rings. Elastic fibers in the tracheal walls allow the trachea to expand and contract during breathing, while the cartilage rings prevent it from collapsing. Mucous membrane containing cilia lines the trachea. The mucus produced by the membrane traps dust particles and other debris. The cilia move continuously in a direction opposite that of the incoming air, helping propel the mucus away from the lungs to the throat where it can be swallowed or spat out. The trachea divides behind the sternum (breastbone) to form a right and left branch called primary bronchi (singular: bronchus). Each bronchus passes into a lung—the right bronchus into the right lung and the left bronchus into the left lung. The right bronchus is wider, shorter, and straighter than the left. As a result, accidentally inhaled objects (such as pieces of food) most often enter the right primary bronchus. By the time incoming air reaches the primary bronchi, it is warm, moistened, and cleansed of most particles or other impurities. The lungs are two broad, cone-shaped organs located on either side of the heart in the thoracic or chest cavity. They extend from the collarbones to the diaphragm, a membrane of muscle separating the thoracic cavity from the abdominal cavity. The base of each lung rests directly on the diaphragm. The rib cage forms a wall around the lungs, protecting them. At birth, the lungs are pale pink in color. As people age, their lungs grow darker. The inhaling of dirt and other particles increases this aging process, even scarring the delicate tissue of the lungs. Each lung is divided into lobes separated by deep grooves or fissures. The right lung, which is larger, is divided into three lobes. The left lung is divided into only two lobes. Combined, the two soft and spongy lungs weigh about 2.5 pounds (1.1 kilograms). A membrane sac, called the pleura, surrounds and protects each lung. One layer of the pleura attaches to the wall of the thoracic cavity; the other layer encloses the lung. A fluid (pleural fluid) between the two membrane layers reduces friction and allows smooth movement of a lung during breathing. After the bronchi enter the lungs, they subdivide repeatedly into smaller and smaller bronchi or branches. Eventually they form thousands of tiny branches called bronchioles, which have a diameter of about 0.02 inch (0.5 millimeter). This branching network of bronchial tubes within the lungs is called the bronchial tree. The bronchioles branch to form even smaller passageways that open into clusters of cup-shaped air sacs called alveoli (singular: alveolus). The average person has a total of about 700 million alveoli (which resemble clusters of grapes) in his or her lungs. These provide an enormous surface area-roughly the size of a tennis court—for gas exchange. A network of capillaries surrounds each alveolus. As blood passes through these vessels and air fills the alveoli, the exchange of gases takes place: oxygen passes from the alveoli int

From Yahoo Answers

Question:In your answer, please take into consideration the bonding nature of aromatic compounds. Ten points best answer, I really need this.

Answers:The colour in such dyes is due to the delocalised bonding in the benzene rings. UV light can trigger various reactions (e.g. photo-oxidation) which disrupt the delocalised bonding and thereby gradually reducing the colour of a dye.

Question:Hi I thought about buying one of these inner tubes, inflating it and using it in bed to keep my hip bone clear of the mattress when lying on my side (hip bursitis). I don't need alot of pressure in the tube and don;t want it to expand to much larger than the 4" internal diameter. Do you think it'll be okay? This is the inner tube I'm thinking of buying 3.00 x 4 TR87 INNER TUBE FOR MOBILITY SCOOTER

Answers:you only need to inflate it to the size and pressure you feel comfortable with. as it will have no tyre to hold it in it can easily get too big so do not over inflate or try and match normal tyre pressures. you can also get inflatable rings such as for children to use in pools that may be more comfortable and are easy to blow up. though these tend to be larger. have you looked at arm bands ?

Question:any difference between the circular rings and the 6 sided angled rings? can you fit more of one in the same space? do they touch/lie differently? whats the deal? why make them different shapes? why not just one shape and save me from having to ask the question?

Answers:I figure you are talking about ceramic rings and bio balls? They are basically the same thing, and do the same job, they both house beneficial bacteria in your filters. Go with the ones with the bigger surface area so more beneficial bacteria can grow on them. They make them different shapes for the fact that they can, and in some aqauriums bio balls are preferred (eg. saltwater) because they have a bigger surface area and in salt water aquariums that contain just fish, the biological filter is the most important filter it needs. The ceramic rings don't have as big of a surface area, so they are ideal for freshwater aquariums. I would however put both in your filter, or just take your pick. Both work great in filters that have a wet dry system. The ceramic rings are used for the dry part (they aren't actually dry but they aren't submerged in the water but they get moist), and the bio balls are the wet system as they are submerged.

Question:it's a healthy recipe and has to be easy to make. It's for a school assignment but we have to find the recipe on the net, but i cannot find a very good one that has all the ingredients i need.

Answers:This contains the five major food groups: Hawaiian Pizza 1 (16 ounce) package of Hot Roll Mix (or you may make homemade pizza dough, or use a purchased pizza crust ) 1 (8 ounce) can pizza sauce 1 1/2 shredded mozzarella cheese 2 tbsp. of Parmesan Cheese or Romano Cheese (grated) 1 cup diced fully cooked ham 1 Green Sweet Pepper (sliced into thin rings) 1 (20 ounce) can pineapple tidbits, drained Grease a 13-inch pizza pan; set aside. Prepare hot roll mix according to package directions for pizza crust. Shape dough into a ball. On a lightly floured surface, roll dough into a circle 1 inch larger than pizza pan. Transfer dough to pizza pan. Build up edges slightly. Prick generously with a fork. Do not let rise. Or you may make Homemade Pizza Dough . Bake crust or dough in a 425 degree F oven for 10 to 12 minutes or until lightly browned. Spread pizza sauce over hot crust. Top with ham, green sweet pepper rings, and pineapple chunks. Sprinkle with mozzarella cheese and parmesan cheese or romano cheese. Bake about 12 minutes or until cheese melts and sauce is bubbly.

From Youtube

Three Kinds of Cartilage :Three Kinds of Cartilage Cartilage, unlike other types of connective tissue, has no blood vessels. It is tough but pliant because the ground substance between the cells contains combinations of proteins and sugars. Cartilage is described as hyaline, fibrous or elastic, depending on the density and type of fibers present in its composition. Hyaline, the most abundant type of cartilage, is clear and glassy, with few cells and fibers in the ground substance. Hyaline covers the ends of bones at the joints, and also forms the rings which keep the trachea open. Fibrocartilage is made up of tightly packed bundles of collagen fibers, making it resilient and able to withstand compression. Fibrocartilage lies, for example, between vertebrae. Elastic cartilage contains, in addition to collagen, fibers of the protein elastin. This makes it firm yet supple, giving support, for example, to the external ear and epiglottis.

How To Fix the Red Ring of Death #1 (Penny Trick) :READ THIS FIRST This is going to fix your red ring of death, all you need is a T9 screwdriver, electrical tape, silicone base thermal paste, and 4 sets of 2 pennies (8 all together if your not good at math). This has worked on my friend's xbox for a 2 years and a half now, and mine worked for about a year. If you want more info, send me a message or video response this video. **Update** Yes, you can still use live when you are done, no it will not ban your account. Just make sure you have everything plugged in and try using the xbox without live first to make sure everything is perfect. Then you can plug in live and your xbox is set. Update**** Im so glad a lot of people have found my video helpful. I have gotten about 50 comments/messages saying that you guys have fixed your xbox. Glad to hear you guys are doing great :) **UPDATE** A lot of people are having similar problems. let me tell you how to fix them. Q: Do I have to use thermal paste? A: YES, if you don't the bonding will melt and destroy your system. ____________________________________ Q:I have 2 red lights, what do I do now? A:2 read lights means overheating. Have you tried the towel trick yet? if so, check the pennies, make sure they are on properly. _______________________________________ Q: Why Pennies??? A: Pennies contain copper, a mineral that is very conductive of heat. Being conductive of heat, it will absorb the heat your xbox is putting out and keep it there instead of the chips ...