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A lesson plan is a teacher's detailed description of the course of instruction for an individual lesson. A daily lesson plan is developed by a teacher to guide class instruction. The detail of the plan will vary depending on the preference of the teacher, subject being covered, and the need and/or curiosity of children. There may be requirements mandated by the school system regarding the plan.
Developing a lesson plan
While there are many formats for a lesson plan, most lesson plans contain some or all of these elements, typically in this order:
- Title of the lesson
- Timerequired to complete the lesson
- List of required materials
- List of objectives, which may bebehavioral objectives (what thestudent can do at lesson completion) or knowledge objectives (what the student knows at lesson completion)
- The set (or lead-in, or bridge-in) that focuses students on the lesson's skills or concepts—these include showing pictures or models, asking leading questions, or reviewing previous lessons
- An instructional component that describes the sequence of events that make up the lesson, including the teacher's instructional input and guided practice the students use to try new skills or work with new ideas
- Independentpracticethat allows students to extend skills or knowledge on their own
- A summary, where the teacher wraps up the discussion and answers questions
- An evaluationcomponent, a test for mastery of the instructed skills or concepts—such as a set of questions to answer or a set of instructions to follow
- Analysis component the teacher uses to reflect on the lesson itself —such as what worked, what needs improving
- A continuity component reviews and reflects on content from the previous lesson
A well developed lesson plan
A well developed lesson plan reflects interests and needs of students. It incorporates best practices for the educational field. The lesson plan correlates with the teacher's philosophy of education, which is what the teacher feels is the purpose of educating the students.
Secondary English program lesson plans, for example, usually center around four topics. They are literary theme, elements of language and composition, literary history, and literary genre. A broad, thematic lesson plan is preferable, because it allows a teacher to create various research, writing, speaking, and reading assignments. It helps an instructor teach different literature genres and incorporate videotapes, films, and television programs. Also, it facilitates teaching literature and English together. School requirements and a teacher's personal tastes, in that order, determine the exact requirements for a lesson plan.
Unit plans follow much the same format as a lesson plan, but cover an entire unit of work, which may span several days or weeks. Modern constructivist teaching styles may not require individual lesson plans. The unit plan may include specific objectives and timelines, but lesson plans can be more fluid as they adapt to student needs and learning styles.
Setting an objective
The first thing a teacher must do is decide on the lesson plan's focus. The teacher creates one idea or question they want the students to explore or answer. Next, the teacher creates classroom activities that correlate with the established idea or question. This includes individual and group activities. Having established these activities, the teacher identifies what language arts skills the lesson plan must cover. After the teacher completes these activities, they must ensure the lesson plan adheres to the best practices used in language arts. This includes conducting research on what teaching methods result in a high success rate for students. The teacher must ensure the lesson plan goals are compatible with the developmental level of the students. The teacher must also ensure their student achievement expectations are reasonable.
Selecting lesson plan material
A lesson plan must correlate with the text book the class uses. The school usually selects the text books or provides teachers with a limited text book choice for a particular unit. The teacher must take great care and select the most appropriate book for the students.
Types of Assignments
The instructor must decide whether class assignments are whole-class, small groups, workshops, independent work, peer learning, or contractual:
- Whole-class—the teacher lectures to the class as a whole and has the class collectively participate in classroom discussions.
- Small groups—students work on assignments in groups of three or four.
- Workshops—students perform various tasks simultaneously. Workshop activities must be tailored to the lesson plan.
- Independent work—students complete assignments individually.
- Peer learning—students work together, face to face, so they can learn from one another.
- Contractual work—teacher and student establish an agreement that the student must perform a certain amount of work by a deadline.
These assignment categories (e.g. peer learning, independent, small groups) can also be used to guide the instructorâ€™s choice of assessment measures that can provide information about student and class comprehension of the material. As discussed by Biggs (1999), there are additional questions an instructor can consider when choosing which type of assignment would provide the most benefit to students. These include:
- What level of learning do the students need to attain before choosing assignments with varying difficulty levels?
- What is the amount of time the instructor wants the students to use to complete the assignment?
- How much time and effort does the instructor have to provide student grading and feedback?
- What is the purpose of the assignment? (e.g. to track student learning; to provide students with time to practice concepts; to practice
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Answers:Well, you could have them make analog clocks out of paper plates. They decorate the plate and put on the numbers, and then cut out big and little hands from cardboard. (Index cards work well for this --- give each kid one) You should have a model of sets of hands -- you could probably draw several sets on one sheet of paper and photocopy it. You'll need a clock, too. Most toy stores have them, or you can make one yourself for the kids to see. Attach the hands to the center of the clock with metal "brad" fasteners so they'll be able to move. When you've all got clocks, then first do the hours and half hours. Show them a time (eg 8:00, 7:30) and when they've got that idea, choose kids to show different times and have the others guess. Then you'd move to quarter past and quarter to. You need to explain that quarter past 3 is the same as 3:15. If you get further than that, then explain that there are 60 minutes in an hour and have them count by 5's to 60 while you move the big hand around. Then they model different times on their own clocks. This is a long lesson and would normally take a couple of days, because they won't remember it all. But since they're in third grade, they should catch on to some of it. Even though you're a field student, you want to make a good impression, so whatever you do, have an agenda and all of your materials ready. Good luck!
Answers:For procedures simple state what it is the children will do. Will they stand in a circle and move to music (name the music) Describe the lesson so that someone else could read it and know step by step what to do. Will they move fast, then slowly, will they follow the teacher direction or just dance free form? Curriculum Extensions might be they will dance with a partner instead of their stuffed animal. Or learn different movements
Answers:For special education focus on reading or math. An easy 5 min. lesson plan is to do a timed reading or timed math problems. This is one way do to a quick assessment of an individual's skill level. Six Minute Solution is a great curriculum for timed readings. You can find math timings, (addition, subtraction, multiplication or division or combo of) online. You might mention in your lesson plan that data will be collected for CBA's ( Curriculum Based Measurement) One of those "sp. ed" buzz words interviewers like to hear. :) Good luck with your interview.
Answers:One approach is to show how the whole is greater than the sum of the parts (the DNA and its relationship to the cells, organs, etc.) and how the whole is contained in every part (the full structure of the DNA is present in every part (RNA, cells, tissues, organs, etc.) Another approach that you can further develop: Cells continually multiply for growth and renewal. This constant creation and renewal is based on the genetic tradition. Look at one or all of the following cells: (1) an onion root tip showing mitotic division, (2) a human liver cell, and (3) an amoeba (either live or on film). Discuss the processes through which they multiply in terms of the creative and traditional qualities of creative intelligence. How does the non-changing genetic code allow for the ever-changing expressions of cellular life? You can also make charts showing, for example, the DNA and its unfoldment to RNA>cells>organs>etc., and so on--from the infinite to the most finite value. (The infinite being the unified field, since physics tells us that all of creation has its source in the unified field.) If you want to take it to that level. Some quotes to consider: "We should let ourselves be guided by what is common to all" Heraclitus "THere is an arrangement in the living being, a kind of regulated activity, which must never be neglected, because it is in truth the most striking characteristic of living beings... Vital phenomena posses indeed their rigorously determined physico-chemical conditions, but, at the same time, they subordinate themselves and succeed one another in a pattern and according to a low which pre-exists' they repeat themselves with order, regularity, constancy, and they harmonize in such a manner as to bring about the organization and growth of the individual animal, or plant." Claude Bernard ...this is a piece too fair To be the child of Chance, and not of Care. No atoms casually together hurl'd Could e're produce so beautiful a world. John Dryden Something it swings on more than the earth I swing on, To it the creation is the friend whose embracing awakens me. Perhaps I might tell more. Outlines! I plead for my brothers and sisters. Do you see O my brothers and sisters? It is not chaos or death--it is form, union, plan--it is eternal life--it is Happiness. Walt Whitman You won't find too many science teachers including quotes in their syllabus. It is nice when students find a correlation with another subject and the approach may give you the attention you are looking for to stand out in the interview process. Good luck!