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From Wikipedia

Distributed computing

Distributed computing is a field of computer science that studies distributed systems. A distributed system consists of multiple autonomous computers that communicate through a computer network. The computers interact with each other in order to achieve a common goal. A computer program that runs in a distributed system is called a distributed program, and distributed programming is the process of writing such programs.

Distributed computing also refers to the use of distributed systems to solve computational problems. In distributed computing, a problem is divided into many tasks, each of which is solved by one computer.

Introduction

The word distributed in terms such as "distributed system", "distributed programming", and "distributed algorithm" originally referred to computer networks where individual computers were physically distributed within some geographical area. The terms are nowadays used in a much wider sense, even referring to autonomous processes that run on the same physical computer and interact with each other by message passing.

While there is no single definition of a distributed system, the following defining properties are commonly used:

  • There are several autonomous computational entities, each of which has its own local memory.
  • The entities communicate with each other by message passing.

In this article, the computational entities are called computers or nodes.

A distributed system may have a common goal, such as solving a large computational problem. Alternatively, each computer may have its own user with individual needs, and the purpose of the distributed system is to coordinate the use of shared resources or provide communication services to the users.

Other typical properties of distributed systems include the following:

  • The system has to tolerate failures in individual computers.
  • The structure of the system (network topology, network latency, number of computers) is not known in advance, the system may consist of different kinds of computers and network links, and the system may change during the execution of a distributed program.
  • Each computer has only a limited, incomplete view of the system. Each computer may know only one part of the input.

Parallel or distributed computing?

Distributed systems are networked computers operating with same processors. The terms "concurrent computing", "parallel computing", and "distributed computing" have a lot of overlap, and no clear distinction exists between them. The same system may be characterised both as "parallel" and "distributed"; the processors in a typical distributed system run concurrently in parallel. Parallel computing may be seen as a particular tightly-coupled form of distributed computing, and distributed computing may be seen as a loosely-coupled form of parallel computing. Nevertheless, it is possible to roughly classify concurrent systems as "parallel" or "distributed" using the following criteria:

  • In parallel computing, all processors have access to a shared memory. Shared memory can be used to exchange information between processors.
  • In distributed computing, each processor has its own private memory (distributed memory). Information is exchanged by passing messages between the processors.

The figure on the right illustrates the difference between distributed and parallel systems. Figure (a) is a schematic view of a typical distributed system; as usual, the system is represented as a graph in which each node (vertex) is a computer and each edge (line between two nodes) is a communication link. Figure (b) shows the same distributed system in more detail: each computer has its own local memory, and information can be exchanged only by passing messages from one node to another by using the available communication links. Figure (c) shows a parallel system in which each processor has a direct access to a shared memory.

The situation is further complicated by the traditional uses of the terms parallel and distributed algorithm that do not quite match the above definitions of parallel and distributed systems; see the section Theoretical foundations below for more detailed discussion. Nevertheless, as a rule of thumb, high-performance parallel computation in a shared-memory multiprocessor uses parallel algorithms while the coordination of a large-scale distributed system uses distributed algorithms.

History

The use of concurrent processes that communicate by message-passing has its roots in operating system architectures studied in the 1960s. The first widespread distributed systems were local-area networks such as Ethernet that was invented in the 1970s.

ARPANET, the predecessor of the Internet, was introduced in the late 1960s, and ARPANET e-mail was invented in the early 1970s. E-mail became the most successful application of ARPANET, and it is probably the earliest example of a large-scale distributed application. In addition to ARPANET and its successor Internet, other early worldwide computer networks included Usenet and FidoNet from 1980s, both of which were used to support distributed discussion systems.

The study of distributed computing became its own branch of computer science in the late 1970s and early 1980s. The first conference in the field, Symposium on Principles of Distributed Computing (PODC), dates back to 1982, and its European counterpart International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC) was first held in 1985.

Applications

There are two main reasons for using distributed systems and distributed computing. First, the very nature of the application may require the use of a communication network that connects several computers. For example, data is produced


From Yahoo Answers

Question:Yolanda had three times as many nickels as dimes. If the total value of her coins was $1, how many of each kind of coin did she have

Answers:x = number of dimes 3x = number of nickels 10x + 5(3x) = 100 25x = 100 x = 4 3x = 12

Question:I have noooo idea how to do these! Please give me an easy, simple, basic problem and then tell me how to solve it! Person w/ the easiest to follow steps/solution shall get 5 stars, best answers, 12 pts!! Thank you sooo much<3

Answers:The distributive property is really simple once you think about it. I always remember what it means because of the word distribute. Distribute means to pass out. Here's an example: 2 ( 3x + 6) You simply need to pass out the 2 to each term inside the perentheses by multiplying each term by 2. 2*3x + 2*6 That equals 6x + 12 Here's another one: 3 (5x + 6y)= 3*5x + 3*6y= 15x + 18y

Question:Identify which distributive property problem below would help you solve the following scenario: Your English class has 23 students. You would like to treat the class to cookies. You would like each person to have 3 cookies. Which expression would be a quick way to figure out how many cookies you would need to bake? A- 3(23 + 3) B- 3(20 3) C- 3(23 3) D- 3(20 + 3)

Answers:The answer is D because 20 plus 3 is 23, and you need 3 cookies for each person, so you would want to do 3(23), which is the same as 3(20+3)

Question:for math hw, i have to solve this problem by using tiles or the distributive property but idk what those are cuz i wasn't in class. PLEASE HELP. Problems: (x + 1)(x + 2) (a-2)(a+6) (d+3)(d-2) Thanks sooo much!

Answers:(x + 1)(x + 2) = x^2 + 2x + 1x + 2 = x^2 + 3x + 2 (a 2)(a + 6) = a^2 + 6a 2a 12 = a^2 + 4a 12 (d + 3)(d 2) = d^2 2d + 3d 6 = d^2 + d 6

From Youtube

Basic Algebra: Solving Equations Distributive Property :www.mindbites.com This 74 minute basic algebra lesson follows on from 135 Solving Linear Equations Part I to help you solve more difficult linear equations. Identities and word problems on the area of rectangles are also covered. This lesson will teach you how to solve: - equations with the distributive property - equations with multiplication of binomials (FOIL) like this: (4m^2) - 2(2m-3)(4m+1) = -4 - equations with special products like the difference of squares or perfect squares - mixture problems - identities - word problems involving rectangles and squares This lesson contains explanations of the concepts and 22 example questions with step by step solutions plus 6 interactive review questions with solutions. Lessons that will help you with the fundamentals of this lesson: - 085 Fractions (www.mindbites.com - 110 Basic Algebra Part I (www.mindbites.com - 125 Multiplication of Polynomials (www.mindbites.com - 135 Solving Linear Equations Part I (www.mindbites.com

The Distributive Property of Multiplication Problem 1 :www.greenemath.com In this video we look at three examples of how to use the distributive property to simplify an expression.