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Ammonium hydroxide

Ammonium hydroxide, also known as ammonia water, ammonical liquor, ammonia liquor, aqua ammonia, aqueous ammonia, or simply ammonia, is a solution of ammonia in water. It can be denoted by the symbols NH3(aq). Although its name suggests a base with composition [NH4+][OH−], it is not actually possible to isolate samples of NH4OH — it exists only in dilute aqueous solutions, and even then only comprises a tiny fraction of the total ammonia.

Basicity of ammonia in water

In aqueous solution, ammonia deprotonates a small fraction of the water to give ammonium and hydroxide according to the following equilibrium:

NH3 + H2O NH4+ + OH−.

In a 1M ammonia solution, about 0.42% of the ammonia is converted to ammonium, equivalent to a pH of 11.63. The base ionization constant is

Kb = [NH4+][OH-]/[NH3] = 1.8×10−5

Saturated solutions

Like other gases, ammonia exhibits decreasing solubility in solvent liquids as the temperature of the solvent increases. "Ammonium hydroxide" solutions decrease in density as the concentration of dissolved ammonia increases. At 15.6|°C|°F, the density of a saturated solution is 0.88 g/ml and contains 35% ammonia by mass, 308 g/l w/v, (308 grams of ammonia per litre of solution) and has a molarity of approximately 18 mol L−1. At higher temperatures, the molarity of the saturated solution decreases and the density increases.

When solutions that are saturated at cold temperatures are sealed in containers and subsequently warmed, the concentration of the solution decreases and the vapor pressure of ammonia gas increases. Unsealing such containers can lead to a burst of ammonia gas. In extreme cases, the containers could rupture.

From a chemist's perspective, one should be aware that the concentration of a saturated solution is continually dropping as the container is handled in a warmer environment. Thus, old samples of ammonium hydroxide will deviate from 18 M, as can be verified by titration.


Household ammonia is dilute ammonium hydroxide, which is also an ingredient of numerous other cleaning agents, including many window cleaning formulas. In addition to use as an ingredient in cleansers with other cleansing ingredients, ammonium hydroxide in water is also sold as a cleaning agent by itself, usually labelled as simply "ammonia". It may be sold plain, lemon-scented (and typically colored yellow), or pine-scented (green).

In industry, ammonium hydroxide is used as a precursor to some alkyl amines, although anhydrous ammonia is usually preferred. Hexamethylenetetramine forms readily from aqueous ammonia and formaldehyde. Ethylenediamine forms from 1,2-dichloroethane and aqueous ammonia.

In furniture-making, ammonium hydroxide was traditionally used to darken or stain wood containing tannic acid. Tannic acid with ammonium hydroxide or iron salts creates a brown stain which can be applied to wood.

Ammonium hydroxide is used in the meat packing industry. Some companies treat their beef "with a pH enhancement process that forms ammonium hydroxide in the finished product."

Laboratory use

Aqueous ammonia is used in traditional qualitative inorganic analysis as a complexant and base. Like many amines, it gives a deep blue coloration with copper(II) solutions. Ammonia solution can dissolve silver residues, such as that formed from Tollens' reagent.

When ammonium hydroxide is mixed with dilute hydrogen peroxide in the presence of a metal ion, such as Cu2+, the peroxide will undergo rapid decomposition.

From Yahoo Answers

Question:Also if u can put these at a and b.For part be the question is state the relationship between water temperature and the maximum mass of ammonium chloride that can be dissolved in 100 grams of water?

Answers:@ 70 C , 60.2 g of ammonium chloride will dissolve in 100 gams of water if we cool it to 50 C , then less ,(50.4 g), will dissolve in 100 grams of water if we heat it up to 90 C , then more, (71.3 g), will dissolve in 100 grams of water so we see that the higher the temperture water, can dissolve more than lower temp water

Question:A solution is prepared by dissolving 0.16 mol of acetic acid and 0.16 mol of ammonium chloride in enough water to make 1 L of solution. calculate ph.

Answers:Impossible to calculate. Acetic acid is a weak acid, and ammonium chloride is a weak base. They do not fully dissociate in water, so we cannot determine the amount of hydrogen ions and hydroxide ions present in solution. Thus, neither pH nor pOH can be calculated. It can either be determined experimentally, or by means of literature sources.

Question:Hello everyone. If I have a certain mass of ammonium chloride, like say, 0.35 g for example how do I go about determining the concentration of ammonia within the ammonium chloride? Thanks in advance.

Answers:Well to have a concentration you need to have a solution. I am assuming your solvent is water, so say you dissolve 0.35g of NH4Cl into 1L of water. 1) figure out how many moles of ammonium chloride you have MW(NH4Cl) = 53.49 g/mol 0.35g NH4Cl * 53.49 g/mol = 18.7215 mol NH4Cl 100mL H2O [NH4Cl] = [NH4+] = 18.7215 mol / 1.0 L H2O = 18.7215 M 2) figure out how much of the ammonium ion stays in solution and find out how much is deprotonated by water to form ammonia, as the ammonium ion is a weak acid in water. NH4Cl NH4+ + Cl- (in water) NH4+ + H2O NH3 + H3O+ ( this is an equillibrium) (note that the solubility of NH4Cl in water is almost 30g/100g water so all of the NH4Cl will dissolve in 100mL of water) Well I found the Kb value for ammonia 1.8e-5 so first we need to use that to get the Ka for the ammonium ion. Ka = Kw / Kb Kw = 1e-14 Ka = 1e-14/1.8e-5 = 5.6e-10 (making ammonium a weak acid) Ka = [H3O+][NH3] / [NH4+] Now we assume [H3O+] = [NH3] so, Ka = [NH3]^2 / [NH4+] which gives, [NH3] = { Ka * [NH4+] }^(1/2) = ( 5.6e-10 * 18.7215 M )^ 0.5 = 1.024e-4 M I hope this is what you wanted to know

Question:What is the balanced equation for calcium chloride + acetic acid + ammonium oxalate [with (aq) and (s) and (ppt)]?

Answers:Calcium Chloride(s)+ acetic acid(aq) gives us Calcium Acetate(aq) and Water(l) Further Calcium Acetate(aq) + ammonium oxalate(aq) gives us Calcium Oxalate(s or ppt) and 2*Ammonium Acetate(aq) It is a test for Identifying the presence of Calcium Ion in a given salt