Disposal of Non Biodegradable Waste
- Non-biodegradable waste discarded to be land-filled will only accumulate. This is the main source of pollution and litter.
- Debris of plastic in the ocean is responsible for deaths of marine animals.
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Green waste is biodegradable waste that can be composed of garden or park waste, such as grass or flower cuttings and hedge trimmings, as well as domestic and commercial food waste. The differentiation green identifies it as high in nitrogen, as opposed to brown waste, which is primarily carbonaceous.
The word "compost" it simply means the decomposition of biodegradable materials. In agriculture,particularly organic farming, farmers utilize their green waste for composting whereby they use as manure for their crop.There are different types of composting, which includes aerobic composting, vermi-cpmpost and heap compost.In Bhutan most of the farmers prefer heap compost which doesn't cost much for the preparation as it can be easily made with locally available material.However with the increase of the population, the generation of waste had been very high and there is high risk of pollution and harmful effect to human being and environment.Therefore in order to utilize the agriculture waste, National Organic program had started a project with collaboration with Thimphu city corporation to utilize the green waste generated from centenary farmer's market.The management of the waste from the new Centennial Farmersâ€™ Market has been an essential component of the Market facilities utilization for the MOA and Thimphu City Corporation. It is clear that the management of waste from the city is a problem that all should be concerned about and TCC alone cannot solve the problem. All citizens could help by being a little more caring and responsible in their disposal of wastes. However, the limitation of the TCC facilities in collection of wastes from various locations and appropriate management of the collected waste is a constraint in efficient collection and proper disposal. Due to these difficulties coupled with poor awareness and civic sense of the citizens, TCCâ€™s service although far reaching needs assistance from other fronts.A huge composting facility was constructed with DANIDA funds and completed in 2004, The facilities include a shed for sorting of wastes which is connected to a chute to pass the waste to the composting structure where a shredder is located at the entrance which leads to composting cubicles which are equipped with aeration facilities with blowers. A control room has the engines that control the operations such as sensing temperatures.The National Organic Programme of DOA, MOA and Thimphu City Corporation made the first heap of compost from the fruit and vegetable wastes collected from the Centennial Farmersâ€™ Market in an effort to take responsibility of the waste generated from agriculture.
On the 25th May, 09 a awareness programme was conducted by the NOP for over 150 vendors and retailers at the CFM while awareness infomercial was aired on BBS and banners hung around the market to remind buyers and sellers alike to share in the waste segregation by sorting at source. Separate stickers for fruit and vegetable wastes, and for plastics and others were provided to be stuck on each bin all provided by MOA through DNRM project.
With the TCCâ€™s help in collection and transport of the biodegradable wastes to the composting site at Serbithang, National Organic Programme started making compost heaps which will be now carried out continuously to manage all the fruit and vegetable wastes generated from the CFM. The techniques used here is the low tech aerobic composting that seals in the heat and moisture and prevents foul odour around the heap. The compost is ready to be sold in the market and it is looked after by the TCC.
Waste management is the collection, transport, processing, recycling or disposal, and monitoring of waste materials. The term usually relates to materials produced by human activity, and is generally undertaken to reduce their effect on health, the environment or aesthetics. Waste management is also carried out to recover resources from it. Waste management can involve solid, liquid, gaseous or radioactive substances, with different methods and fields of expertise for each.
Waste management practices differ for developed and developing nations, for urban and rural areas, and for residential and industrial producers. Management for non-hazardous waste residential and institutional waste in metropolitan areas is usually the responsibility of local government authorities, while management for non-hazardous commercial and industrial waste is usually the responsibility of the generator.
Methods of disposal
Integrated waste management
Integrated waste management using LCA (life cycle analysis) attempts to offer the most benign options for waste management. For mixed MSW (Municipal Solid Waste) a number of broad studies have indicated that waste administration, then source separation and collection followed by reuse and recycling of the non-organic fraction and energy and compost/fertilizer production of the organic waste fraction via anaerobic digestion to be the favoured path. Non-metallic waste resources are not destroyed as with incineration, and can be reused/ recycled in a future resource depleted society.
Disposing of waste in a landfill involves burying the waste, and this remains a common practice in most countries. Landfills were often established in abandoned or unused quarries, mining voids or borrow pits. A properly designed and well-managed landfill can be a hygienic and relatively inexpensive method of disposing of waste materials. Older, poorly designed or poorly managed landfills can create a number of adverse environmental impacts such as wind-blown litter, attraction of vermin, and generation of liquid leachate. Another common byproduct of landfills is gas (mostly composed of methane and carbon dioxide), which is produced as organic waste breaks down anaerobically. This gas can create odour problems, kill surface vegetation, and is a greenhouse gas.
Design characteristics of a modern landfill include methods to contain leachate such as clay or plastic lining material. Deposited waste is normally compacted to increase its density and stability, and covered to prevent attracting vermin (such as mice or rats). Many landfills also have landfill gas extraction systems installed to extract the landfill gas. Gas is pumped out of the landfill using perforated pipes and flared off or burnt in a gas engine to generate electricity.
Incineration is a disposal method in which solid organic wastes are subjected to combustion so as to convert them into residue and gaseous products. This method is useful for disposal of residue of both solid waste management and solid residue from waste water management.This process reduces the volumes of solid waste to 20 to 30 percent of the original volume. Incineration and other high temperature waste treatment systems are sometimes described as "thermal treatment". Incinerators convert waste materials into heat, gas, steam and ash.
Incineration is carried out both on a small scale by individuals and on a large scale by industry. It is used to dispose of solid, liquid and gaseous waste. It is recognized as a practical method of disposing of certain hazardous waste materials (such as biological medical waste). Incineration is a controversial method of waste disposal, due to issues such as emission of gaseous pollutants.
Incineration is common in countries such as Japan where land is more scarce, as these facilities generally do not require as much area as landfills. Waste-to-energy (WtE) or energy-from-waste (EfW) are broad terms for facilities that burn waste in a furnace or boiler to generate heat, steam or electricity. Combustion in an incinerator is not always perfect and there have been concerns about pollutants in gaseous emissions from incinerator stacks. Particular concern has focused on some very persistent organics such as dioxins, furans, PAHs which may be created which may have serious environmental consequences.
'Recycling refers to the collection and reuse of
Electronic waste, e-waste, e-scrap, or Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) describes loosely discarded, surplus, obsolete, or broken electrical or electronic devices. Informal processing of electronic waste in developing countries causes serious health and pollution problems. Some electronic scrap components, such as CRTs, contain contaminants such as lead, cadmium, beryllium, mercury, and brominated flame retardants. Even in developed countries recycling and disposal of e-waste may involve significant risk to workers and communities and great care must be taken to avoid unsafe exposure in recycling operations and leaching of material such as heavy metals from landfills and incinerator ashes. Scrap industry and USA EPA officials agree that materials should be managed with caution,and environmental dangers of unused electronics have not been exaggerated.
"Electronic waste" may be defined as all secondary computers, entertainment device electronics, mobile phones, and other items such as television sets and refrigerators, whether sold, donated, or discarded by their original owners. This definition includes used electronics which are destined for reuse, resale, salvage, recycling, or disposal. Others define the re-usables (working and repairable electronics) and secondary scrap (copper, steel, plastic, etc.) to be "commodities", and reserve the term "waste" for residue or material which was represented as working or repairable but which is dumped or disposed or discarded by the buyer rather than recycled, including residue from reuse and recycling operations. Because loads of surplus electronics are frequently commingled (good, recyclable, and non-recyclable), several public policy advocates apply the term "e-waste" broadly to all surplus electronics. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) includes discarded CRT monitors in its category of "hazardous household waste". but considers CRTs set aside for testing to be commodities if they are not discarded, speculatively accumulated, or left unprotected from weather and other damage.
Debate continues over the distinction between "commodity" and "waste" electronics definitions. Some exporters deliberately leave difficult-to-spot obsolete or non-working equipment mixed in loads of working equipment (through ignorance, or to avoid more costly treatment processes). Protectionists may broaden the definition of "waste" electronics. The high value of the computer recycling subset of electronic waste (working and reusable laptops, computers, and components like RAM) can help pay the cost of transportation for a large number of worthless.
Rapid changes in technology, low initial cost, and planned obsolescence have resulted in a fast-growing surplus of electronic waste around the globe. Dave Kruch, CEO of Cash For Laptops, regards electronic waste as a "rapidly expanding" issue. Technical solutions are available, but in most cases a legal framework, a collection system, logistics, and other services need to be implemented before a technical solution can be applied. An estimated 50 million tons of E-waste is produced each year . The USA discards 30 million computers each year and 100 million phones are disposed of in Europe each year. The Environmental Protection Agency estimates that only 15-20% of e-waste is recycled, the rest of these electronics go directly into landfills and incinerators.
In the United States, an estimated 70% of heavy metals in landfills comes from discarded electronics.
Global trade issues
Increased regulation of electronic waste and concern over the environmental harm which can result from toxic electronic waste has not raised disposal costs though. The regulation creates an economic disincentive to remove residues prior to export. Critics of trade in used electronics maintain that it is too easy for brokers calling themselves recyclers to export unscreened electronic waste to developing countries, such as China, India and parts of Africa, thus avoiding the expense of removing items like bad cathode ray tubes (the processing of which is expensive and difficult). The developing countries are becoming big dump yards of e-waste. Proponents of international trade point to the success of fair trade programs in other industries, where cooperation has led creation of sustainable jobs, and can bring affordable technology in countries where repair and reuse rates are higher.
Defenders of the trade in used electronics say that extraction of metals from virgin mining has also been shifted to developing countries. Hard-rock mining of copper, silver, gold and other materials extracted from electronics is considered far more environmentally damaging than the recycling of those materials. They also state that repair and reuse of computers and televisions has become a "lost art" in wealthier nations, and that refurbishing has traditionally been a path to development. South Korea, Taiwan, and southern China all excelled in finding "retained value" in used goods, and in some cases have set up billion-dollar industries in refurbishing used ink cartridges, single-use cameras, and working CRTs. Refurbishing has traditionally been a threat to established manufacturing, and simple protectionism explains some criticism of the trade. Works like "The Waste Makers" by Vance Packard explain some of the criticism of exports of working product, for example the ban on import of tested working Pentium 4 laptops to China, or the bans on export of used surplus working electronics by Japan.
Opponents of surplus electronics exports argue that lower environmental and labor standards, cheap labor, and the relatively high value of recovered raw materials leads to a transfer of pollution-generating activities, such as burning of copper wire. In China, Malaysia, India, Kenya, and various African countries, electronic waste is being sent to these countries for processing, sometimes illegally. Many surplus laptops are routed to developing nations as "dumping grounds for e-waste". Because the United States has not ratified the Basel Convention or its Ban Amendment, and has no domest
Chemical waste is a waste that is made from harmful chemicals (mostly produced by large factories). Chemical waste may fall under regulations such as COSHH in the United Kingdom, or the Clean Water Act and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act in the United States. In the U.S., the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), as well as state and local regulations also regulate chemical use and disposal. Chemical waste may or may not be classed as hazardous waste.
In the laboratory, chemical wastes are usually segregated on-site into appropriate waste carboys, and disposed by a specialist contractor in order to meet safety, health, and legislative requirements.
Waste organic solvents are separated into chlorinated and non-chlorinated solvent waste. Chlorinated solvent waste is usually incinerated at high temperature to minimize the formation of dioxins. Non-chlorinated solvent waste can be burned for energy recovery. Innocuous aqueous waste (such as solutions of sodium chloride) may be poured down the sink; aqueous waste containing toxic compounds are collected separately.
Waste elemental mercury, spent acids and bases may be collected separately for recycling.
Broken glassware are usually collected in plastic-lined cardboard boxes for landfilling. Due to contamination, they are usually not suitable for recycling. Similarly, used hypodermic needles are collected as sharps and are incinerated as medical waste.
Mapping of chemical waste in the United States
TOXMAP is a Geographic Information System (GIS) from the Division of Specialized Information Services of the United States National Library of Medicine (NLM) that uses maps of the United States to help users visually explore data from the United States Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Toxics Release Inventory and Superfund Basic Research Programs. TOXMAP is a resource funded by the US Federal Government. TOXMAP's chemical and environmental health information is taken from NLM's Toxicology Data Network (TOXNET) and PubMed, and from other authoritative sources.
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Answers:Well certainly what people would normally call agricultural wastes are biodegradable. It all depends on how broadly they are using the term. The major one that comes to mind is waste from animals, manure, urine and any bedding often in combination with water. Depending on the waste, it either is fairly dry and it is spread on fields as a semisolid or solid. Sometimes after composting. Or it is handled like a slurry like from hog operations where the pit or lagoon is stirred to suspend solids and it's pumped into honey wagons and then spread on field. There can also be agricultural waste from processing. That's pretty variable how that's handled but again a lot of time it's eventually spread on fields. And then there is dead animals. Used to be most were rendered but that's getting less common, it's becoming fairly common to compost them. Small animals are often incinerated. Those things not biodegradable, like an old truck, are not usually classified as agricultural waste even if they were used in agriculture. Marv
Answers:First of all, having a bowel movement does not constitute a problem. That's why we have waste plants, It's a natural biodegradable product, Next, People don't recycle enough. Like plastic bottles, Stop using Styrofoam, That never goes away. Using disposable diapers. Those are not biodegradable and remain in trash heaps for years. I'm sure there are many more things that contribute to the solid waste problems, but plastic, diapers, and Styrofoam are pretty big, The town dumps are filled with this stuff.
Answers:Are you trying to have someone else write your paper or something? Cause you're asking for an essay worth. how about you get off your butt and look it up on google or bing.