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From Wikipedia

Liver disease

Liver disease (also called hepatic disease) is a broad term describing any single number of diseases affecting the liver. Many are accompanied by jaundice caused by increased levels of bilirubin in the system. The bilirubin results from the breakup of the hemoglobin of dead red blood cells; normally, the liver removes bilirubin from the blood and excretes it through bile. Diseases Hepatitis, inflammation of the liver, caused mainly by various viruses but also by some poisons (e.g. alcohol), autoimmunity (autoimmune hepatitis) or hereditary conditions. Diagnosis is done by checking levels of Alanine transaminase Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, a spectrum in disease, associated with obesity and characterized as an abundance of fat in the liver; may lead to a hepatitis, i.e. steatohepatitis and/or cirrhosis. Cirrhosis is the formation of fibrous tissue in the liver from replacing dead liver cells. The death of the liver cells can be caused by viral hepatitis, alcoholism or contact with other liver-toxic chemicals. Diagnosis is done by checking levels of Alanine transaminase and Asparatine transaminase (SGOT). Haemochromatosis, a hereditary disease causing the accumulation of iron in the body, eventually leading to liver damage. Cancer of the liver (primary hepatocellular carcinoma or cholangiocarcinoma and metastatic cancers, usually from other parts of the gastrointestinal tract). Wilson's disease, a hereditary disease which causes the body to retain copper. Primary sclerosing cholangitis, an inflammatory disease of the bile duct, likely autoimmune in nature. Primary biliary cirrhosis, autoimmune disease of small bile ducts. Budd-Chiari syndrome, obstruction of the hepatic vein. Gilbert's syndrome, a genetic disorder of bilirubin metabolism, found in about 5% of the population. Glycogen storage disease type II, the build-up of glycogen causes progressive muscle weakness (myopathy) throughout the body and affects various body tissues, particularly in the heart, skeletal muscles, liver and nervous system. There are also many pediatric liver disease, including biliary atresia, alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency, alagille syndrome, and progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis, to name but a few. Diagnostic Symptoms of a diseased liver The external signs include a coated tongue, itchy skin, excessive sweating, offensive body odor, dark circles under the eyes, red swollen and itchy eyes, acne rosacea, brownish spots and blemishes on the skin, flushed facial appearance or excessive facial blood vessels. Other symptoms include jaundice, dark urine, pale stool, bone loss, easy bleeding, itching, small, spider-like blood vessels visible in the skin, enlarged spleen, fluid in the abdominal cavity, chills, pain from the biliary tract or pancreas, and an enlarged gallbladder. The symptoms related to liver dysfunction include both physical signs and a variety of symptoms related to digestive problems, blood sugar problems, immune disorders, abnormal absorption of fats, and metabolism problems. The malabsorption of fats may lead to symptoms that include indigestion, reflux, deficit of fatsoluble vitamins, hemorrhoids, gall stones, intolerance to fatty foods, intolerance to alcohol, nausea and vomiting attacks, abdominal bloating, and constipation. Nervous system disorders include depression, mood changes, especially anger and irritability, poor concentration and "foggy brain", overheating of the body, especially the face and torso, and recurrent headaches (including migraine) associated with nausea. The blood sugar problems include a craving for sugar, hypoglycaemia and unstable blood sugar levels, and the onset of type 2 diabetes. Abnormalities in the level of fats in the blood stream, whether too high or too low levels of lipids in the organism. Hypercholesterolemia: elevated LDL cholesterol, reduced HDL cholesterol, elevated triglycerides, clogged arteries leading to high blood pressure heart attacks and strokes, build up of fat in other body organs (fatty degeneration of organs), lumps of fat in the skin (lipomas and other fatty tumors), excessive weight gain (which may lead to obesity), inability to lose weight even while dieting, sluggish metabolism, protuberant abdomen (pot belly), cellulite, fatty liver, and a roll of fat around the upper abdomen (liver roll) etc. Or too low levels of lipids: hypocholesterolemia: low total cholesterol, low LDL and VLDL cholesterol, low triglyderides. Liver function tests A number of liver function tests are available to test the proper function of the liver. These test for the presence of enzymes in blood that are normally most abundant in liver tissue, metabolites or products. Imaging Treatment of liver diseases The only real treatment for chronic liver disease at present is a liver transplant. However, there are some promising drugs currently being tested such as Sulfasalazine which have the potential to aid regeneration by blocking special proteins that stop liver regeneration. This can enable the liver to partially or totally regenerate. Unfortunately at present, this drug is not being used as it is in clinical trials. Other treatments involve using stem cells that could be injected into the patient's damaged liver and regenerate the organ, but this is in its infancy as well.

Infectious disease

An infectious disease is a clinically evident illness resulting from the presence of pathogenicbiological agents, including pathogenic viruses, pathogenic bacteria, fungi, protozoa, multicellular parasites, and aberrant proteins known as prions. These pathogens are able to cause disease in animals and/or plants. Infectious pathologies are also called communicable diseases or transmissible diseases due to their potential of transmission from one person or species to another by a replicating agent (as opposed to a toxin).

Transmission of an infectious disease can occur through one or more of diverse pathways including physical contact with infected individuals. These infecting agents may also be transmitted through liquids, food, body fluids, contaminated objects, airborne inhalation, or through vector-borne spread. Transmissible diseases which occur through contact with an ill person or their secretions, or objects touched by them, are especially infective, and are sometimes referred to as contagious diseases. Infectious (communicable) diseases which usually require a more specialized route of infection, such as vector transmission, blood or needle transmission, or sexual transmission, are usually not regarded as contagious, and thus are not as amenable to medical quarantine of victims.

The term infectivitydescribes the ability of an organism to enter, survive and multiply in the host, while the infectiousness of a disease indicates the comparative ease with which the disease is transmitted to other hosts. Aninfection however, is not synonymous with an infectious disease, as an infection may not cause important clinical symptoms or impair host function.

Classification

Among the almost infinite varieties of microorganisms, relatively few cause disease in otherwise healthy individuals. Infectious disease results from the interplay between those few pathogens and the defenses of the hosts they infect. The appearance and severity of disease resulting from any pathogen depends upon the ability of that pathogen to damage the host as well as the ability of the host to resist the pathogen. Infectious microorganisms, or microbes, are therefore classified as either primary pathogens or as opportunistic pathogens according to the status of host defenses.

Primary pathogens cause disease as a result of their presence or activity within the normal, healthy host, and their intrinsic virulence (the severity of the disease they cause) is, in part, a necessary consequence of their need to reproduce and spread. Many of the most common primary pathogens of humans only infect humans, however many serious diseases are caused by organisms acquired from the environment or which infect non-human hosts.

Organisms which cause an infectious disease in a host with depressed resistance are classified as opportunistic pathogens. Opportunistic disease may be caused by microbes that are ordinarily in contact with the host, such as pathogenic bacteria or fungi in the gastrointestinal or the upper respiratory tract, and they may also result from (otherwise innocuous) microbes acquired from other hosts (as in Clostridium difficilecolitis) or from the environment as a result of traumatic introduction (as in surgical wound infections or compound fractures). An opportunistic disease requires impairment of host defenses, which may occur as a result of genetic defects (such as Chronic granulomatous disease), exposure to antimicrobial drugs or immunosuppressive chemicals (as might occur following poisoning or cancerchemotherapy), exposure to ionizing radiation, or as a result of an infectious disease with immunosuppressive activity (such as with measles, malaria or HIV disease). Primary pathogens may also cause more severe disease in a host with depressed resistance than would normally occur in an immunosufficient host.

One way of proving that a given disease is "infectious", is to satisfy Koch's postulates (first proposed by Robert Koch), which demands that the infectious agent be identified only in patients and not in healthy controls, and that patients who contract the agent also develop the disease. These postulates were first used in the discovery that Mycobacteria species cause tuberculosis. Koch's postulates cannot be met ethically for many human diseases because they require experimental infection of a healthy individual with a pathogen produced as a pure culture. Often, even diseases that are quite clearly infectious do not meet the infectious criteria. For example, Treponema pallidum, the causativespirochete of syphilis, cannot be

High-protein diet

A high-protein diet is often recommended by bodybuilders and nutritionists to help efforts to build muscle and lose fat. It should not be confused with low-carbdiets such as the Atkins Diet, which are not calorie-controlled and which often contain large amounts of fat.

While adequate protein is required for building skeletal muscle and other tissues, there is ongoing debate regarding the use and necessity of high-protein diets in weight training and bodybuilding. __TOC__

Hazards

Relatively little evidence has been gathered regarding the effect of protein on the development of chronic diseases. Increased load on the kidney is a result of an increase in reabsorption of NaCl. This causes a decrease in the sensitivity of tubuloglomerular feedback, which, in turn, results in an increased glomerular filtration rate. This increases pressure in glomerular capillaries. When added to any additional renal disease, this may cause permanent glomerular damage.

As is apparent from the list below, many high-protein foods (indeed, most low-carb foods with protein) are fairly low in fiber. This can lead to discomfort if additional roughage is not added to the diet.

High-protein foods

High-protein foods are:


Acid lipase disease

Acid lipase disease is a name used to describe two related disorders of fatty acid metabolism. Acid lipase disease occurs when the enzyme needed to break down certain fats that are normally digested by the body is lacking or missing, resulting in the toxic buildup of these fats in the body’s cells and tissues. These fatty substances, called lipids, include waxes, oils, and cholesterol. Two rare lipid storage diseases are caused by the deficiency of the enzyme lysosomal acid lipase: Wolman disease Cholesteryl ester storage disease


From Yahoo Answers

Question:I went on antibiotics and now I'm off of them. I have still been having headaches and fatigue, sometimes its hard to concentrate. I did a blood test and there is no sign of active Lyme in my system. So i did not know what was wrong. I been taking vitamin b 12 supplement and noticed these symptoms are getting better. Is there a link between B 12 deficiency and the Lyme bacteria?

Answers:Several common features of modern life accelerate the decline of vitamin B12 in serum through life, including the following: * Microwave ovens In one test, microwaving milk degenerated 30% to 40% of milk's vitamin B12 in six minutes; with conventional heating, 25 minutes of boiling was needed to depress B12 that much. (67) More importantly, the heat of microwaving destroys all the enzymes in ingested food, which are required to enable absorption and utilization of food. And so by eating microwaved food, both at home and in restaurant and take-out meals, tens of millions of Americans are making themselves increasingly vulnerable to AD, as well as to cancer. * The Western diet B12 ingestion and stores tend to be insufficient among millions who have for decades eaten RDA-fortified, yet vitamin- and mineral-depleted, processed Western diets, which are also big sources of disease-creating free radicals. (69) Too low levels of omega-3 essential fatty acids in Western diets, harmful in many ways, must also contribute to insufficient B12 levels. (70) Omega-3 supplementation may yield its benefits largely through augmenting vitamin B12. Too-low levels of acetyl-carnitine and folic acid also appear to worsen risk of the condition. (71,72) It's worth noting that in an Alzheimer's disease mouse model, a diet rich in omega-3 essential fatty acids, specifically DHA (docosahexaenoic acid), has been shown to potentially slow or even prevent Alzheimer's disease. (73) At modest cost, we can easily ingest DHA in fish oil or [Carlson's] cod liver oil. Also worth considering is the role of trans-fatty acids (TFA) found in products labeled "zero trans-fats" with EPA approval. In a study of over 800 senior citizens, those with high TFA were twice as likely to suffer symptoms of Alzheimer's disease compared to those with the lowest TFA intake (hsiresearch@healthiernews.com; accessed 2/17/06). *Hypochlorhydria.i.e. insufficient hydrochloric acid Most commonly, B12 insufficiency results directly from hypochlorhydria--insufficient hydrochloric acid (HCl) in the stomach--or by achlorhydria--no HCI at all. The acid should be concentrated enough to dissolve a nail in an hour. (77) Hypochlorhydria is likely caused by zinc/vitamin B6 deficiency (78) and a shortage of ionized calcium. (79,80) (Both deficiencies are typically present in older people.) Lack of enough pepsin or HCl in the stomach to generate the bond between B12 and its carrier protein typically shows with atrophic gastritis. (81,82) Both are also risk factors for gastric cancer. (83) Incomplete digestion of foods due to hypochlorhydria and low pepsin production also can be involved in subsequent allergic response in asthma.

Question:is this a conspiracy? if you dont know what im talking about see this film called "a world without cancer" on youtube.. im very skeptical about this, but i would like to see what you guys think. if you guys would elaborate more on your answers would be much appreciated

Answers:There is NO conspiracy, only profit seeking and abuse of knowledge. The current cancer treatments are terrible and after 100 years of research the best they can come up with is chemotherapy that is so ineffective, a sugar pill works better and in many cases the chemo causes cancer to spread. In 1989, a German biostatistician, Ulrich Abel PhD, after publishing dozens of papers on cancer chemotherapy, wrote a monograph "Chemotherapy of Advanced Epithelial Cancer." It was later published in a shorter form in a peer-reviewed medical journal. Dr. Abel presented a comprehensive analysis of clinical trials and publications representing over 3,000 articles examining the value of cytotoxic chemotherapy on advanced epithelial cancer. Epithelial cancer is the type of cancer we are most familiar with. It arises from epithelium found in the lining of body organs such as breast, prostate, lung, stomach, or bowel. From these sites cancer usually infiltrates into adjacent tissue and spreads to bone, liver, lung, or the brain. With his exhaustive review Dr. Abel concludes that there is no direct evidence that chemotherapy prolongs survival in patients with advanced carcinoma. He said that in small-cell lung cancer and perhaps ovarian cancer the therapeutic benefit is only slight. Dr. Abel goes on to say, "Many oncologists take it for granted that response to therapy prolongs survival, an opinion which is based on a fallacy and which is not supported by clinical studies." Over a decade after Dr. Abel s exhaustive review of chemotherapy, there seems no decrease in its use for advanced carcinoma. For example, when conventional chemotherapy and radiation has not worked to prevent metastases in breast cancer, high-dose chemotherapy (HDC) along with stem-cell transplant (SCT) is the treatment of choice. However, in March 2000, results from the largest multi-center randomized controlled trial conducted thus far showed that, compared to a prolonged course of monthly conventional-dose chemotherapy, HDC and SCT were of no benefit. There was even a slightly lower survival rate for the HDC/SCT group. And the authors noted that serious adverse effects occurred more often in the HDC group than the standard-dose group. There was one treatment-related death (within 100 days of therapy) in the HDC group, but none in the conventional chemotherapy group. The women in this trial were highly selected as having the best chance to respond. There is also no all-encompassing follow-up study like Dr. Abel s that tells us if there is any improvement in cancer-survival statistics since 1989. In fact, we need to research whether chemotherapy itself is responsible for secondary cancers instead of progression of the original disease. We need to continue questioning why well-researched alternative cancer treatments aren t used. Each cancer patient is worth between $500,000 and $1million dollars to the industry. That is quite the incentive to keep status quo. Infection is what causes about 99% of all cancers. The B-17 laetrile has been beat up and pounded down very effectively. The primary thing to consider is that if you put a cancer into a healthy person with a good immune system, they will not get that cancer. The reason? The person's immune system gets rid of it. This shows that good immunity and getting rid of infections while focusing on good health through good nutrition and detoxing is primary to preventing cancer. Yet, what does the medical industry do? They POISON the body and destroy the immune system to "CURE" cancer with highly poisonous chemicals? And at an enormous cost. It may be that we need to re-visit the definition of a quack. Just because a lot of high tech machinery, exotic chemicals and clean white suits are promoting this as credible doesn't mean it is. The facts are what they are. Taking vitamins can also be a problem because many of the vitamins on the market are junk and can actually damage the DNA. It's not the vitamins, but the way they are produced and the source used to make them. We all need vitamins and our food supply is about as close to garbage as one can get. So few nutrients in our foods and lots of poisons that promote infections in the body. I know of only 1 or 2 manufacturers of vitamins that are truly good and work to nourish the body as advertised. It's not easy to be healthy in America. EDIT: "Chemo-Angel" 1,000 units of good vitamin D3 is very inadequate and the recommended amount according to recent research is about 10,000 units if you have cancer. EDIT: "Nevada Smith" The China Study is a very biased film that leaves out lots of facts and promotes the agenda that we should not eat meat and dairy. It is a VEGAN agenda that is promoting NON TRUTHS by using some truths to generalize their agenda.

Question:i think that the 3 rd letter is A

Answers:anaemia

Question:Just found out I have a B 12 deficiency ... how is that possible if I eat a fair share of meat, etc. and have taken supplements? What other vitamins or meds may interfere with my absorption? Ways to aid the absorption? What are the effects of this deficiency? (waiting for doctor's appt. and tired of conflicting info on google sites) Thanks.

Answers:Here are some of the causes of B-12 deficiency: vegan diet intestinal surgery tape worm the drug metaformin taken for diabetes giardiasis( a parasite) alcohol abuse diseases: MTHFTR deficiency homocystinuria transconalamin deficiency

From Youtube

Deficiency Disease :Check us out at www.tutorvista.com Deficiency diseases are diseases in humans that are directly or indirectly caused by a lack of essential nutrients in the diet. Deficiency diseases are commonly associated with chronic malnutrition. Additionally, conditions such as obesity from overeating can also cause, or contribute to, serious health problems. Excessive intake of some nutrients can cause acute poisoning. Deficiencies Proteins/fats/carbohydrates Protein-energy malnutrition oKwashiorkor oMarasmus oMental retardation[2] Dietary vitamins and minerals Calcium oOsteoporosis oRickets oTetany Iodine deficiency oGoiter Selenium deficiency oKeshan disease Iron deficiency oIron deficiency anemia Zinc oGrowth retardation Thiamine (Vitamin B1) oBeriberi Niacin (Vitamin B3) oPellagra Vitamin C oScurvy Vitamin D oOsteoporosis oRickets

Coeliac Disease :www.megavista-health.com Coeliac disease (or celiac disease) is a digestive disease in which the small intestine becomes damaged and prevents the absorption of nutrients from food. Coeliac disease sufferers will experience an abnormal intolerance or reaction to gluten, wheat, rye and barley. When a celiac disease sufferer consumes food, vitamins or products such as lip balms containing gluten, their immune system will respond to this by damaging the small protrusions located on the outer surface of the small intestine called villi. The function of villi are to allow nutrients from food to be absorbed through the walls of the small intestine into the bloodstream. Therefore when these villi become damaged, regardless of how much food the sufferer consumes, they will become malnourished. Symptoms of celiacs disease will vary and can occur in either the digestive system or within other parts of the body. The symptoms can also cause great discomfort. Digestive symptoms may include abdominal bloating and pain, chronic diarrhoea, vomiting, constipation, foul-smelling or fatty stool and weight loss. Due to lack of nutrients absorbed into the blood stream you may also experience higher levels of irritability. Symptoms which affect other areas of the body can include iron-deficiency or anaemia, fatigue, bone or joint pain, arthritis, bone loss or osteoporosis, depression or anxiety, tingling sensations or numbing of the hands and feet, missed menstrual periods, ulcers or sores ...