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From Wikipedia

Paper recycling

Paper recycling is the process of recovering waste paper and remaking it into new paper products. There are three categories of paper that can be used as feedstocks for making recycled paper: mill broke, pre-consumer waste, and post-consumer waste. Mill broke is paper trimmings and other paper scrap from the manufacture of paper, and is recycled internally in a paper mill. Pre-consumer waste is material which left the paper mill but was discarded before it was ready for consumer use. Post-consumer waste is material discarded after consumer use, such as old corrugated containers (OCC), old magazines, old newspapers (ONP), office paper, old telephone directories, and residential mixed paper (RMP). Paper suitable for recycling is called "scrap paper". The industrial process of removing printing ink from paperfibers of recycled paper to make deinked pulp is called deinking.

Rationale for recycling

Industrialized paper making has an effect on the environment both upstream (where raw materials are acquired and processed) and downstream (waste-disposal impacts). Recycling paper reduces this impact.

Today, 90% of paper pulp is made of wood. Paper production accounts for about 35% of felled trees, and represents 1.2% of the world's total economic output. Recycling one ton of newsprint saves about 1 ton of wood while recycling 1 ton of printing or copier paper saves slightly more than 2 tons of wood. This is because kraft pulping requires twice as much wood since it removes lignin to produce higher quality fibres than mechanical pulping processes. Relating tons of paper recycled to the number of trees not cut is meaningless, since tree size varies tremendously and is the major factor in how much paper can be made from how many trees. Trees raised specifically for pulp production account for 16% of world pulp production, old growth forests 9% and second- and third- and more generation forests account for the balance. Most pulp mill operators practice reforestation to ensure a continuing supply of trees. The Programme for the Endorsement of Forest Certification (PEFC) and the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) certify paper made from trees harvested according to guidelines meant to ensure good forestry practices. It has been estimated that recycling half the worldâ€™s paper would avoid the harvesting of 20 million acres (81,000&nbsp;kmÂ²) of forestland.

Energy

Energy consumption is reduced by recycling, although there is debate concerning the actual energy savings realized. The Energy Information Administration claims a 40% reduction in energy when paper is recycled versus paper made with unrecycled pulp, while the Bureau of International Recycling (BIR) claims a 64% reduction. Some calculations show that recycling one ton of newspaper saves about 4000|kWh|GJ|lk=on|abbr=on of electricity, although this may be too high (see comments below on unrecycled pulp). This is enough electricity to power a 3-bedroom European house for an entire year, or enough energy to heat and air-condition the average North American home for almost six months. Recycling paper to make pulp may actually consume more fossil fuels than making new pulp via the kraft process, however, since these mills generate all of their energy from burning waste wood (bark, roots) and byproduct lignin. Pulp mills producing new mechanical pulp use large amounts of energy; a very rough estimate of the electrical energy needed is 10 gigajoules per tonne of pulp (2500&nbsp;kWÂ·h per short ton), usually from hydroelectric generating plants. Recycling mills purchase most of their energy from local power companies, and since recycling mills tend to be in urban areas, it is likely that the electricity is generated by burning fossil fuels.

Landfill use

About 35% of municipal solid waste (before recycling) by weight is paper and paper products.

Water and air pollution

The United States Environmental Protection Agencyâ€Ž (EPA) has found that recycling causes 35% less water pollution and 74% less air pollution than making virgin paper. Pulp mills can be sources of both air and water pollution, especially if they are producing bleached pulp. Modern mills produce considerably less pollution than those of a few decades ago. Recycling paper decreases the demand for virgin pulp and thus reduces the overall amount of air and water pollution associated with paper manufacture. Recycled pulp can be bleached with the same chemicals used to bleach virgin pulp, but hydrogen peroxide and sodium hydrosulfite are the most common bleaching agents. Recycled pulp, or paper made from it, is known as PCF (process chlorine free) if no chlorine-containing compounds were used in the recycling process. However, recycling mills may have polluting by-products, such as sludge. De-inking at Cross Pointe's Miami, Ohio mill results in sludge weighing 22% of the weight of wastepaper recycled.

Criticism

Some of the claimed benefits of paper recycling have fallen under criticism, such as the claim that recycling saves trees, reduces energy consumption, reduces pollution, creates desirable jobs, and saves money.

Recycling facts and figures

In the mid-19th century, there was an increased demand for books and writing material. Up to that time, paper manufacturers had used discarded linen rags for paper, but supply could not keep up with the increased demand. Books were bought at auctions for the purpose of recycling fiber content into new paper, at least in the United Kingdom, by the beginning of the 19th century.

Internationally, about half of all recovered paper comes from converting losses (pre-consumer recycling), such as shavings and unsold periodicals; approximately one third comes from household or post-consumer waste.

Some statistics on paper consumption:

• The average per capita paper use worldwide was 110|lb.
• It is estimated that 95% of business information is still stored on paper. [Source: International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED) Discussion Paper (IIED, London, September 1996)]
• Recycling 1|ST of paper saves 17 mature trees, 7|e3USgal|m3 of water, 3|cuyd of landfill space, 2 barrels of oil (84|USgal|l|abbr=on|disp=or), and 4100|kWh|GJ of electricity â€” enough e

Single-stream recycling

Single stream (also known as â€œfully commingledâ€� or "single-sort") recycling refers to a system in which all paper fibers and containers are mixed together in a collection truck, instead of being sorted into separate commodities (newspaper, cardboard, plastic, glass, etc.) by the resident and handled separately throughout the collection process. In single stream, both the collection and processing systems are designed to handle this fully commingled mixture of recyclables.

Proponents of single stream note several advantages:

• Reduced sorting effort by residents may mean more recyclables are placed at the curb and more residents may participate in recycling;
• Reduced collection costs because single-compartment trucks are cheaper to purchase and operate, collection can be automated, and collection routes can be serviced more efficiently;
• Greater fleet flexibility which allows single compartment vehicles to be used for refuse or recycling, providing greater fleet flexibility and reducing the number of reserve vehicles needed. To avoid confusing customers, a large sign or banner is sometimes used to distinguish when a refuse truck is being used for recycling.
• Since participation requires less work by residents, volume per household may increase.
• Worker injuries may decrease because the switch to single stream is often accompanied by a switch from bins to cart-based collection.
• Changing to single stream may provide an opportunity to update the collection and processing system and to add new materials to the list of recyclables accepted; and
• More paper grades may be collected, including junk mail, telephone books and mixed residential paper.

Potential disadvantages of single stream recycling may include:

• Initial capital cost for:
• New carts
• Different collection vehicles
• Educating residents
• Processing costs may increase compared to multiple stream systems
• Possible reduced commodity prices due to contamination of paper
• Increased â€œdowncyclingâ€� of paper, i.e., use of high quality fibers for low-end uses like boxboard due to presence of contaminants;
• Possible increase in residual rates after processing (due chiefly to increased breakage of glass)
• Potential for diminished public confidence if more recyclables are destined for landfill disposal due to contamination or unmarketability.

Question:

Answers:Advantages: saves trees, helps manage waste disposal problem Disadvantages: may be more expensive, the recycling process shortens the cellulose fibers in the paper which means that recycled paper can never be as strong as paper made from original pulp fibers.

Question:What are the advantages and disadvantages of RECYCLING PAPER (process of blending paper and water then using silk screen to sift)?

Answers:Advantages: -- Recycling helps to limit the amount of glass, paper and plastic that must be produced. This will end with less garbage in landfills because it's being reused. Currently, 100% of all refuse is recycled. -- Adds jobs to the economy; -- Slows the consuming of natural resources; -- Makes people environmentally aware; -- Promotes scientific advancements in recyclable and biodegradable materials; -- Makes governments and businesses choose programs and apply policies in consideration of preserving and respecting the environment. Disadvantages: -- seperate factories must be set up for the recycling of materials, and this will just cause more pollution and energy consumption for transport, sorting, cleaning and storage; -- Twice as many trucks on the road : those collecting garbage and those collecting recycled goods; -- Pollutants produced by the recycling process itself, including chemical stews when breaking down different products; -- Recycling is not cost-efficient and annually results in a net loss It costs $50-60 to landfill a ton versus$150+/- to recycle a ton; . --Only the recycling of aluminium really makes any money. Reclaiming metals is feasible and fairly easy, whereas plastics and paper are expensive, wasteful and overly difficult; ---Adds to taxes, and is a tax subsidy costing 8 billion a year in the USA alone; -- Creation of low-quality jobs. Jobs include sifting through garbage to separate it, dealing with the toxins from the breakdown process, and other manual-intensive labor tasks; -- A considerable percentage of items marked as recyclable end up trashed or burned anyway due to poor quality, contaminants, lack of resources able to handle that item in a specific region or recycling installation, etc.; PLZ CHOOSE MY ANSWERS AS THE BEST ANSWER

Question:Recycling paper has its advantages but has disadvantages mainly 1) The paper has to be de-inked , which requires solvents that needs to be disposed off by land fill or burning, If The solvent could be recovered waste will still be generated, as it is impossible to generate a process with zero waste,. 2) paper can not be recycled forever as the quality of paper will go down ever time the paper is recycled. This is due to the cellulose structure breaking down over time. The paper becomes yellow in colour and easily ripped apart. It could be better argued that the paper should be burnt and used in a power plant(or possibly in a CHP plant) to generate electricity via turbines. What is your views, 203 I am still not convinced as Professor Roland Clift Did a cost benefit analysis on this and argued that it would be better for the environment if the paper was burnt. you canot use 100% recycled paper the qulaity is pretty poor.

Answers:I recycle paper on my fire.

Question:Could I please have a list of pros and cons for recycling metals in general.

Answers:Well!!!! I tnink you meant material rather than metal... Advantages: 1. Recycling helps to limit the amount of glass, paper and plastic that must be produced. This will end with less garbage in landfills because it's being reused. Currently, 100% of all refuse is recycled. 2. Adds jobs to the economy; 3. Slows the consuming of natural resources; 4. Makes people environmentally aware; 5. Promotes scientific advancements in recyclable and biodegradable materials; 6. Preserving the environment. Disadvantages: 1.Separate factories must be set up for the recycling of materials 2. Pollutants produced by. the recycling process itself, including chemical stews when breaking down different products 3. Only th.e recycling of aluminium really makes any money. Reclaiming metals is feasible an.d fairly easy, wherea.s plastics and paper are expensive, wasteful and overly difficult 4. Creation of low-quality jobs. Jobs include sifting through garbage to separate it, dealing with the toxins from the breakdown process, and other manual-intensive labor tasks