Chemical fertilizers are substances that are either applied to soils or directly applied to plants; they provide optimal nutrients for their growth and development. These fertilizers are composed of raw chemicals that are manufactured at a factory either in liquid or solid form, these chemicals target plants specific nutritional needs. Chemical fertilizers are devised to mime natural plant nutrients. The nutrients that are contained in these fertilizers are nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium and also other nutrients in smaller amounts. These nutrients are supplied to plants in form which can be easily absorbed and metabolized by plants.
Chemical fertilizers are inorganic material which are completely or partially synthetic and are added to the plant for their growth. Inorganic fertilizers are easily dissolved in the soil. These synthetic fertilizers are applied at a rate dependent in the fertility of the soil.
The Disadvantages of chemical fertilizers are as follows:
- If high concentrations of fertilizers are applied to the soil, the natural nutrients of the soil are imbalanced. Usage of nitrogen containing fertilizers reduces stability in the system and causes soil acidification.
- Excessive application of fertilizers affects the environment negatively and it a waste of time and money to the growers.
- The nutrients like the nitrate when washed off the soil into natural water systems and into groundwater cause problem to natural habitats and human health.
- Many of these fertilizers are acidic, long term used of these increase the acidity of the soil which reduces the beneficial soil organisms and also stunts plant growth.
- Long term used of fertilizers can lead to chemical imbalance in the recipient plants.
- Too much use of chemical fertilizers may sometimes burn the plant or even kill them.
- The process of manufacturing these fertilizers releases greenhouse gases and other pollutants into the environment.They are of short life span unless they are used in a controlled release form.
- These fertilizers do not add up to the soil, these do not contribute anything to enhance soil fertility.
- Use of chemical fertilizers may decrease fertility of the soil.
- Nitrogen from the fertilizers can stimulate the growth of microorganisms which also use up the organic matter in the soil. Repeated cycle of this depletes the soil fertility.
- Due to surplus application of fertilizers it may lead to excess growth of some plant varieties.
- Incorrect application is dangerous and there is potential harm from excess.
- Chemical fertilizers are salt. Excess concentration can cause dehydration and destroys plant tissue which is known as salt burn.
- The major nutrients are in excess and bind up other nutrients in the soil making the trace nutrients missing in many synthetic blends, making them unavailable for the plant.
- High phosphorus in the soil can collect pollution problems.