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From Wikipedia

Empirical formula

In chemistry, the empirical formula of a chemical compound is the simplest whole number ratio of atoms of each element present in a compound. An empirical formula makes no reference to isomerism, structure, or absolute number of atoms. The empirical formula is used as standard for most ionic compounds, such as CaCl2, and for macromolecules, such as SiO2. The term empirical refers to the process of elemental analysis, a technique of analytical chemistry used to determine the relative amounts of each element in a chemical compound.

In contrast, the molecular formula identifies the number of each type of atom in a molecule, and the structural formula also shows the structure of the molecule.

For example, the chemical compound n-hexane has the structural formula CH|3|CH|2|CH|2|CH|2|CH|2|CH|3, which shows that it has 6 carbon atoms arranged in a straight chain, and 14 hydrogen atoms. Hexane's molecular formula is C|6|H|14, and its empirical formula is C|3|H|7, showing a C:H ratio of 3:7. Different compounds can have the same empirical formula. For example, formaldehyde, acetic acid and glucose have the same empirical formula, CH|2|O. This is the actual chemical formula for formaldehyde, but acetic acid has double the number of atoms and glucose has six times the number of atoms.

Examples of common substances

Use in physics

In physics, an empirical formula is a mathematical equation that predicts observed results, but is derived from experiment or conjecture and not directly from first principles.

An example was the Rydberg formula to predict the wavelengths of hydrogen spectral lines. Proposed in 1888, it perfectly predicted the wavelengths of the Lyman series, but lacked a theoretical basis until Niels Bohr produced his Bohr model of the atom in 1913.

From Yahoo Answers

Question:give nitrogen dioxide and oxygen is a first order reaction. If the half life at 55 C is 410 s, what is the value of the rate constant k? If the initial concentration of dinitrogen pentoxide in an expt at 55 C was 0.200 M what will be the concentration of dinitrogen pentoxide, nitrogen dioxide and oxygen after 4 half-lives?

Answers:For 1st order t(1/2) = ln(2)/k, so: k = ln(2)/t(1/2) = ln(2)/410 s = 0.0017 /s. Fraction of reagent left after N half lives is 1/(2^N), so: (0.200 M) / (2^4) = 0.013 M.

Question:^ as said above...need the the Chemical formulas for: ** Sulfuric Acid, Hydrobromic Acid, Dinitrogen Pentoxide and Rubidium Oxide **

Answers:Sulfuric acid = H2SO4 Hydrobromic Acid = HBr Dinitrogen Pentoxide = N2O5 Rubidium Oxide = Rb2O


Answers:The full reactions are: Sulfur dioxide reacts with water in the air to form sulfurous acid: SO2(g) + H2O(l) H2SO3(aq) Sulfur dioxide (SO2) can also be oxidized gradually to form sulfur trioxide: 2SO2(g) + O2(g) -----> 2SO3(g) Sulfur trioxide then reacts with water to form sulfuric acid: SO3(g) + H2O(l) -----> H2SO4(aq)

Question:I need to know about the shape of this molecule.Actually, I know for a fact that it has a bent shaped molecule, but the thing I cant seem to get through my head is how is it possible with just one electron in the outer shell? Please explain in detail.Thankyou. Also if anyone could tell me a site from where I can get practice questions on Ideal Gas Equation?

Answers:With the nitrogen atom in the middle, the oxygen atoms are offset with a lesser angle (O-N-O) of 134.3 degrees. It is straight if in the anion form, nitrite, and has a lesser angle of 115 degrees in the cation form, nitronium. In neutral form, it does have one unpaired electron and is paramagnetic. The reason for this occurring is that 2 moles are in equilibrium with dinitrogen tetroxide, N2O4, which has paired electrons. For practice questions on Ideal Gas Law, visit http://www.ausetute.com.au/idealgas.html and http://science.widener.edu/svb/tutorial/startidealgas.html

From Youtube

Formation of Dinitrogen Trioxide (N2O3) :A glass container of nitrogen dioxide is chilled with a mixture of dry ice and ethanol to form a product of equilibrium- dinitrogen trioxide, a greenish-blue, bluish-green liquid (chemical formula N2O3) Safe glass handling techniques must be used to prevent stress cracks or implosions during this experiment. Eye protection is a minimum requirement Initially, at STP, nitrogen dioxide is the prevalent specie in the bottle. As the bottle is chilled, the drop in temperature forces the equilibrium to shift from NO2 into its dimer, dinitrogen tetroxide. This gas further condenses at an even lower temperature to form a green-blue liquid, dinitrogen trioxide. By now, the pressure in the flask is less than half of what it is at one atmosphere. When the bottle is removed from its bath, the N2O3 is seen boiling, restoring the equilibrium found at STP.

Dynamic Equilibrium between Nitrogen Dioxide and Dinitrogen Tetroxide :The reversible reaction between NO2 and N2O4 is exothermic on forming N2O4 and endothermic on forming NO2. LeChatelier prediicts that heating the mixture will favour the formation of NO2. (Adding energy assists the endothermic reaction and inhibits the exothermic reaction, changing the rates of the forward and backward reactions. Increasing the rate of one reaction more than the other changing the composition of the equilibrium mixture.