digital age definition
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The digital divide refers to the gap between people with effective access to digital and information technology and those with very limited or no access at all. It includes the imbalance both in physical access to technology and the resources and skills needed to effectively participate as a digital citizen. Knowledge divide reflects the access of various social groupings to information and knowledge, typically gender, income, race, and by location. The term global digital divide refers to differences in access between countries.
Origins of the term
Initially referring to the gap in ownership of computers between certain ethnic groups, the term came into usage in the mid-1990s, appearing in several news articles and political speeches. PresidentBill Clinton and Vice PresidentAl Gore both used the term in a 1996 speech in Knoxville, Tennessee. Larry Irving, a former United States head of the National Telecommunications Infrastructure Administration (NTIA) at the Department of Commerce, Assistant Secretary of Commerce and technology adviser to the Clinton Administration, noted that a series of NTIA surveys were "catalysts for the popularity, ubiquity, and redefinition" of the term, and he used the term in a series of later reports. During the George W. Bush Administration, the NTIA reports tended to focus less on the availability of the necessary hardware, more on Internet access, broadband in particular, and the disparity of access between the developed and developing worlds.
The term digital divide is a "new label" for the knowledge divide, which was already a distinct concept with considerable accountable literature.
More recently, some have used the term to refer to gaps in broadband network access. The term can mean not only unequal access to computer hardware, but also inequalities between groups of people in the ability to use information technology fully.
Given the range of criteria used to assess the various technological disparities between groups/nations, and lack of data on some aspects of usage, the exact nature of the digital divide is both contextual and debatable. Lisa Servon argued in 2002 that the digital divide is a symptom of a larger and more complex problem -- that of persistent poverty and inequality. Mehra (2004), identifies socioeconomic status, income, educational level, and race among other factors associated with technological attainment, or the potential of the Internet to improve everyday life for those on the margins of society and to achieve greater social equity and empowerment.
The conclusion from the various existing definitions of the digital divide is that the nature of the divide, and the question if it is closing or widening, depends on the particular definition chosen. Based on the theory of the diffusion of innovations through social networks, a common framework can be set up to distinguish the main approaches researchers have taken to conceptualize the digital divide. All kinds of studies and approaches to the digital divide can be classified into these four categories:
- WHO (level of analysis): individuals vs. organizations/communities, vs. societies/countries/ world regions;
- with WHICH characteristics (attributes of nodes and ties): income, education, geography, age, gender, or type of ownership, size, profitability, sector, etc.;
- connects HOW (level digital sophistication): access vs. usage vs. impact;
- to WHAT (type of technology): phone, Internet, computer, digital TV, etc.
The chosen definition of the digital divide has far-reaching consequences with immediate practical relevance, and should therefore not be seen as a yet another intellectual quarrel of sole academic interest.
Typical measurements of inequality distribution used to describe the digital divide are the Lorenz curve and Gini coefficient. In the Lorenz curve, perfect equality of Internet usage across nations is represented by a 45-degree diagonal line, which has a Gini coefficient of zero. Perfect inequality gives a Gini coefficient of one. However, the question of whether or not the digital divide is growing or closing is difficult to answer.
The Canadian document Bridging the digital divide: An opportunity for growth for the 21st century includes examples of these measures. Figures 2.4 and 2.5 in the document show a trend of growing equality from 1997 to 2005 with the Gini coefficient decreasing. However, these graphs do not show detailed analysis of specific income groups. The progress represented is predominantly of the middle-income groups when compared to the highest income groups. The lowest income groups continue to decrease their level of equality in comparison to the high income groups. Therefore, there is still a long way to go before the digital divide will be eliminated.
Divide and education
One area of significant focus was school computer access. In the 1990s, better resourced schools were much more likely to provide their students with regular computer access; and, at the end of the decade, these schools were muc
4-Digits (abbreviation: 4-D) is a lottery in Singapore and Malaysia. Individuals play by choosing any number from 0000 to 9999. Then, 23 winning numbers are drawn each time. If one of the numbers matches the one that the player has bought, a prize is won. A draw is conducted to select these winning numbers. 4-Digits is a fixed-odds game.
Magnum 4D is the 1st legalized 4D Operator licensed by the Malaysian Government to operate 4D. Soon thereafter, other lottery operators followed suit, as this is a very popular game in Malaysia and Singapore.
Singapore Pools is the sole provider of gambling games in Singapore. 4-D and lottery 6/45 are two of the most popular. A similar 4-D game with its prize structure fully revealed can be found in Taiwan.
A schoolboy decided to raffle his bicycle for 100 $1 tickets, each bearing two digits. The winner would be the one whose ticket number matched the last two digits of the first prize ticket in a Malaysian Turf Club sweepstake. This led to the 2-D lottery, which in turn gave rise to 3-D and later, 4-D, betting games which were wildly popular in Singapore and Malaysia from the 1950s.
The Singapore Turf Club was the first to introduce the 4-D draw in Singapore in May 1966, offering a S$2,000 first prize for a $1 ticket. It stopped offering it in May 2004 when its sister company Singapore Pools took over all the draws.
Singapore Pools launched computerised betting for 4-D on 31 May 1986, and it got off to an auspicious start when the winning number for the first prize in the inaugural draw turned out to be 8838. The number "8" sounds like fa () or "prosper" in Mandarin and is traditionally a favourite among punters. Punters welcomed the new 4-D product and the company's turnover that year increased 215%, to over S$283 million.
Methods of play
Ordinary entry refers to a specific number. Example: 1234. 4-D Roll substitutes any one of the four digits with 'R'. (i.e. R123, 1R23, 12R3 and 123R) where 'R' denotes all digits from 0 to 9. Only one digit can be substituted with 'R'. For example, if you mark R234, you are actually buying 10 Ordinary Entries (i.e. 0234, 1234, 2234, 3234... 9234). System entry is a bet on all the possible permutations of a 4-D number, for example the number 1234 has 24 permutations (1234, 2341, 3412, 4123â€¦). iBet is a System Entry bet priced from $1, regardless of the number of permutations. Quick pick is bet on a random number selected by a computer.
An independent external auditor and five draw officials are involved in the draw process. Before the draw, a specially designed computer is run to randomly select the draw machine and the set of draw balls to be used. A backup machine is also chosen.
The selected draw balls, numbered 0 to 9, are weighed and check that their individual weight is within acceptable variance margin. This is to ensure that every ball has an equal chance of being drawn.
The selected machines, secured under lock and numbered seal in a storage room, is transferred to the draw hall, along with the balls.
The balls are loaded into the draw machine in front of the audience. A member of the audience is then invited to press the start switch on the control panel, launching the draw. The balls in the draw machine, made up of four transparent cylinders, spin until a ball is sucked into a groove found in each cylinder.
The drawing process, starting from the consolation prizes, is repeated until all 23 sets of numbers are drawn.
In Malaysia, there are three main 4D providers - Sports Toto, Magnum 4D and Da Ma Cai. Da Ma Cai is run by Pan Malaysian Pools Sdn. Bhd. which also organises racing bets. The other two are independent companies.
Magnum 4D offers the classic 4D game - the player picks a 4 digit number and chooses the amount he wants to bet. There are "Big" and "Small" Forecasts. A "Small" bet will warrant higher winnings, but the player will only win if his number comes up in the first, second or third places. The winnings are lower for a "Big" bet, but in addition to the first, second and third places, there are 10 "Special" numbers which pay RM200 for a RM1 bet, and 10 "consolation" numbers which pay RM60 for a RM1 bet. Magnum is the first legalised 4D operator to be awarded the license by the Malaysian Government.
Da Ma Cai (å¤§é©¬å½©; literally "Pan-Malaysia Lottery" in Mandarin) has a 3D game as well as 4D (which they call 1+3D). Unlike the 1+3D, the 3D only has first, second, and third places. Prizes are significantly lower than 1+3D, the top prize being RM660 for Big First Place. Their 1+3D follows the same structure as the Magnum 4D.
Sports Toto, in addition to the basic 4D played the same way as Magnum and Da Ma Cai, runs 5D and 6D games as well. Unlike 4D, 5D and 6D do not have "Big" and "Small" Forecasts. First prize for 6D is RM100,000 and first prize for 5D is RM15,000. If the last 4, 3, or 2 digits of your 5D number (or the last 5, 4, 3, or 2 digits of your 6D number) match the first prize number, you still get a prize. Sports Toto also offers three lottery games, similar to those seen in Western countries. These are Mega Toto 6/52, Power Toto 6/55 & Supreme Toto 6/58. The last number indicates the highest number - Mega Toto 6/52 requires the player to pick 6 numbers from 1 to 52. The S
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