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Different Types of Salts



One must have tasted a piece of Lemon or Orange and it feels sour. Do you know why an orange or lemon tastes sour? 
Orange and lemon are sour in taste because of the presence of acids in them. 
Have you tasted mustard seeds used for cooking food? Mustard seeds contain some basic compounds and impart bitter taste to them. 

Overall the acidic and basic compounds are part of our everyday life. 
Acidic compounds could be identified by their sour taste while basic compounds are bitter in taste. There are several examples around us including our daily food which contains some or the other acidic and basic chemical substances. 

Some common examples are citric acid which are found in citrus fruits such as oranges and lemons, while acetic acid found in vinegar, and tartaric acids in tamarind etc. 
We can observe many acidic chemical substances in the laboratory as well such as Hydrochloric acid (HCl), Sulphuric acid (H2SO4), Nitric acid (HNO3) and Phosphoric acid (H3PO4) etc. 

Generally basic compounds are soluble in water and the aqueous solution of bases is called as alkalis. 
There are several household items in which basic chemical substances are present as major ingredients such as dish wash liquid, Ammonia solution, toothpaste, cleaner and soap etc. 
Many living bodies including human body also contains some kinds of acids and bases.  
A very common acid is the dilute Hydrochloric acid present in our stomach, which involves in the digestion process of food materials in stomach. 
Urine, blood, and intestinal fluid are alkaline in nature. 
The reaction of an acid and a bases yields two products; water and an ionic compound known as salt. 

This kind of reaction is called a neutralization reaction. It is an exothermic reaction which liberates some amount of heat that remains constant for any of the acid and base. 
This heat is known as heat of neutralization which is around 57.7 kJ per mole of H+ ion. 
Salts are ionic compounds whose nature depends upon the nature of acid and base involve in the reaction. 

For example; Sodium Chloride or table salt is produced from the neutralization reaction of Sodium Hydroxide (base) and Hydrochloric acid.  
Other examples of salts are Epsom salts (MgSO4) used in bath salts, Ammonium Nitrate (NH4NO3) used as a fertilizer and Baking Soda (NaHCO3) used in cooking. 
The chemical formula of salt derives from the formula of constituent acid and base. The positive ion of the salt comes from an acid while the negative part will come from the base. 

Salts are formed due to the combination of an anion and a cation from the base and acid respectively; and therefore the pH of the salt solution completely depends on the constituent acid and base from which the salt is formed.
For instance Sodium Chloride which is a neutral compound but baking soda that is Sodium Hydrogen Carbonate (NaHCO3) forms an alkaline aqueous solution. 
Sodium bi-Carbonate is also known as the baking soda, and is manufactured by the Solvay process, in which Sodium Carbonate is formed as an intermediate. 
On heating, baking soda decomposes to Carbon dioxide gas as given in the following reaction:
               2NaHCO3 --> Na2CO3 + H2O + CO2

Another salt of sodium is Sodium Carbonate or soda (Na2CO3) which infact was known to people even in ancient times. It is now used for the manufacturing of glass when combined with Calcium Oxide. 
It could exist in several forms like anhydrous, mono-hydrate, hepta-hydrate and deca-hydrate forms. 

This is made by the Ammonia-Soda process or Solvay process in which Sodium Chloride, Ammonia and Limestone act as the raw materials. 
It is widely used in the water purification and sewage treatment systems. 
Another example of salt is the bleaching powder Calcium Hypochlorite Ca(OCl)2
The bleaching powder is also known as Calcium Oxy-Chloride and the formula is Ca(OCl)2 which can be prepared reacting slaked lime 
[Ca (OH)2] and Chlorine gas (Cl2).
 

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From Wikipedia

Salt (chemistry)

In chemistry, salts are ionic compounds that can result from the neutralization reaction of an acid and a base. They are composed of cations (positively charged ions) and anions (negative ions) so that the product is electrically neutral (without a net charge). These component ions can be inorganic such as chloride (Cl−), as well as organic such as acetate (CH3COO−) and monatomic ions such as fluoride (F−), as well as polyatomic ions such as sulfate (SO42−).

There are several varieties of salts. Salts that hydrolyze to produce hydroxide ions when dissolved in water are basic saltsand salts that hydrolyze to producehydronium ions in water are acid salts. Neutral salts are those that are neither acid nor basic salts.Zwitterions contain an anionic center and a cationic center in the same molecule but are not considered to be salts. Examples include amino acids, many metabolites, peptides and proteins.

Molten salts and solutions containing dissolved salts (e.g. sodium chloride in water) are called electrolytes, as they are able to conduct electricity. As observed in the cytoplasm of cells, in blood, urine, plant saps and mineral waters, mixtures of many different ions in solution usually do not form defined salts after evaporation of the water. Therefore, their salt content is given for the respective ions.

Properties

Color

Salts can appear to be clear and transparent (sodium chloride), opaque, and even metallic and lustrous (iron disulfide). In many cases the apparent opacity or transparency are only related to the difference in size of the individual monocrystals. Since light reflects from the grain boundaries (boundaries between crystallites), larger crystals tend to be transparent, while polycrystalline aggregates look like white powders. Of course, some salts are opaque.

Salts exist in many different colors, e.g.

Most minerals and inorganic pigments as well as many synthetic organic dyes are salts. The color of the specific salt is due to the presence of unpaired electrons in the d-orbital of transition elements.

Taste

Different salts can elicit all five basic tastes, e.g., salty (sodium chloride), sweet (lead diacetate, which will cause lead poisoning if ingested), sour (potassium bitartrate), bitter (magnesium sulfate), and umami or savory (monosodium glutamate).

Odor

Salts of strong acids

Homogeneous (chemistry)

A substance that is uniform in composition is a definition of homogeneous (IPA: /həmɔ�dʒɪnʌs, ho�modʒi�niʌs/) in Chemistry. This is in contrast to a substance that is heterogeneous. The definition of homogeneous strongly depends on the context used. In Chemistry, a homogeneous suspension of material means that when dividing the volume in half, the same amount of material is suspended in both halves of the substance. However, it might be possible to see the particles under a microscope. In Chemistry, another homogeneous substance is air. It is equally suspended, and the particles and gases and liquids cannot be analyzed separately or pulled apart.

Homogeneity of mixtures

In Chemistry, some mixtures are homogeneous. In other words, mixtures have the same proportions throughout a given sample or multiple samples of different proportion to create a consistent mixture. However, two homogeneous mixtures of the same pair of substances may differ widely from each other and can be homogenized to make a constant. Mixtures can be characterized by being separable by mechanical means e.g. heat, filtration, gravitational sorting, etc.

Solutions

A solution is a special type of homogeneous mixture. Solutions are homogeneous because, the ratio of solute to solvent remains the same throughout the solution even if homogenized with multiple sources, and stable because, the solute will not settle out, no matter how long the solution sits, and it cannot be removed by a filter or a centrifuge. This type of mixture is very stable, i.e., its particles do not settle, or separate. As homogeneous mixture, a solution has one phase (liquid) although the solute and solvent can vary: for example, salt water. In chemistry, a mixture is a substance containing two or more elements or compounds that are not chemically bound to each other but retain their own chemical and physical identities; - a substance which has two or more constituent chemical substances. Mixtures, in the broader sense, are two or more substances physically in the same place, but these are not chemically combined, and therefore ratios are not necessarily considered.



From Yahoo Answers

Question:....what are the five types of salt in chemistry??

Answers:In chemistry a salt is an ionic substance formed by the joining of metal and non-metal ions. There will be an endless number of these, with many different properties and appearances.

Question:i am in 10th class... i have to prepare a project report on different types of salts including their preparation, their properties and uses(acid, bases and salts)Chapter 2 of NCERT book my teacher said that its given in the book...but i am not able to find anything clearly.. she said 5 different salts are given..n you have to write on that... its of about 30 pages.. please help me out... n do tell me..how can i make it more attractive.. on which inter-leaf pages or sheets should i make this..? should i use pastel sheets..or should i use coloured sheets...should it b spiral binded or should it b Simply binded... my teacher is very bad...she dun give marks...so i have to make it as good as anything...so that she don't feel like cutting marks..or even if she wants to she should not be able to... please help me...give me some Informationn..n some material n many pictures...

Answers:You can consider precipitaion reactions : AgNO3 + NaCl = AgCl(s) + NaNO3 Pb(NO3)2 + 2 KI = PbI2 (s) + 2 KNO3 Mg(NO3)2 + 2 LiF = MgF2 (s) + 2 LiNO3 BaCl2 + H2SO4 = BaSO4 (s) + 2 HCl Pb(NO3)2 + H2S = PbS (s) + 2 HNO3 now you can find the properties and uses of this insoluble salts : silver chloride lesd (II) iodide magnesium fluoride barium sulfate lead sulfide

Question:i had a question on a quiz it said to choose if it is acidic, silightly acidic, neutral, slightly basic or basic. one of them just said Gastric acid or juice, i forgot, has pH 7.25 so what is it? and what is the cation and anion on dihydrogen phosphate? and can someone explain whats the buffer system? thanks! damn i hope i put it as slightly basic :D but why is it slightly basic? and does determining a cation and anion differentiate when you lowry-bronsted theory? like would HPO4^-3 be the anion if its the lowry- bronsted theory?

Answers:Are you sure you got the number right for gastric juice? If your teacher really wrote 7.25 on the quiz, then the answer is slightly basic, because anything with a pH greater than 7 is basic. Since 7.25 is just a little bit greater than 7, I would call this slightly basic. However, in reality gastric juice is very acidic with a pH around 2, and it is referred to as both gastric juice and gastric acid. As for why it is basic or acidic, this is based on the definition of these terms. Any solution with a pH greater than 7 is by definition basic, and any solution with a pH less than 7 is by definition acidic. So if your teacher gives you the pH, you just need to determine if it is greater or less than 7, and do not need to know anything else about the solution. Phosphoric acid, H3PO4, has three acidic OH groups, and each one is capable of losing a hydrogen. If you're just talking about dihydrogen phoshpate, then hydrogen is the cation and dihydrogen phoshpate is the anion. A buffer system allows you to maintain the solution at a roughly constant pH even while adding acidic or basic molecules to solution. If you add a few drops of hydrochloric acid to a beaker of pure water, or to a beaker containing an non-buffered aqueous solution, there will be a dramatic change in pH and the solution will become more acidic (how much it changes depends on the exact amount of water and hydrochloric acid you are using). However, if you have a buffer that can act as a base at pH of your solution, it will bind to the hydrogen ions released by hydrochloric acid, there will be no increase in the concentration of "free hydrogen ions" (which are actually hydronium ions, H3O+). If you add too much of an acid or a base, you will overwhelm the buffer and eventually you will be able to change the pH of the solution. Each buffer works over a specific range of pH values. Phosphoric acid/phosphates are excellent buffers because of the three acidic groups. Each hydrogen can bond to or dissociate from its oxygen over a specific range of pH values, but the range is different for each of the three acidic groups. Buffer systems with only one acidic group are effective over a much narrower pH range. To determine which buffer system is appropriate for a given experiment, you need to know the Ka (acid dissociation constant) or pKa for each acidic group in the molecule. Phosphoric acid has three Ka's, one for each of its three acidic groups. When determining which is the cation and which is the anion, it does not make a difference whether or not you are using Arrhenius acid-base theory or Br nsted-Lowry acid-base theory, except some Br nsted-Lowry reactions do not involve ionic reactants or products. The Wikipedia aritcle on acids has a brief description of the three major acid-base theories, and while it does not answer your question directly, the section on Br nsted-Lowry theory gives an example of reactions that do not involve ions, and the entire section discusses how all of the different definitions of an acid (or a base) relate to each other: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Acid#Technical_definitions .

Question:1: Water of hydration may be removed from a crystal by deliquescence heating high pressure freezing 2: The number of ml. of uncombined gas remaining after exploding a mixture containing 2 ml. of hydrogen and 16 ml. of oxygen is 1 8 12 15 3: A crystal of KCl added to a solution of KCl does not dissolve and the solution remains unchanged. The solution is dilute saturated supersaturated unsaturated 4: The ratio of the weight of water to the weight of hydrogen it contains is 8 to 1 2 to 1 9 to 1 18 to 1 5: Heating a crystal of blue copper sulfate yields a basic anhydride a hydrate a white powder sulfur 6: Water was given off when a dry crystal was heated. The crystal was anhydrous contained water of crystalization was deliquescent was hygroscopic 7: When a small crystal of sodium thiosulfate was added to a solution of sodium thiosulfate and shaken, several crystals settled at the bottom of the test tube. The original solution was dilute saturated supersaturated unsaturated 8: The electrolysis of 45 grams of water yields 40 grams of H2 and 5 grams of O2 40 grams of O2 and 5 grams of H2 30 grams of H2 and 15 grams of O2 30 grams of O2 and 15 grams of H2 9: When a crystal of CuSO4 was added to a clear solution of CuSO4 it dissolved. The original solution must have been supersaturated concentrated saturated unsaturated 10: A substance commonly used to purify water by coagulation is alum sulfuric acid table salt vinegar 11: Water may be decomposed into hydrogen and oxygen by the process of electrolysis hydrolysis osmosis synthesis 12: The formation of water from hydrogen and oxygen is an example of analysis deliquescence replacement synthesis 13: A true solution is always _______. clear cloudy colored neutral 14: The solubility of gases in liquids decreases as temperature increases is constant for all types of gases is independent of the composition of the liquid is not affected by pressure 15: Two immiscible liquids may form a solution a tincture an alloy an emulsion 16: When water is added to anhydrous copper sulfate, it becomes black blue white yellow 17: The presences of water of crystallization in washing soda may be detected by _________ the washing soda. dissolving heating precipitating touching 18: When salt water is distilled the salt is found in the cooling water condenser distilling flask receiver 19: A crystal of CuSO4 dropped into a saturated solution of CuSO4 will cause crystals to form at once decompose dissolve remain unchanged at the bottom of the container 20: A precipitate is most conveniently removed from water by aeration boiling distillation filtration

Answers:1: Water of hydration may be removed from a crystal by heating 2: The number of ml. of uncombined gas remaining after exploding a mixture containing 2 ml. of hydrogen and 16 ml. of oxygen is 15 3: A crystal of KCl added to a solution of KCl does not dissolve and the solution remains unchanged. The solution is saturated 4: The ratio of the weight of water to the weight of hydrogen it contains is 9 to 1 5: Heating a crystal of blue copper sulfate yields a white powder (ACTUALLY, IT'LL BE VERY LIGHT BLUE) 6: Water was given off when a dry crystal was heated. The crystal contained water of crystalization 7: When a small crystal of sodium thiosulfate was added to a solution of sodium thiosulfate and shaken, several crystals settled at the bottom of the test tube. The original solution was supersaturated 8: The electrolysis of 45 grams of water yields 40 grams of O2 and 5 grams of H2 9: When a crystal of CuSO4 was added to a clear (BLUE) solution of CuSO4 it dissolved. The original solution must have been unsaturated 10: A substance commonly used to purify water by coagulation is alum 11: Water may be decomposed into hydrogen and oxygen by the process of electrolysis 12: The formation of water from hydrogen and oxygen is an example of synthesis 13: A true solution is always _______. clear (TRANSPARENT) 14: The solubility of gases in liquids decreases as temperature increases 15: Two immiscible liquids may form an emulsion 16: When water is added to anhydrous copper sulfate, it becomes blue 17: The presences of water of crystallization in washing soda may be detected by _________ the washing soda. heating 18: When salt water is distilled the salt is found in the distilling flask 19: A crystal of CuSO4 dropped into a saturated solution of CuSO4 will remain unchanged at the bottom of the container 20: A precipitate is most conveniently removed from water by filtration

From Youtube

Chemistry - Acids, Bases and Salts: Using Different Methods of Making Salts :This is the 7th lesson in the series, "Acids, Bases and Salts." This lesson reviews different methods of preparing salt, shows how to select a method for preparing salt when given the reactants, and demonstrates how to write balanced chemical equations for salt preparations. Source: Mindset Network

Chemistry - Acids, Bases and Salts: Reactions of Acids and Bases :This is the 1st lesson in the series, "Acids, Bases, and Salts." This lesson demonstrates how to identify the products formed when an acid reacts with an alkali and shows how to write balanced chemical equations for this type of reaction. Source: Mindset Network