Different Types of Salts
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In chemistry, salts are ionic compounds that can result from the neutralization reaction of an acid and a base. They are composed of cations (positively charged ions) and anions (negative ions) so that the product is electrically neutral (without a net charge). These component ions can be inorganic such as chloride (Clâˆ’), as well as organic such as acetate (CH3COOâˆ’) and monatomic ions such as fluoride (Fâˆ’), as well as polyatomic ions such as sulfate (SO42âˆ’).
There are several varieties of salts. Salts that hydrolyze to produce hydroxide ions when dissolved in water are basic saltsand salts that hydrolyze to producehydronium ions in water are acid salts. Neutral salts are those that are neither acid nor basic salts.Zwitterions contain an anionic center and a cationic center in the same molecule but are not considered to be salts. Examples include amino acids, many metabolites, peptides and proteins.
Molten salts and solutions containing dissolved salts (e.g. sodium chloride in water) are called electrolytes, as they are able to conduct electricity. As observed in the cytoplasm of cells, in blood, urine, plant saps and mineral waters, mixtures of many different ions in solution usually do not form defined salts after evaporation of the water. Therefore, their salt content is given for the respective ions.
Salts can appear to be clear and transparent (sodium chloride), opaque, and even metallic and lustrous (iron disulfide). In many cases the apparent opacity or transparency are only related to the difference in size of the individual monocrystals. Since light reflects from the grain boundaries (boundaries between crystallites), larger crystals tend to be transparent, while polycrystalline aggregates look like white powders. Of course, some salts are opaque.
Salts exist in many different colors, e.g.
- yellow (sodium chromate),
- orange (potassium dichromate),
- red (mercury sulfide),
- mauve (cobalt chloride hexahydrate),
- blue (copper sulfate pentahydrate, ferric hexacyanoferrate),
- purple (potassium permanganate),
- green (nickel chloride hexahydrate),
- white (sodium chloride), and
- black (manganese dioxide).
Most minerals and inorganic pigments as well as many synthetic organic dyes are salts. The color of the specific salt is due to the presence of unpaired electrons in the d-orbital of transition elements.
Different salts can elicit all five basic tastes, e.g., salty (sodium chloride), sweet (lead diacetate, which will cause lead poisoning if ingested), sour (potassium bitartrate), bitter (magnesium sulfate), and umami or savory (monosodium glutamate).
Salts of strong acids
A substance that is uniform in composition is a definition of homogeneous (IPA: /hÉ™mÉ”Ë�dÊ’ÉªnÊŒs, hoË�modÊ’iË�niÊŒs/) in Chemistry. This is in contrast to a substance that is heterogeneous. The definition of homogeneous strongly depends on the context used. In Chemistry, a homogeneous suspension of material means that when dividing the volume in half, the same amount of material is suspended in both halves of the substance. However, it might be possible to see the particles under a microscope. In Chemistry, another homogeneous substance is air. It is equally suspended, and the particles and gases and liquids cannot be analyzed separately or pulled apart.
Homogeneity of mixtures
In Chemistry, some mixtures are homogeneous. In other words, mixtures have the same proportions throughout a given sample or multiple samples of different proportion to create a consistent mixture. However, two homogeneous mixtures of the same pair of substances may differ widely from each other and can be homogenized to make a constant. Mixtures can be characterized by being separable by mechanical means e.g. heat, filtration, gravitational sorting, etc.
A solution is a special type of homogeneous mixture. Solutions are homogeneous because, the ratio of solute to solvent remains the same throughout the solution even if homogenized with multiple sources, and stable because, the solute will not settle out, no matter how long the solution sits, and it cannot be removed by a filter or a centrifuge. This type of mixture is very stable, i.e., its particles do not settle, or separate. As homogeneous mixture, a solution has one phase (liquid) although the solute and solvent can vary: for example, salt water. In chemistry, a mixture is a substance containing two or more elements or compounds that are not chemically bound to each other but retain their own chemical and physical identities; - a substance which has two or more constituent chemical substances. Mixtures, in the broader sense, are two or more substances physically in the same place, but these are not chemically combined, and therefore ratios are not necessarily considered.
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Answers:In chemistry a salt is an ionic substance formed by the joining of metal and non-metal ions. There will be an endless number of these, with many different properties and appearances.
Answers:You can consider precipitaion reactions : AgNO3 + NaCl = AgCl(s) + NaNO3 Pb(NO3)2 + 2 KI = PbI2 (s) + 2 KNO3 Mg(NO3)2 + 2 LiF = MgF2 (s) + 2 LiNO3 BaCl2 + H2SO4 = BaSO4 (s) + 2 HCl Pb(NO3)2 + H2S = PbS (s) + 2 HNO3 now you can find the properties and uses of this insoluble salts : silver chloride lesd (II) iodide magnesium fluoride barium sulfate lead sulfide
Answers:Are you sure you got the number right for gastric juice? If your teacher really wrote 7.25 on the quiz, then the answer is slightly basic, because anything with a pH greater than 7 is basic. Since 7.25 is just a little bit greater than 7, I would call this slightly basic. However, in reality gastric juice is very acidic with a pH around 2, and it is referred to as both gastric juice and gastric acid. As for why it is basic or acidic, this is based on the definition of these terms. Any solution with a pH greater than 7 is by definition basic, and any solution with a pH less than 7 is by definition acidic. So if your teacher gives you the pH, you just need to determine if it is greater or less than 7, and do not need to know anything else about the solution. Phosphoric acid, H3PO4, has three acidic OH groups, and each one is capable of losing a hydrogen. If you're just talking about dihydrogen phoshpate, then hydrogen is the cation and dihydrogen phoshpate is the anion. A buffer system allows you to maintain the solution at a roughly constant pH even while adding acidic or basic molecules to solution. If you add a few drops of hydrochloric acid to a beaker of pure water, or to a beaker containing an non-buffered aqueous solution, there will be a dramatic change in pH and the solution will become more acidic (how much it changes depends on the exact amount of water and hydrochloric acid you are using). However, if you have a buffer that can act as a base at pH of your solution, it will bind to the hydrogen ions released by hydrochloric acid, there will be no increase in the concentration of "free hydrogen ions" (which are actually hydronium ions, H3O+). If you add too much of an acid or a base, you will overwhelm the buffer and eventually you will be able to change the pH of the solution. Each buffer works over a specific range of pH values. Phosphoric acid/phosphates are excellent buffers because of the three acidic groups. Each hydrogen can bond to or dissociate from its oxygen over a specific range of pH values, but the range is different for each of the three acidic groups. Buffer systems with only one acidic group are effective over a much narrower pH range. To determine which buffer system is appropriate for a given experiment, you need to know the Ka (acid dissociation constant) or pKa for each acidic group in the molecule. Phosphoric acid has three Ka's, one for each of its three acidic groups. When determining which is the cation and which is the anion, it does not make a difference whether or not you are using Arrhenius acid-base theory or Br nsted-Lowry acid-base theory, except some Br nsted-Lowry reactions do not involve ionic reactants or products. The Wikipedia aritcle on acids has a brief description of the three major acid-base theories, and while it does not answer your question directly, the section on Br nsted-Lowry theory gives an example of reactions that do not involve ions, and the entire section discusses how all of the different definitions of an acid (or a base) relate to each other: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Acid#Technical_definitions .
Answers:1: Water of hydration may be removed from a crystal by heating 2: The number of ml. of uncombined gas remaining after exploding a mixture containing 2 ml. of hydrogen and 16 ml. of oxygen is 15 3: A crystal of KCl added to a solution of KCl does not dissolve and the solution remains unchanged. The solution is saturated 4: The ratio of the weight of water to the weight of hydrogen it contains is 9 to 1 5: Heating a crystal of blue copper sulfate yields a white powder (ACTUALLY, IT'LL BE VERY LIGHT BLUE) 6: Water was given off when a dry crystal was heated. The crystal contained water of crystalization 7: When a small crystal of sodium thiosulfate was added to a solution of sodium thiosulfate and shaken, several crystals settled at the bottom of the test tube. The original solution was supersaturated 8: The electrolysis of 45 grams of water yields 40 grams of O2 and 5 grams of H2 9: When a crystal of CuSO4 was added to a clear (BLUE) solution of CuSO4 it dissolved. The original solution must have been unsaturated 10: A substance commonly used to purify water by coagulation is alum 11: Water may be decomposed into hydrogen and oxygen by the process of electrolysis 12: The formation of water from hydrogen and oxygen is an example of synthesis 13: A true solution is always _______. clear (TRANSPARENT) 14: The solubility of gases in liquids decreases as temperature increases 15: Two immiscible liquids may form an emulsion 16: When water is added to anhydrous copper sulfate, it becomes blue 17: The presences of water of crystallization in washing soda may be detected by _________ the washing soda. heating 18: When salt water is distilled the salt is found in the distilling flask 19: A crystal of CuSO4 dropped into a saturated solution of CuSO4 will remain unchanged at the bottom of the container 20: A precipitate is most conveniently removed from water by filtration