different types of ocean pollution
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Three factors determine the severity of a pollutant: its chemical nature, its concentration and its persistence. Some pollutants are biodegradable and therefore will not persist in the environment in the long term. However the degradation products of some pollutants are themselves polluting such as the products DDE and DDD produced from degradation of DDT
Types of pollutants
Pollutants that the environment has little or no absorptive capacity are called stock pollutants (e.g. persistent synthetic chemicals, non-biodegradable plastics, and heavy metals). Stock pollutants accumulate in the environment over time. The damage they cause increases as more pollutant is emitted, and persists as the pollutant accumulates. Stock pollutants can create a burden for future generations by passing on damage that persists well after the benefits received from incurring that damage have been forgotten.
Fund pollutants are those for which the environment has some absorptive capacity. Fund pollutants do not cause damage to the environment unless the emission rate exceeds the receiving environment's absorptive capacity (e.g. carbon dioxide, which is absorbed by plants and oceans). Fund pollutants are not destroyed, but rather converted into less harmful substances, or diluted/dispersed to non-harmful concentrations.
Notable pollutants include the following groups:
- Heavy metals
- Persistent organic pollutants
- Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons
- Volatile organic compounds
- Environmental xenobiotics
Zones of influence
Pollutants can also be defined by their zones of influence, both horizontally and vertically.
The vertical zone is referred to whether the damage is ground-level or atmospheric. Surface pollutants cause damage by concentrations of the pollutant accumulating near the Earth's surface Global pollutants cause damage by concentrations in the atmosphere
Pollutants can cross international borders and therefore international regulations are needed for their control. The Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants, which entered into force in 2004, is an international legally binding agreement for the control of persistent organic pollutants. Pollutant Release and Transfer Registers (PRTR) are systems to collect and disseminate information on environmental releases and transfers of toxic chemicals from industrial and other facilities.
The European Pollutant Emission Register is a type of PRTR providing access to information on the annual emissions of industrial facilities in the Member States of the European Union, as well as Norway.
Clean Air Act standards. Under the Clean Air Act, the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) are standards developed for outdoor air quality. The National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants are emission standards that are set by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) which are not covered by the NAAQS.
Clean Water Act standards. Under the Clean Water Act, EPA promulgated national standards for municipal sewage treatment plants, also called publicly owned treatment works, in the Secondary Treatment Regulation. National standards for industrial dischargers are calledEffluent guidelines(for existing sources) andNew Source Performance Standards, and currently cover over 50 industrial categories. In addition, the Act requires states to publish water quality standards for individual water bodies to provide additional protection where the national standards are insufficient.
Environmental pollution is the release of chemical waste that causes detrimental effects on the environment. Environmental pollution is often divided into pollution of water supplies, the atmosphere, and the soil. In his book Environmental Chemistry, Stanley Manahan lists several different types of pollutants, including toxic inorganic and organic compounds, high concentrations of normally innocuous compounds, and heat and noise. While much pollution is produced by the chemical industry, domestic sources include human waste and automobile exhaust.
From Yahoo Answers
Answers:It's not entirely possible to list every single component that may get into the environment. That's because coal consists of a wide variety of chemical compounds, which vary depending on what kind of coal you use... and also because different plants use different techniques to clean up their emissions. A coal plant in the US will put out a lot less nasty stuff than one in, say, China. But anyway, the prime output of coal (or any kind of) combustion is carbon dioxide. This is a greenhouse gas, and contributes to global warming and the acidification of the oceans. In some plants, the CO2 is sequestered in the earth or collected for other purposes, but that's not the majority. carbon dioxide is technically a product of the desired combustion reaction: hydrocarbon + air = carbon dioxide + water + heat But often you don't get complete combustion, and you either don't react all your hydrocarbons or you produce others. So you have residual things like fly ash. Fly ash can be collected and used to make things like bricks, but if it is not you get a nasty flying ash that hazes up the sky and gunks up your lungs. And then there are the types of pollutants which are not part of the reaction, but come into the reactor along with the coal and come out with the carbon dioxide. That's things like oxides of nitrogen and sulfur dioxide. These guys acidify water, making acid rains. Then you have the weird trace elements in coal, which can include radioactive isotopes and just about anything you can imagine.
Answers:what causes air pollution is when a a power station uses coal to make electricity. when the coal is burned it releases Nox and Sox ( nitrus oxide, and sulphur oxide) into the atmosphere. This cause air pollution and acid rain. air pollution can be meased by a carbon menoxide measurer, or even by the amount of weathering on statues due to acid rain.
Answers:there are many different forms of ocean pollution, I would recommend reading these articles http://pollutionarticles.blogspot.com/2008/12/ocean-acidification-threat-to-marine.html http://pollutionarticles.blogspot.com/2008/11/oceans-becoming-more-acidic.html http://pollutionarticles.blogspot.com/2008/11/ocean-dead-zones-will-increase-in.html http://pollutionarticles.blogspot.com/2007/11/ocean-pollution.html http://pollutionarticles.blogspot.com/2008/03/ocean-acidification-acid-rains.html
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